Monthly Archives: November 2019

periya thirumadal – 95 – pinnum uralOdu

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pinnum uralOdu kattuNda peRRimaiyum                                             139
annadhOr bUdhamAy Ayar vizhavinkaN
thunnu sagadaththAl pukka perunjORRai                                            140
munnirundhu muRRaththAn thuRRiya theRRanavum

Word by word meaning

uralOdu – (tied up) with the mortar
kattuNda peRRimaiyum – how great it was being tied down
Ayar vizhavin kaN – in the ArAdhanai (worship) carried out by the herdspeople to indhira, the chief of celestial entities
thunnu sagadaththAl pukka peru sORRai – the huge quantum of food carried by many carts
annadhu Or bUdhamAy – taking the form of a demon which cannot be spoken of in words
mun irundhu – right in fornt of them
muRRa – completely
thAn – he himself
thuRRiya – eaten
theRRanavum – what a shame! 

vyAkyAnam

pinnum uralOdu kattuNda peRRimaiyum – it is not that the girls just caught hold of his hand [as seen in the previous part]; more than that, they tied him to a mortar, an achEthana (insentient) entity. I will recount the greatness of that act too, for the entire world to hear.

kattuNda peRRImaiyum – The opinion here is that ”the sinner that I am, I did not get to see this greatness at that time itself”.  peRRimai – greatness (or fame). Here, it refers to the lowliness of the act due to viparItha lakshaNam (ironical, conveying the opposite meaning).

On top of this, I want to speak about one more activity.

annadhOr – it was such a despicable act that emperumAn put on, which cannot be described by words.

annadhu – unable to look at that grotesque form, she (parakAla nAyaki) turns her face away.

bUdhamAy – will anyone take on the role of a very lowly demon?

Ayar vizhavin kaN – since he took on the role of a demon, he went to all places because of his extreme hunger. He had to gobble up the food meant for the herdspeople who were holding on to him.

thunnu sagadaththAl pukka perunjORRai – was the quantum of food such that a couple of people could carry it and he ate that? He swallowed the food which was heaped like a mountain, brought by a huge line of carts. Just as periyAzhwAr had mentioned in his periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 3-5-1 “attukkuvi sORRup paruppadhamum thayir vAviyum neyyaLaRum” it was a combination of a mountain of cooked rice, a tank of curd and a pond of ghee which he swallowed.

munnirundhu – what a shameless act! If he had a bit of sense, would he not have put a screen between himself and the herdspeople when he swallowed all that food? Since even that was not there, he swallowed all the food in the presence of all the herdspeople.

muRRaththAn thuRRiya – he did not offer even a handful of food to anyone! What a glutton he was!

thAn thuRRiya – he ate it all up, without even getting his relatives together.

theRRanavum – he did not have any sense of shame even after doing all this! theRRanavu – clarity. Here, it means shamelessness.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 40

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அந்த வியாக்கியைகள் அன்றாகில் – அந்தோ
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நாற்பதாம் பாசுரம். திருவாய்மொழிக்கு ஆசார்யர்கள் அருளிய வ்யாக்யானங்களின் பெருமையை மேலும் கொண்டாடும்படி தன் நெஞ்சுக்கு அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

நெஞ்சே! முற்காலத்திலே பிள்ளான் தொடக்கமான ஆசார்யர்கள் திருவாய்மொழிக்கு நம்மாழ்வாரின் திருவுள்ளக் கருத்தைத் தங்கள் ஆசார்யர்களிடம் கேட்டு உணர்ந்து, பொருத்தமான வ்யாக்யானங்களை அருளாமல் போயிருந்தார்கள் ஆகில், அந்தோ! இக்காலத்திலே திருவாய்மொழியின் சீரிய அர்த்தங்களை நன்றாகத் தெரிந்து கொண்ட சொல்லக்கூடிய ஆசார்யர்கள் யார் இருப்பார்கள்! நீயே கூறு.

