SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
231) nivruththAthmA (निवृत्तात्मा) (also repeated in 453, 604 and 780)
Since bhagavAn possesses a high stature due to his ownership of the SrIvaikuNtam – which is three times as large as this material creation, he is called ‘nivruththAthmA’.
The scriptures hail bhagavAn thus:
- “bhagavAn stands in that eternal vibhUthi (SrIvaikuNtam) which is three times as large as this creation”
- “bhagavAn is superior even to the supreme souls, and is greater than the greatest” etc.
Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘nivruththAthmA’ since he possesses the nithya vibhUthi (SrIvaikuNtam) which is three times as large as this material creation, and hence possesses a high stature.
त्रिपाद्विभूतिकत्वॆन भवपादविभूतितः |
उद्गतात्मस्वरूपत्वात् निवृत्तात्मॆति कथ्यतॆ ||
232) samvrutha: (संवृतः)
While in this grandeur of nithya vibhUthi, as the scriptures hail ‘He transcends thamas (ignorance)’, since he hides himself from the creatures dwelling upon the thamasic nature, he is called ‘samvrutha:’ – the well-hidden one.
Etymology: Since bhagavAn hides himself from the ignorant souls dwelling in the thamasic nature, he is called ‘samvrutha:’.
तामसानां तु मूढानां गूढत्वात् संवृतः स्मृतः |
233) sampramardhana: (सम्प्रमर्दनः)
bhagavAn is further called ‘sampramardhana:’, since he completely destroys the darkness of thamas that surrounds his devotees with his own light of knowledge.
The scriptures say thus in this regard:
- “Knowing that bhagavAn thus, he (the individual soul) reaches mOksha and begets the eight characteristics of bhagavAn (apahathapApma, vijara:,vimruthyu:, etc)”
- “Those who know about bhagavAn become immortal in the mOksha lOka. All others always anguish” etc.
Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sampramardhana:’ since he completely destroys the darkness of ignorance with the light of knowledge.
तमसॊ विद्यया सम्यक् मर्दनात् सम्प्रमर्दनः |
234) ahassamvarthaka: (अहस्संवर्तकः)
bhagavAn is the cause of transformation of time denoted by the word ‘aha:’ अहः (day). Hence, he is called ‘ahassamvarthaka:’.
The root ‘vruth’ वृत् (to move) gets the ‘Nvul’ (ण्वुल्) adjunct, which further gets substituted by ‘aka’ (अक) by grammatical rules, resulting in the word ‘varthaka’ (वर्तक).
The scriptures hail this feat of bhagavAn thus:
- “All these quantities of time have born from the effulgence of bhagavAn”
- “bhagavAn turns the wheel of time”, etc.
Time is of three forms – past, present and the future. It is the basis for determining the order of occurrence of various events as ‘prior’, ‘later’, etc. It is an eternal entity, which is used as a toy by bhagavAn in conducting his creations. he uses this entity called ‘time’ to determine the various transformations in the bodies of the creatures he creates – the six transformations being ‘existence’ (अस्ति), ‘birth’ (जायतॆ), ‘change’ (परिणमतॆ), ‘growth’ (विवर्धतॆ), ‘deterioration’ (अपक्षीयतॆ) and ‘destruction’ (विनश्यति). Using this ‘time’, bhagavAn decides when the individual souls should be associated with a physical body in this material creation, and when it should leave the body.
Many people consider this time as merely a organized train of transformations in the primordial nature, while many other consider it as a collection of playful actions of the supreme lord. Some others consider it as an independent entity. The following purport from the paushkara samhithA may be remembered:
“adhyAthma (अध्यात्म) tells us about time. adhidhaivatha (अधिदैवत) represents verily bhagavAn himself, who is the cause of this creation and destruction as well as the indweller of every creature. adhibhUtha (अधिभूत) should be understood as the three worlds made of primordial nature, dwelled by creatures. The abstract entity called time (kAla काल) manifests as ‘adhyAthma’. The worship of bhagavAn (ijyA इज्या) manifests as ‘adhidhaivatha’, and the enjoyment of material creations (bhOga भॊग) manifests as ‘adhibhUtha’”
Etymology: bhagavAn acts as a tool that transforms time denoted by ‘aha:’ (day), which is why he is hailed as ‘ahassamvarthaka:’ by the learned men.
