SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
Introduction for this pAsuram
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
No specific introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
In the first pAsuram, AzhwAr says “Would those who analyse about priyam (aspects which give pleasure) and hitham (aspects which do good), learn about anyone other than the great benefactor SrI rAma, who, out of his own will, made the residents of SrI ayOdhyA feel happy/sad in his union/separation?”
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
See nanjIyar‘s introduction.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
See nanjIyar‘s introduction.
See nanjIyar‘s introduction.
kaRpAr irAma pirAnai allAl maRRum kaRparO?
puRpA mudhalAp pul eRumbAdhi onRinRiyE
naRpAl ayOththiyil vAzhum sarAsaram muRRavum
naRpAlukku uyththanan nAnmuganAr peRRa nAttuLE
Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
pA – sprouted and spread
pul – grass
mudhalA – starting with
pul – very lowly
eRumbu – ant
Adhi – etc
naRpAl – the good place (where SrI rAma’s qualities are observed)
ayOththiyil – in SrI ayOdhyA
vAzhum – those who are living, with the joy of enjoying the qualities [of SrI rAma]
sarAsaram – in the form of chara (mobile) and achara (immobile)
muRRavum – all entities
nAnmuganAr peRRa – created by brahmA
nAttuLE – in the universe
onRu – any means to be uplifted
inRiyE – while not having
naRpAlukku – the apt land [paramapadham], which is a good place
uyththanan – placed;
kaRpAr – those who desire to learn something which is priyam and hitham
irAman – chakravarthith thirumagan (the son of emperor dhaSaratha and who is too desirable, and who is embodiment of dharma)
pirAnai – great benefactor
allAl – other than
maRRum – any entity
kaRparO – will they learn?
Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
Those who are living in the good place, in SrI ayOdhyA, with the joy of enjoying the qualities [of SrI rAma], all entities in the form of chara (mobile) and achara (immobile) created in the universe by brahmA, starting with the sprouted and spread out grass, very lowly ant etc, who were not having any means to be uplifted, were all placed in the apt land, which is a good place, by SrI rAma; those who desire to learn something which is priyam and hitham, will they learn about any entity other than the great benefactor, chakravarthith thirumagan (SrI rAma)?
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam
See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
- kaRpAr … – AzhwAr is considering that anything other than learning about SrI rAma, will not be counted as learning. Did the rishi not say in SrIvishNu purANam 6.5.84 “thath gyAnam agyAnam athOnyathuktham” (that is knowledge and everything else is ignorance)? The knowledge which helps one reach bhagavAn is knowledge; everything else is said to be ignorance only.
- kaRpAr – One learns something because “it is pleasing at the time of learning” or “it will lead to something good in the future”; since it is said “irAma pirAnai” (SrI rAma, the benefactor), both the aspects are found here only and nowhere else. rAma indicates the beauty which will bind oneself fully to him without going anywhere; pirAn indicates how he makes chEthanas become exclusively existing for him manifesting that beauty and his magnanimity of presenting his beauty for the sake of others only as done by moon, southerly breeze, sandalwood and water. SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.32 “priyavAdhIcha” – when perumAL (SrI rAma) mercifully speaks, one cannot do anything but listen to that; when heard, his words will only be sweet. When asked “for whom?”, it is said “bhUthAnAm” – for all creatures which have existence; one only needs to be different from insentient objects [i.e. one should simply be sentient]. When asked “would it be pleasing then but lead to something else?”, sathyavAdhIcha – whatever he says will not be anything other than for the well-being of everyone. If his one word is praised like this, it is obvious for the rest of his words. He captivated the entire kingdom to be as said in uththara rAmAyaNa SlOkam “rAmO rAmO rAma ithi” (Saying rAma, repeatedly). perumAL’s existence is the cause for the AthmA’s existence; rest of the aspects [of perumAL) are for the enjoyment of the AthmA. The pAsuram says “will those who are interested in priyam and hitham, seek anyone other than SrI rAma?” SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.29 “sAkshAth rAmAth vinirvruththO dharmaSchApi SriyAsaha:” (Only SrI rAma can make both righteousness and wealth combine truly) – the pAsuram says that SrI rAma is both the means and goal, being inseparable from each other.
