thiruvAimozhi – 3.4 – pugazhum

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panch-bhutha-antharyami-azhwar

Highlights from thirukkurukaip pirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

pugazhum – After inviting his heart and his heart-like devotees who are desirous in kainkaryam to enjoy thiruvEnkamudaiyAn, and while engaging in enjoying him, in-between, AzhwAr enjoyed thirumalai (divine hill) seeing its most enjoyable nature, and then enjoying by singing about thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn having everything as his body (being the in-dwelling soul of everything), his nature of not being touched by the defects of the entities he pervades and his being together with divine forms, ornaments, weapons, consorts, servitors etc.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In fourth decad – emperumAn manifested his all-pervading nature to AzhwAr to fulfil his prayer of wanting to serve and AzhwAr becomes very excited. emperumAn pervades and has as his wealth, all entities such as the great elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether), the result of such elements (in variegated forms), illuminous objects, tasteful objects, songs etc which are pleasing to the ears, purushArthams (goals) such as mOksham etc, brahmA, rudhra et al, the progenitors. Not only he is pervading them all without being affected by their defects, he is also having the glories due to his distinguished forms. Meditating upon such emperumAn who is the lord of SrI mahAlakshmi, since those who meditate upon his auspicious qualities would become very weak [due to being separated from such great personality] as said in periya thiruvandhAdhi 34 “kAlAzhum nenjazhiyum kaNsuzhalum” (my legs become weak and unable to stand, heart is melting and eyes spinning) and thus being unable to serve physically and as said in thiruvAimozhi 4.3 decad “kOvai vAyAL“, emperumAn would accept even AzhwAr’s words (desiring for various kainkaryams) as kainkaryams performed, AzhwAr engages in vAchika kainkaryam (service by words) by glorifying him using the words that identify his wealth as himself (the one who has such wealth).

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In fourth decad – Since nArAyaNan who is always with all chEthana (sentient beings) and achEthana (insentient beings) is the recipient of the kainkaryam (service) which was desired by AzhwAr in the previous decad, AzhwAr meditating upon his all pervading nature, highlights the following aspects:

  1. being the prakAri (in-dwelling soul) of all the great elements and their variegated forms
  2. being the prakAri (in-dwelling soul) of the transformed forms of the great elements
  3. being together with distinguished forms
  4. being the prakAri (in-dwelling soul) of distinguished objects such as precious gems etc
  5. being the prakAri (in-dwelling soul) of tasteful sweet items
  6. being the prakAri (in-dwelling soul) of the various sounds in the form of vEdham, gAnam (songs) etc
  7. being the prakAri (in-dwelling soul) of purushArthams such as worldly pleasures, liberation etc
  8. being the prakAri (in-dwelling soul) of the important personalities of this world such as brahmA et al
  9. being the prakAri (in-dwelling soul) of all such entities
  10. still not being affected by the defects of the objects he pervades

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr  performs vAchika kainkaryam (service by words), by glorifying his inseparable nature from all entities, using the names of the entities he pervades which are much like his divine names.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

Previously, AzhwAr craved to serve saying in thiruvAimozhi 3.3.1 “ozhivil kAlamellAm udanAy manni vazhuvilA adimai seyya vENdum“; Iswara manifested his sarvAthmabhAva (being the soul of everything) to him to fulfil all his craving. But, both will remain unfulfilled, since emperumAn would not engage him in service and AzhwAr would not serve him. emperumAn is of the nature as said in mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 87.13 “… nachEchchathi janArdhana:” (janArdhana is desireless in accepting anything), he is easily worshippable and will be satisfied with whatever he gets. AzhwAr’s love is unending love; when he manifested his all-pervading nature to fulfil his cravings, AzhwAr starts meditating upon his auspicious qualities instead of engaging in service and became as said in periya thiruvandhAdhi 34 “kAlAzhum nenjazhiyum kaNsuzhalum” (my legs become weak and unable to stand, heart is melting and eyes spinning). And emperumAn is of the nature that he will accept AzhwAr’s [loving] words as all types of kainkaryams as seen in thiruvAimozhi 4.3.2 “punaiyum kaNNi enadhudaiya vAsagam sey mAlaiyE vAn pattAdaiyum ahdhE” (my collection of words is your garland and your decorative clothes are also the same).