अहर्लक्षितकालस्य परिवृत्तॆश्च साधनम् |
अहःसंवर्तक इति प्राहुर्वॆदान्तपारगाः ||
235) vahni: (वह्निः)
bhagavAn bears the whole creation in his body in the form of free space, and hence called ‘vahni:’ – the bearer. The root ‘va:’ वह् (to bear) gets the ‘nith’ (नित्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.
The foremost space that he bears is his supreme abode SrIvaikuNtam. The others include the vast sky, directions, et al.
This is what the scriptures have to say:
- “His eternal abode is in the supreme sky”,
- “That eternal abode is borne with his own grandeur”,
- “A quarter of his vyUha forms manifested here again”, etc.
The word dhESa दॆश (space) is the basis for demarcating boundaries as “this”, “here”, etc. Such areas are given by bhagavAn to all of the bounded, liberated and ever-liberated souls.
Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘vahni:’ since he bears the whole creation in the form of space.
विश्वस्य दॆशरूपॆण वहनात् वह्निरुच्यतॆ |
236) anila: (अनिलः) (also repeated in 818)
Thus, the one who breathes in life into every creature and revitalizes them is called ‘anila:’ – the life force.
The root ‘anth’ अन् (to breathe) gets the ‘ilach’ (इलच्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.
The scriptures say thus:
- “The entity called air was born from the breath of bhagavAn”
- “If not for bhagavAn, who else would have breathed in life into all these creatures?”
Etymology: The one who breathes in life into every creature – bound, liberated, ever-liberated – by being their life force is called ‘anila:’.
बद्धादॆ्रननात् यॊsसौ अनिलः परिकीर्तितः |
237) dharaNIdhara: (धरणीधरः)
bhagavAn bears even the other entities that bear objects – such as AdhiSEhsha, earth, etc. Hence, he is called ‘dharaNIdhara:’.
The scriptures hail bhagavAn thus:
- “He bears this earth and the sky”
- “Oh mother earth! You are the one who was lifted up by varAha”
- “bhagavAn purushoththama created these entities such as earth, sky, heaven etc merely by his sankalpa Sakthi (decision). He is the one who places all of them under his influence and controls them.” etc.
Etymology: The earth bears all the creatures/entities. since bhagavAn bears this earth itself, he is called ‘dharaNIdhara:’.
भूतधात्र्याश्च धरणॆर्धारणात् धरणीधरः |
सुप्रसादः प्रसन्नात्मा विश्वसृग्विश्वभुग्विभुः ।
सत्कर्ता सत्कृतः साधुर्जह्नुर्नारायणॊ नरः ॥ २६ ॥
238) suprasAdha: (सुप्रसादः)
The one who thus shows love and kindness towards all devotees who worship him is called ‘suprasAdha:’.
The SvEthEshvathara upanishath says: “By his grace alone, the jIvAthma sees him by getting rid of all sinful actions”
The vishNu purANa quotes mAlAkAra, who exclaims “Behold! Those supreme masters – krishNa and balarAma – who grant the wishes of all their devotees have come to my house today!”
These statements and more go on to show bhagavAn’s mercy and love towards his devotees.
Etymology: Since bhagavAn most mercifully grants the wishes of his dear devotees, he is called ‘suprasAdha:’.
प्रसादपरमत्वाच्च सुप्रसादः प्रकीर्तितः |
239) prasannAthmA (प्रसन्नात्मा)
For the same reason, he is also called ‘prasannAthmA’ – the one whose wishes are ever fulfilled and hence who is free from transformations of the mind such as desire, anger, etc.
The vEdhas hail bhagavAn as the one whose wishes are unfaltering and ever fulfilled. They also hail bhagavAn as the one who is filled with ever lasting peace.
An entity that has some desires that are yet to be fulfilled would be incomplete and it would never be easy to please such a one.
Etymology: Having attained all his desires, the one whose mind is ever free from transformations such as desire, anger etc. is called ‘prasannAthmA’. The chanting of this manthra gives us the bliss in mind.
अवाप्तसर्वकामत्वात् रागादिरहितं मनः |
यस्यास्ति स प्रसन्नात्मा चित्ततुष्टिप्रदॊ मनुः ||
240) viSvasruk (विश्वसृक्)
bhagavAn creates all these worlds out of sheer compassion towards the fallen souls, without any consideration towards the faultiness of such souls. Thus, he is called ‘viSvasruk’ – the one who creates the worlds out of sheer compassion.
Etymology: The one who creates all worlds out of compassion is called ‘viSvasruk’.
विश्वं जगत्सृजति यॊ विश्वसृग्स प्रकीर्तितः |
adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan
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