- kaRpAr irAma pirAnai – His goal is not to say kaRpAr (learners); his goal is to say that “others are not worthy to be learnt”. When it is done out of love, one will naturally learn about SrI rAma only; thus, one should simply avoid engaging in others. AzhwAr does not eliminate worshipping other dhEvathAs etc by saying “maRRu” (others), but is discriminating between the different forms of the worshippable lord. AzhwAr is not of the nature to eliminate the unworthy dhEvathAs, but is eliminating emperumAn’s parathvam (paramapadha nAthan) and other incarnations.
- maRRum kaRparO – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam uththara kANdam 40.16 “bhAvO nAnyathra gachchathi” (hanuman says – my mind will not focus on anyone else). [This SlOkam is explained in detail]
- snEhO mE parama: – When SrI rAma was mercifully returning to paramapadham, he enquired hanuman “Would you follow me?”, hanuman replies “my love is not limited to that”. As said in iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi 100 “en than aLavanRAl yAnudaiya anbu” (my love is greater than me) and thiruvAimozhi 9.6.1 “uyirin param anRip perugumAl vEtkaiyum” (my love stretches beyond myself).
- rAjamsthvayi – It was not acquired by myself. Grammar says “ranjchayathIthi rAjA”.
- nithyam prathishtitha: – Since it is about holding on to emperumAn, it cannot be done as said in “I will hold on to one form now and another form later”.
- bhakthiS cha niyathA – snEham is the state of dhaSaratha chakravarthi who gave up his life unable to bear the separation of perumAL; bhakthi is the state of iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) who surrendered properly when perumAL said “stop; remain here in ayOdhyA”, he said to him “kurushva” (you should accept me as your servitor and order).
- vIra – You could have been victorious elsewhere with your valour, but cannot defeat me here. Since hanuman too is valorous, he is talking about the way SrI rAma won over him [by showing his valour].
- bhAva: na anyathra gachchathi – Even if you take me along, you cannot redeem my heart. As said in thiruvAimozhi 1.7.8 “ennudaiya nal nenjam thannai agalvikkath thAnum killAn ini” (it will be impossible for himself to separate my heart which has become partial towards him), even the omnipotent emperumAn cannot redeem his heart.
- anyathra na gachchathi – As said in amalanAdhipirAn 10 “kaNda kaNgaL maRRonRinaik kANAvE” (the eyes which have seen SrIrangAnAtha will not see anything else). anyathra implies, he does not even like to utter the name of the other forms. As said in siRiya thirumadal “maRRArAnum uNdenbAr” (ignorant ones say that there is a goal named mOksham), here AzhwAr is saying “maRRum kaRparO” .
- kaRparO – Isn’t he [AzhwAr] a chEthana? He considers everyone to be himself; as those who say “how will the children of this town eat without rich/pure sugar as the side dish?” [A story is narrated in the arumpadham to explain this – once, a prince was tired and ended up in a house looking for food. The lady of the house offered him some rice. He asked for a side dish and the lady give him some salt/pickle. The prince at once wondered “How would children in this town eat without rich/pure sugar?”, considering everyone to be having a royal lifestyle like himself].
Further, the reason for learning about SrI rAma, giving up everything else, is explained.
- pul pA mudhalA – pA indicates material, pul (grass) being that material; alternatively – pA indicates spreading out, implying well spread out grass. Being beyond the reach of the mouth of the cows. This implies wheat grass etc.
- pul eRumbAdhi – Starting with the lowest of animals, ant. Ant is usually recited along with brahmA [to indicate highest and lowest forms of living beings]. AzhwAr is not highlighting any specific importance to grass, ant etc; he is saying that they were the ones to receive the attention of SrI rAma first; just as flood will flow into low-lying areas first. Lowest of plant life is grass; lowest of animal life is ant; since they are cited together here, it eliminates the principle of “gyAnam (knowledge) leads to mOksham”. It also emphasises that having [evolved] consciousness or not, is irrelevant for perumAL’s compassion. It emphasises that the differences due to their karma are also irrelevant; with respect to the unconditional lord, one needs to have aprathishEdham (not stopping emperumAn from helping) only for the result to fructify. Looking at the state of SrI bharathAzhwAn, while the people were crying, the trees which were neck-deep in water, also withered as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 59.4 “apivrukshA: parimlAnA:” (Even the trees withered). SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 59.5 is explained; “upathapthOdhakA nadhya:” – there is no difference between the water and those who fall into the water. upathaptha means one cannot even reach the banks. “palvalAni sarAmsicha” – there is no difference between small and big entities. As said in “vanAni upavanAnicha” – forests and gardens [were drowned].
