SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
See nampiLLai’s introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
See nampiLLai’s introduction.
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
In second decad – AzhwAr who set out to surrender to emperumAn with the help of gataka (AchAraya), analysed how ISvaran by his own efforts turned AzhwAr who was facing away from emperumAn with hatred towards him since time immemorial, to turn towards him, and highlights the following aspects:
- emperumAn‘s ability to eliminate the enemies, which is the cause for AzhwAr turning towards him
- his attractive bodily beauty
- his ability to move the immovable objects
- his ability to complete impossible tasks
- his entourage which is present for the sake of his devotees
- his control over all worlds
- his great attachment in protecting his devotees well
- his great knowledge
- the most desirable beauty of his face
- his protection by all means
Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr thinks about how emperumAn manifested these aspects to him, and eliminated the unnatural hatred and turned him towards emperumAn; he thinks about emperumAn making AzhwAr to enact the mood of a gOpikA (cowherd girl) who was upset with emperumAn and sulking, saying to her friends “I won’t see him even if he comes to me”, as a sport, finished the romantic quarrel and united with her, and mercifully sings this decad in the mood of that gOpikA.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
See nampiLLai‘s introduction.
Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction
This AzhwAr resembles many personalities who are engaged in bhagavAn due to fear of samsAram, attachment towards bhagavAn, taste in kainkaryam (service), and the inability to survive in separation. Since he said in thiruviruththam 1 “poynninRa gyAnamum pollA ozhukkum azhukkudambum” (having false knowledge, inappropriate deeds and dirty body), he could be considered to be having the qualities of badhdhas (bound souls in this samsAram); but since he said in the same pAsuram “inninRa nIrmai ini yAm uRAmai” (I cannot tolerate this lowliness) highlighting his unbearability, hecould be considered to be having the qualities of mumukshus (bound souls who are desiring to be freed from this samsAram); as he said in thiruvAimozhi 3.3.1 “vazhuvilA adimai seyya vENdum nAm” (We should serve continuously), since he cannot spend even a moment without performing kainkaryam, he could be considered to be having the qualities of mukthas (liberated souls); as he said in thiruvAimozhi 2.3.7 “ninnalAl ilEn kAN” (I cannot exist without you), since that kainkaryam is saththA prayuktham (that which sustains him), he could be compared to nithyas (eternally free souls in paramapadham). As said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1.18 “vishNunA sadhrusO vIryE sOmavath priya dharSana:” (He is comparable to vishNu in his valour and moon in his beauty) – as SrI rAma’s every aspect can be compared to every entity existing, everyone’s nature can be seen in different aspects of AzhwAr.
[What is the difference between AzhwAr and others?] This (such qualities), as said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 18.27 “bAlyAth prabruthi susnigdha:” (right from childhood, lakshmaNa was friendly towards SrI rAma), is there right from birth for AzhwAr. Even before maturing, AzhwAr was as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.3.3 “aRiyAk kAlaththuLLE adimaik kaN anbu seyviththu” (engaging AzhwAr in service even when he was ignorant (i.e. childhood)) and in thiruviruththam 60 “mulaiyO muzhu muRRum pOndhila … perumAn malaiyO thiruvEngadam enRu kaRkinRa vAsagamE” (parAnguSa nAyaki‘s bosoms are not well developed … yet she is learning about thiruvEnkatam which is the divine abode of emperumAn).