For AzhwAr, bhagavAn‘s true nature, qualities, wealth, pastimes are all enjoyable; instead of enjoying them as seen anywhere, like one would place diamond, pearls etc in a necklace and enjoy, AzhwAr is enjoying all objects by observing them together with bhagavAn and enjoys them. For AzhwAr, bhagavAn’s qualities and wealth are without any difference. Just like the qualities cannot exist or be seen without bhagavAn (who is the abode of such qualities), his wealth too cannot exist or be seen without his presence. Moreover, for a mukthAthmA, even leelA vibhUthi (material realm) is enjoyable since it belongs to emperumAn; whereas it is said in chAndhOgya upanishath 8.12.3 “nOpajanam smaran” (AthmA will not contemplate about the material body after reaching the spiritual realm), it is only saying that mukthAthmA will not experience the material realm due to karma (bondage). Once, one becomes a mukthAthmA where there is no thoughts that are influenced by karma (bondage), everything will then be seen as owned by bhagavAn and thus will be enjoyable.

In this material realm, some are said unfavourably as in periya thirumozhi 11.6.7 “eNNAdha mAnidaththai eNNAdha pOdhellAm iniyavARE” (It is pleasing whenever I don’t think about those who don’t think about bhagavAn) and others are said favourably as in periya thirumozhi 7.4.4 “pErALan pErOdhum periyOrai orukAlum pirigilEnE” (I will never separate from those great people who recite the names of emperumAn); this is the gyAna dhaSA (state after knowledge has dawned in an individual). But in prApthi dhaSA (in the liberated state), this difference will not be observed and everything will be enjoyable [since everything is owned by bhagavAn]. Though everything is owned by Iswara, some are condemned as in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 53 “pollAdha dhEvaraith thEvarallAraith thiruvillAth thEvarai thEREnmin” (those who are not worthy of seeing, lacking divinity, not with SrI mahAlakshmi – don’t consider them as Gods); when SAsthram is fully analyzed we will observe acceptable and unacceptable aspects. emperumAn blessed AzhwAr with pristine knowledge without any blemishes, so that he can enjoy all his qualities, wealth etc., without any limitation. emperumAn blessed him with ultimate knowledge that he is not disturbed by thoughts that are influenced by his past karma (virtues/vices).

Having seen bhagavAn‘s true nature, forms, qualities etc as shown by him, AzhwAr sees that

  • emperumAn has as his wealth all entities such as the great elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether), the result of such elements (in variegated forms), illuminous objects, tasteful objects, songs etc which are pleasing to the ears, purushArthams (goals) such as mOksham etc, brahmA, rudhra et al, the progenitors;
  • not only that, he being present in all these entities as antharAthmA (in-dwelling soul) but not being affected by the defects of these entities [unlike jIvAthmA who gets affected] which can be understood clearly through the strength of pramANam (authentic source) as in rig vEdha – muNdaka upanishath “… anaSnannanya: …” (paramAthmA being separate from jIvAthmA does not endure the results of karma unlike jIvAthmA, while both are residing in the body like two birds in a tree) and thus greatly shining;
  • in such wealth, just like the words indicating an entity will also indicate the soul in-charge of that entity [for example, if one calls a person named rAma, it applies to both the body and the soul inside the body], the same word also indicates paramAthmA who is the soul of that jIvAthmA;
  • seeing that all words, whether distinguished words such as nArAyaNa etc which are unique for bhagavAn or other common words, indicate sarvESvaran only ultimately; being grateful after seeing that the wealth of bhagavAn is not separate from him and looking like garland on shoulder (nicely fitting) and is part of what is to be enjoyed;
  • since he is unable to perform all kainkaryams as greatly desired previously;
  • bhagavAn too is of the nature that he will accept any service as all services rendered to him as identified in thiruvAimozhi 4.3 “kOvai vAyAL” decad,

AzhwAr engages in kainkaryam through his words (praises), like a person collecting fruits from trees amidst a huge gush of wind [where he will run around with anxiety fetching fruits], he becomes bewildered think “should I say this?”, “should I say that?” and so on. Thus, AzhwAr engages in all kinds of kainkaryams as prayed by him in “vazhuvilA adimai seyya vENdum nAm” (should serve in all aspects without leaving any service).

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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