- onRu inRiyE – Not saying everything [every creature]; since there is “muRRavum” subsequently which indicates all creatures. Now, “onRu inRiyE” implies that they do not have any sAdhana (means) which will lead them to the goal. When one observes the inferior nature of self and the superior nature of the result attained, one will realise that one has nothing in self. Looking at the [great] result that is achieved, one cannot claim anything in the self, whether one gets the result through parama bhakthi or bhagavAn. Now, when there is no means in anyone when emperumAn acknowledged everyone, he who gave the result, is the sAdhanam (means) [Even “dhESOyam sarvakAmadhuk” (residence in dhivyadhESam will grant all wishes), is only said for glorification]! He granted this great result to them just because they resided there without leaving.
- naRpAl ayOththi – In SrI ayOdhyA which has good places. pAl – place. With this, it is implied that just being in this town, will bring bhakthi towards SrI rAma. It is said “dhESOyam sarvakAmadhuk” (residence in dhivyadhESam will grant all wishes). But it is said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 7.1 “gyAthi dhAsI yathO jAthA” (servant maid of relatives of kaikEyi, residing with her since birth). What is the explanation for that? [i.e. why was mantharA evil minded, even after being in ayOdhyA?] One who is born in this town will not have any enmity towards perumAL. As she was born elsewhere, she just remained an unknown person. udAli (one of the primary commentators for SrI rAmAyaNa) explained this as “yatha:kuthaSchijjAthA” (She was born somewhere). Not taking birth in this land of SrI ayOdhyA, has become the enemy for her. The divine abode itself can bring in all goodness. While the residents of this town (SrIrangam), eat, wear clothes, celebrate emperumAn, talk with each other and roam around [like everyone else], when there is a hurdle/danger for perumAL (emperumAn), they will consider their own bodies as that of the enemies, and even give them up. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam “rAgavArthE parAkrAnthA na prANE kuruthEdhayAm” (The army which has surrounded to support SrI rAma, does not have any love towards their own life), as the prANas (lives), due to having been together for so long, seek acknowledgement [from the soldiers], they said “when we should choose between the owner (SrI rAma) and you, would we choose you?” When SrI rAma says in uththara kANda 18.18 “prANAn parithyajya” (I will protect my devotees even at the cost of my own life), why would anyone see their own life?
- ayOththiyil vAzhum – Instead of saying “varththikkum” (residing), AzhwAr has said “vAzhum” (living gloriously), since in ayOdhyA, there is no such difference [everyone lives gloriously there]; as said in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 8.9 “vEngadaththaip padhiyAga vAzhvIrgAL” (live gloriously having thiruvEngadam as your abode) and nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 11.5 “nallArgaL vAzhum naLir arangam” (the SrIrangam where many noble people live gloriously). Since once residing in the apt abode itself is redemption, AzhwAr is saying “ayOththiyil vAzhum“. The eternally apt emperumAn is having his presence here always. Our experience happens once in a while due to our connection with achith (body); due to the same emperumAn [who is present in paramapadham], being present here, there is no shortcoming in the divine abode.
- naRpAlukku uyththanan – He changed them to have noble qualities. That is making them feeling happy/sad based on union/separation. If joy/sorrow occurs based on one’s karma, it is limited. But as they occurred by his grace, it leads to goodness for everyone. For SrI rAma who could liberate one from the bondage here and grant him the supreme bliss in paramapadham as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 68.80 “mayAthvam samanugyAthO gachcha lOkAn anuththamAn” (Being ordained by me, you shall reach the supreme abode), it is not difficult to instill such quality of being unable to sustain in his absence.
- nAnmuganAr peRRa nAttuLE – naRpAlukkuyththanan – When an emperor makes one of his confidantes as a king for a small kingdom, he will ensure that his own orders and independent desires will be implemented in the kingdom. Similarly, in this materialistic realm which is under the control of four-headed brahmA who is the chief for the samsAri chEthanas (materialistic people), emperumAn eliminated brahmA’s independence, and reformed the dependence of the residents of ayOdhyA on their karma, by manifesting his qualities, and made them survive when they have him and feel sad in his absence. This being the case, would one learn anything other than SrI rAma?
In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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