Now, in thiruvAimozhi 4.8 “ERALum iRaiyOnum” AzhwAr declared that he does not need self and the possessions of the self, which are not desired by emperumAn; in thiruvAimozhi 5.3 “mAsaRu sOdhi“, he declared that he does not need emperumAn and his wealth which are not useful for AzhwAr and tried to destroy them; in thiruvAimozhi 5.10 “piRandhavARum“, he surrendered to emperumAn and prayed to him to sustain him so that he can enjoy emperumAn’s qualities; he then sent a messenger with such great desire [in thiruvAimozhi 6.1]; the messenger reached emperumAn and informed him, and he too being greatly worried, quickly rushed to AzhwAr as he did to help gajEndhrAzhwAn, and unable to even bear such delay, parAnguSa nAyaki [AzhwAr in feminine mood] becomes very worried and thinks “what can we do now?” and determines “there is no other option than finishing oneself to survive” and tries to destroy herself. This [finishing self] cannot happen based on her will; if that were the case, she would have died when she said “I don’t need my self” in “ERALum iRaiyOn” itself. Just as he is required for her enjoyment, he is required for her destruction too. During separation, one can meditate upon the qualities of other person and sustain oneself; but is there a greater destruction than turning the face away for even a moment in his presence? She is trying to torment him by destroying herself in his presence as he tormented her by staying away from her. While there is a slight delay in his arrival, her romantic anger rises and she tries to finish herself thinking “there is no point in living anymore” – such is her sorrow in separation. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 30.2 “praNayAchcha abhimAnAchch parichikshEpa rAghavam” (due to previous union with great affection and the possessive pride, she reproached SrI rAma), due to her long familiarity, union and greatness due to the possessive pride, she spoke about SrI rAma; what did she say – SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 30.3 “kimthvAmanyatha vaidhEha: pithAmE mithilAdhipa: | rAma jAmAtharam prApya sthriyam purusha vigraham ||” (Having got a son-in-law who is a woman in a male form, what will my father, the king of vidhEha, think of himself?), sIthAp pirAtti said – dear husband, can one not take care of his only wife? You are planning to leave me and go to the forest! If our father hears about this, he will be very upset; instead of making him think that a woman in the disguise of a man married his daughter, quickly take me along with you. SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kAndam 27.6 “IrshyArOshyau bahishkruthya” (abandoning impatience and anger) – should you not tolerate other’s glories? Give up the anger and jealousy on seeing the greatness I will acquire on walking along with you to the forest. bhuktha SEsham ivOdhagam (as remnants of water are thrown away) – this jealousy should also be discarded. This is how it is done in between lovers – should you not consider the glory of your lover’s as your own? nayamAm vIra (take me along oh brave man!) – If you have not understood yourself, just as you have not understood me, please listen to me. You have no shortcomings; please take me along. visrabdha: (having faith) – if you don’t realise your own self, at least you should listen to those who care for you. pApam mayi navidhyathE (there is no sin in me) – give up this thought now; if you don’t take me along, and if you leave me alone here, I should have some reason which sustains me until you return [pApam makes one sustain even in separation]. This is how romantic anger is manifested. Is this all? These were just what were directly spoken to him by her. Even in front of his messenger (hanuman), she said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36.14 “kuSaleeyadhi kAkuthstha: kimnusAgara mEkalAm| mahIm dhahathikOpEna yugAnthAgnir ivOththitha: ||“. kAkuthstha: – He is born in the family heritage where they won’t tolerate insulting others; Is he thinking “I will remedy the humiliation of others, but not of my own”? kimnu sAgara mEkalAm mahIm dhahathi – Is he thinking “I need a different arrow for fluid substance (ocean) and solid substance (lankA)”? He is the one who is having the arrow with which he can burn lankA having the sea water as the fuel (ghee). Though bhUmi dhEvi too is married to you like me, she remained protecting her dress [the ocean is bhUmi dhEvi’s dress; here sIthAp pirAtti is asking that if she should also simply be caring for her dress instead of seeking SrI rAma’s arrival for her protection]; for the kings, the earth is also like a consort [who is to be protected]; the entities remain in the state they were created only until SrI rAma’s eyes turn red in anger, and did he engage in fulfilling his elder’s desires as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36.29 “dharmApadhESAth thyajathaS cha rAjyam mAm chApyaraNyam nayatha:padhAthim” (For such SrI rAma who gave up the kingdom to fulfil his father’s desire and who brought me to the forest by walk)? He did all these to only torment me – sIthAp pirAtti said many such harsh words in anger.
parAnguSa nAyaki too, suffered greatly starting from “mAsaRu sOdhi”, tolerated that till “vaigal pUngazhivAy”, and since he did not come until then, sent a messenger, and feeling tensed until the words of the messenger reached him and he arrived, became worried too much, and remained with her helpless state thinking “now, even if he arrives, the union will end in separation only; then, the sorrow of the separation after his union will be even more difficult to bear; hence, the current suffering is better than the new found suffering which is like a new leader manifesting his dominance”. How was she [sIthA]? As said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 16.30 “himahatha naLinIva nashtaSObhA” (with lost beauty, like a lotus plant hit by snow) – the unnatural separation which occurred to her (sIthAp pirAtti) after twelve years of continuous enjoyment without any break; she had lost her beauty due to that. vyasana paramparayA – Just as separation, union is also temporary [i.e., there is continuous anguish]. athi pIdyamAnA – The anguish is greater than what she can handle. sahachara rahithEva chakravAkI – unable to bear the separation even for a moment [like a chakkaravAka bird which cannot bear the separation from its companion even for a moment]. That is the state here. janaka suthA – she was not raised, with knowledge imparted about such situations [she was raised as a grand princess]. krupaNAm dhaSAm prapannA – she attained such a pitiable state that whatever said is no match for her real suffering and only a sample of her suffering. parAnguSa nAyaki too is in similar state. She remains “We can manage the already familiar suffering and we can be finished with that; we don’t need his arrival anymore”. Was there any signs of his arrival which increased her anxiety? Yes. There were many auspicious omens which indicated his arrival. SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 27.51 – pakshIcha – The bird spread its wings. SAkAnilaya: – Instead of a dry branch, it stood on a fresh branch. It circumambulated the tree and remained well seated on the branch. prahrushta: – It manifested joy in consuming the fruits etc on the branch. puna:punaSchOththamasAnthvavAdhI – It started speaking good words further. Further more, susvAgathAm vAchamudhIrayAna: – It appeared to be auspiciously saying that SrI rAma is coming. puna:punaSchOdhayathIva – It appeared to be saying that as SrI rAma’s arrival is confirmed why are you not bathing and decorating yourself. hrushta: – It appeared to be having goosebumps just as one would have on seeing SrI rAma’s arrival. SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 29.1 thathA gathAm [another SlOkam is cited to explain about the auspicious signs] – as said in rahasyancha prakASamcha, sage vAlmeeki who was blessed by brahmA to see everything in SrI rAma’s life as they happened, is unable to explain the joy of sIthAp pirAtti here. thAm – sIthA, the entity only existed and nothing beyond that was visible. vyathithAm – she appeared as if whatever explained previously is her nature, and now is covered with great sorrow; samAdhvASa thathrAham – she remained to be identified just with her sorrow not realising any of her joyful time for the twelve years. anindhithAm – she remained as she should have, in separation of SrI rAma. If that is not the case, she will be blamed [for not worrying for her separation from SrI rAma]. vyabEthaharshAm – there is no trace of her previous joy. paridhIna mAnasAm – her heart losing its existence, to not handle any future joy also. SubhAm – this is how she has become pale due to separation from emperumAn [since it is a natural reaction, she is praised to be auspicious] unlike becoming pale due to eating soil; she appears to be deserving praise/protection like a sea which pushes out the waves and withdrawing them back. nimiththAni SubhAni bhEjirE – These omens became fortunate by announcing the upcoming auspicious events to sIthA. naram SriyA jushtamivOpajIvina: – they realised their true nature by serving SrI mahAlakshmi herself; this is similar to – those who are in need of funds, would go to the generous ones, accept what is needed by them and become joyful. This is how the omens where.
Now, let us see emperumAn‘s nature.
SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.28 is explained here:
- “ArththOvA yadhivA dhruptha:” (whether one surrenders with great sorrow or with contentment) – one can surrender unto him with great sorrow; or, as the soldiers may refute us when we recite the divine names, even if one surrenders with pride [and wait for the end of this body to reach paramapadham]. [Here there is talk about Artha prapanna, who can no longer wait to reach paramapadham; and dhruptha prapanna, who has understood the lowliness of the material world, the greatness of emperumAn and has surrendered to emperumAn through a sadhAchArya (qualified AchArya) and cannot wait beyond the end of this body to reach paramapadham] Why is this said in this way? Isn’t it well well known that only Artha prapanna qualifies to attain the result? Aren’t those pramANams (authentic texts) which explain that dhruptha prapanna too attain the result, [very few and ] unpopular? [Though the two types of surrender are distinct, why is dhruptha prapanna also treated equally in this SlOkam?] This is because, the goal of this SlOkam is not to highlight the qualities of SaraNAgatha (one who surrenders) but to highlight the qualities of SaraNya (emperumAn who gives refuge). Here, the individuals’ Arthi (urge to reach paramapadham) is not part of the upAyam (means); in that context, there is no difference between Artha prapanna and dhruptha prapanna. emperumAn cares for dhruptha prapanna thinking “Not knowing about himself, he did not even announce to me about his shortcomings thinking ‘I have nothing in my hand’; this being the case, let me protect him”.
- parEShAm SaraNAgatha: ari: – Among the enemies, he is a surrendered enemy. That means – he can be said as SaraNAgatha since he utters the word “SaraNam” for its sake, but can be called as Sathru (enemy) since he has no such attitude in his heart. Alternative explanation – due to not having any remorse for previous state, and yet saying “SaraNam” for its sake now, he can be said both. As said in periya thirumozhi 1.9.3 “konREn … anRE vandhadaindhEn” (I engaged in needless killings, and I surrendered unto you).
- prANAn parithyajya – Should we not give up our lives to protect such surrendered persons though they are enemies? Since there is no match for his surrender, giving up my life is not important, but protecting him is more important.
- rakshithavya kruthAthmanA – One who is well learned [from elders] will do all of these. For those who are knowledgeable, they cannot do anything otherwise.
This is the state of emperumAn.
In this manner, emperumAn cannot tolerate for even those who surrender joyfully [instead of with the great urge]. parAnguSa nAyaki thought he will surely come, considering the following reasons:
- being greatly anguished starting with mAsaRu sOdhi, then surrendered four times, and since emperumAn did not come even then, she sent a messenger to him; and he thinks that she went through all these sufferings for him only.
- even after all of this, she is surviving and not dead
- as she is faithful towards his [compassionate, loving] nature
- as there are many good omens highlighting his arrival
- while all these are there, my lack of fortune will bring him in front of me [to have him leave again and cause more agony]
- as he shamelessly separated from her when such separation is not desired, he would arrive when she doesn’t want him to come.
- as he is set out to finish me, and plans to unite with me again and separate from me again to finish me
Being determined that he will come, she along with her friends vowed “even if he comes now, we will neither look at him nor speak to him”, and decided to go to a place which is not known to him; they went to a garden which is pleasant for their sports, and stayed in a maNdapa (hall) in the middle of that garden; remaining together in there, they collected all the sentient and insentient tools such as birds, balls etc and placed them in a place so that they are out of reach for him to develop a conversation with them, just as all stocks are carefully placed inside the fort during war times; now, if there is anything that they forgot, he could use them to survive and communicate with them; they built a stone wall which is their neglect, and arranged everything so that he cannot even use his sarvagyathvam (omniscience) to fulfil his desire and sarvaSakthithvam (omnipotence) to perform his actions; as seen in those who desired to speak about krishNa’s activities as in SrIvishNu purANam 5.24.12 “kaSchith su kuSalee krishNa:” (Is krishNa keeping well?), would wonder “what is the use of speaking about him?”; similar to how it’s condemned to recite the divine names of emperumAn in the assembly of demoniac people such as hiraNya et al who are unfavourable towards emperumAn , even in the assembly of parAnguSa nAyaki, hatred became abundant and when some one recited the divine names, they became greatly jealous/angry about it. This is the state of parAnguSa nAyaki.
Now, let us see the state of emperumAn.
[Here, many incidents related to emperumAn helping his devotees during dangers are highlighted.]
emperumAn heard her sorrowful cry of thiruvAimozhi 6.1.10 “vERukoNdu ummai yAn irandhEn“. Is he not the one hears good things as said in SrIvishNu sahasranAmam “SuchiSravA:“? He will not remain unperturbed at this stage;
- when he heard the sorrowful cry of gajEndhrAzhwAn as in vishNu dharmam 68 “paramApadhamApanna:” (fell in great danger). rushed as said in SrIrangarAja sthavam 2.57 “asvIkrutha praNIpAdha maNipAdhukam kimithichAkulAntha:puram avAhana parishkriyam” (The private quarters became bewildered since emperumAn did not accept his usual decorations etc while leaving), not being patient enough to wait for garudAzhwAr to get ready, he started running several steps and his consorts in the private quarters wondered what great activity is going on beyond creation etc, thinking “why is he running like this”, and he climbed on garudAzhwAr without him getting decorated and appeared [for gajEndhrAzhwAn] impressing the greatly knowledgeable devotees to say “bhagavathas thvarAyai nama:” (I bow down to bhagavAn‘s urge in protecting his devotees);
- When dhraupadhi was tormented by dhuSSAsana and when her five husbands who were well known protectors were present, she called out as in mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 58.22 “gOvindhEthi yadhAkranthath” (as how dhraupadhi called out gOvindha!) thinking of me to be the saviour, and I felt bad since “I was not physically present to rescue her from the danger” as said in “mAm dhUravAsinam” (I who was residing in a distant place), and thought “she did what was fitting for her nature [calling out to me], but I having incarnated, have not accomplished the purpose of my incarnation”, feeling sad, crowned dharmaputhra (yudhishtira) again and ensured that she tied her hair [fulfilling her desire of having dhuryOdhana and his brothers killed] and eliminated all the enemies, and yet while ascending to paramapadham, left with a broken heart as said in “nAthisvasthamanA:” (with a heart that is hurt).
- He felt the agony of not initially helping SrI bhIshma who was resting on the arrow bed as said in mahAbhAratham SAnthi parvam “Sarathalpa gathO bhIshmaS SAmyanniva huthAsana: | mAmdhyAthi purusha vyAgras thathO mEthath gatham mana: ||” (bhIshma, the bull amongst men, resting on the arrow-bed, like a lamp which is dying, meditated upon me; my heart then went to him).
- As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 17.15 “thEnathEnamanuvrathA:” (So, the people followed SrI rAma), those who are to be followed by me, came to me first and remained sad for that; his divine heart melted due to these reasons emperumAn felt ashamed for not having helped the rishis (sages) of dhaNdakAraNya as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 10.9 “prasIdhanthu bhavanthOmE hrIrEshA hi mamAthulA yadhIdhruSairaham viprair upasaththEyair upasthitha:” (I have accepted all of you who are qualified to be approached by me. I am feeling greatly ashamed [that I have not come to you first]; you all should forgive me for my mistake), feeling shameful he begged for their forgiveness; such is his nature;
Now, if he is as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.42 “vyasanEShu cha manushyAnAm” (SrI rAma becomes anguished seeing others suffer), if he is normally like this, what to speak about when his beloved consort is in separation? He stumbles upon thinking “This parAnguSa nAyaki who should be approached and whose hands and feet should be held by me, is now holding on to the feet of a bird; why have I delayed my arrival! What masculinity do I have in me still? What shall I do after going there? Or what shall I do from here?”, feeling that he can no longer survive without uniting with her, arrives at a place which is neither too close nor far from where she was with her friends, and observes that she is unapproachable due to her anger. He starts thinking “how can I eliminate her determination and unite with her?”, and thinks “let me show my beauty and captivate her”, but realises that in her group, everyone is lot more beautiful than he and cannot be captivated by beauty; she is having the greatness of being said as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 16.5 “asithEkshaNA” (one who is having beautiful dark eyes); then, he thinks “let me captivate them with my supremacy”, but then realises that the private quarters of consorts cannot be won over by sending over the elephants [showing the might]; finally, he decides that he can win her over by his humility only; this humility is of no use, if manifested when she is not glancing at him; now, after doing all of these, his divine feet will not cooperate with him, to just leave her; but he will also not force himself upon her, when she does not accept him [only when we accept his favours and surrender unto him, he will grant us the final result]; [in case of parAnguSa nAyaki] if he forces himself upon her, since she is so tender-hearted, he may even lose her; now, when there is cool water in close proximity, a greatly thirsty person will not go to a desert [searching for water]; that is, if parAnguSa nAyaki becomes upset with him for his slight delay in arrival and decides “I will not allow him in our group”, he will not leave them and go seeking the bonding with samsAris (materialistic people); now, thinking “what is the means to have their acceptance” and realising that it is not as easy as how thiruvadi (hanuman) toiled in crossing the ocean and convinced sIthAp pirAtti by singing SrI rAma’s glories as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 31.2 “rAjA dhaSarathO nAma” (there was a king named dhaSaratha); thinking “what can be done now? ” as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 39.1 “Evam bahu vidhAm chinthAm” (thinking in many ways), he determined “if my head and their feet meet each other, I will hold on to their feet tightly and fit them on my head”. There is no better means than this topmost one; this is seen from the beginning [i.e., surrender is the best means].
Thus, having determined this, he entered a garden which matched his [dark greenish] complexion, approached her and her friends without their knowledge, saw them with gratitude for the full satisfaction of his eyes and stood gratefully. The sight will subsequently lead to conversation etc, but he did not get that; at that stage, he became weakened since he did not hear the sweet voices of her maina, parrot etc which sustain him; he thought “when I am together with her, her friends have twice the love [towards us] and they will remain the same way when I am separated from her”; but they were angrier than she was towards him. He knows well that whoever approaches him with purushakAram (recommendation), his heart will give in for them as seen in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.2 “sabrAthuScharaNau gAtam” (lakshmaNa holding the divine feet of his brother SrI rAma tight); here, he was unable to acquire their recommendation; now, even if parAnguSa nAyaki accepts him, if her friends don’t agree, she will not allow him in; though SrI rAma said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.34 “dhaththam asya abhayam mayA” (I have given him refuge), he accepted vibhIshaNAzhwAn by saying “Anaya” (bring him) to sugrIva mahArAjar who first said “vadhyathAm” (vibhIshaNa deserves to be killed); he did not get any opportunity through her friends as well. emperumAn who cannot handle the separation of his devotees even for a moment as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 66.10 “najIvEyam kshaNamapi” (I will not survive even for a moment) and as in sthOthra rathnam 56 “kshaNEpi thE yadhvirahO’thidhussaha:” (the separation of those great vaishNava is very intolerable even for a moment for you), will not survive in their presence when they don’t look towards him favourably.
Now, due to his approach towards them, the whole place became peacock blue shaded as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 38.14 “SObhayan dhaNdakAraNyam” (the dhaNdaka forest became very beautiful), they became blessed by his permanent glance and got goosebumps, yet they kept instigating themselves with the heat of anger and separation to resist the coolness acquired from his merciful glance; their anger would naturally increase in his presence; thinking about all of these, they confirmed his arrival and together faced off from him; emperumAn too thought that if it is a fort built by enemies, he can knock it down and enter [but it is a anger wall by his dear devotees]; his feet trembled since he could not get close to them even after being in their proximity nor his grief was reducing; at that time, due to his great fortune, he stumbled upon their ball and anklet which they forgot there; as he would feel ecstatic while stumbling upon the butter pot and butter in a dark room, he became greatly ecstatic on finding them, he picked them up and manifested his love towards her fully on those objects by touching them on his eyes, head etc., as done by sIthAp pirAtti when she got SrI rAma’s divine ring [from hanuman]. SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36.4 “gruhIthvA prEkshamANasA” (taking and seeing that ring) – at first, she did not see it [the ring] fearing “has this occurred by rAvANa’s mischief?”; but once she realised it had come from SrI rAma, she could not take her eyes off that ring. sA prEkshamANA – The same hanuman who had to work hard previously to make her see it saying “paSya dhEvi” (Oh lordess! see it), had to work hard to take her eyes off it; bharthu: kara vibhUshaNam – She thought how it came into contact with her during pANigrahaNam (father giving daughter’s hand to the son-in-law). kara vibhUshaNam – Beautiful lotus like divine hand [of SrI rAma]. The ring is an ornament for the ornament [hand]. bharthAram iva – on receiving it in her divine hand, she thought about the finger which wore it, and his shoulders; that thought made her forget about the ocean that was separating them; she thought that they were resting on the same bed; she thought that she won that ring over by defeating him in some sportive gambling/chess activities. The vAlmeeki rishi (sage) says “iva” (as if), since she is like mother for him [and he cannot talk about the parents’ romantic aspects]; also, not to remind her that it is not real embrace [which will put her back in sorrow again]. jAnakI – She is born in a clan where there is no question of mixture of sorrow and joy [there is only joy]. mudhithA bhavath – she became ecstatic. He too became ecstatic on acquiring those ball and anklet. When a samsAri (bound soul) becomes muktha (liberated), he will see emperumAn’s leelOpakaraNam (tools for his sport) and bhOgOpakaraNam (tools for his enjoyment) as the same as there is no separate thoughts for him; due to everything being emperumAn’s possession, they all will appear as the same as nithya vibhUthi (paramapadham, the eternal abode of enjoyment); similarly, parAnguSa nAyaki‘s leelOpakaraNam appears to be bhOgOpakaraNam for him. They saw his great attachment towards those objects. They thought – emperumAn who separated from us and who remained well fit, is doing all these to captivate us; this is probably what is happening – after separating from us, he went and spent time with some others; he then separated from them too; he came here with that sorrow; he became bewildered thinking “these are their play items” and finally they thought “he is not doing this with [true] love towards us”; and emperumAn eliminated the Udal (romantic quarrel) by manifesting his beauty, qualities, his inability to live in separation and his humility, and united with her – all these are explained in this decad.
[Inner meaning of this decad] Now, pUrvAchAryas (AchAryas before parASara bhattar) explained this decad as “It is not fitting for AzhwAr‘s SEshathvam (total dependence on emperumAn) to quarrel with emperumAn citing his interest in going to other women. So this should be explained as AzhwAr manifesting his inferiority and trying to move away from emperumAn as he did in thiruvAimozhi 1.5 ‘vaLavEzhulagu'”. But bhattar heard this and mercifully said “Whatever our AchAryas could have said! This decad reveals AzhwAr’s great attachment towards bhagavAn. There is no need to explain it in any other way! Let this be the only meaning for this decad”. SrI rAma had a wonderful relationship with sugrIva mahArajar so that he could even strongly argue with him as said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 30.82 “hanishyAmi sa bAndhavam” (Since you crossed the line of truth, I will kill you even with your kinsmen).
Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.
- pAsuram 1
- pAsuram 2
- pAsuram 3
- pAsuram 4
- pAsuram 5
- pAsuram 6
- pAsuram 7
- pAsuram 8
- pAsuram 9
- pAsuram 10
- pAsuram 11
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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