திருவாய்மொழி த்வய மஹா மந்த்ரத்தை விளக்கும்படி அமைந்துள்ளது. த்வயத்தில் முதல் வரியிலே சொன்ன “பிராட்டியுடன் கூடி இருக்கும் எம்பெருமான் ஸ்ரீமந் நாராயணின் திருவடிகளை உபாயமாகப் பற்றுவது”, மற்றும் இரண்டாவது வரியில் சொன்ன “இவ்வாறு பிராட்டியுடன் கூடியிருக்கும் எம்பெருமானுக்குத் தன்னலமில்லாத தொண்டு புரிவதற்கு ப்ரார்த்திப்பது” ஆகிய விஷயங்களையே திருவாய்மொழியில் விளக்கமாக அருளியுள்ளார் நம்மாழ்வார்.

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.3.6 – adichchiyOm

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the sixth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “You have many girls who are dear to you; you have no shortcoming; we cannot sustain in your separation; your leaving is undesirable for us”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

adichchiyOm thalai misai nIyaNiyAy AzhiyangaNNA! un kOlappAdham
pidiththadhu naduvunakkarivaiyarum palar adhu niRka em peNmai ARROm
vadiththadangaNNiNai nIrum nillA manamum nillA emakkadhu thannAlE
vedippu nin pasu nirai mEykkap pOkku vEm emadhuyir azhal mezhugilukkE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Azhi – like an ocean (having the quality of immeasurability)
am – attractive
kaNNA – oh krishNa!
un – your
kOlap pAdham – well decorated divine feet
adichchiyOm thalaimisai –  on the head of ours, who fully exist for you
nI aNiyAy – you should mercifully place;

(you cannot say “If I come, I will do”)
naduvu – in between (your going for the task)

(as a hurdle)
adhu pidiththu – holding your divine feet
arivaiyarum – those (girls) who think about themselves highly
unakku – for you

(since all the five lakh families are your subordinates)
palar – there are many;

(are we trying to limit your greatness?)
adhu niRka – that aside;
em peNmai – our femininity
ARROm – unable to control by pacifying it;

(Unlike you who are strong, we who are weak, due to our sorrow)
vadi – beautiful like a split in a baby-mango
thada – vast
kaNNiNai – in the pair of eyes (which you praise)
nIrum nillA – tears are not stopping;
manamum – heart
nillA – is not steady;
adhu thannAlE – hence

(for us)
nin – your
pasu nirai mEykkap pOkku – going to tend the cows
vedippu – leading to destruction;
emadhu uyir – our AthmA
azhal – in fire
mezhugil – like wax
ukku – melting
vEm – and burning.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh krishNa, you who are like an attractive ocean! You should place your well decorated divine feet on the head of ours, who fully exist for you; in between, there are many of those (girls) who think about themselves highly, remain for you, holding your divine feet; that aside, we are unable to control our femininity by pacifying it; tears are not stopping in the pair of eyes which are vast and beautiful like a split in a baby-mango; our heart is not steady; hence, your going to tend the cows, is leading to our destruction; our AthmA is melting like wax in fire and burning.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • adichchiyOm thalai misai nI aNiyAy Azhi am kaNNA – Should the winner not be caring towards the loser?
  • Azhi am kaNNA – Attractive eyes which are like ocean which rejuvenates. Since “nI aNiyAy” is followed by “Azhi am kaNNA” – it implies he is saying – Am I not saying “You should mercifully glance at me with your divine eyes, you should touch me with your hand”? Do I have any other go? Even if I go, will I think of anything other than you? She says – Yes! Let that be! [But we want you to glance us with your merciful eyes]
  • un kOlam … – There are many who hold on to your divine feet; don’t you have great festival wherever you go?
  • naduvu – In between your tasks which you are going to attend.
  • arivaiyar – Those who can engage you with their youth.
  • palar – Are they just one or two? SrIvishNu purANam 5.13.18 “shOdaSa sthrI saharsrANi” (sixteen thousand wives), periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.9.4 “padhinARAmAyiravar dhEvimAr” (sixteen thousand wives).
  • adhu niRka – That aside. Are we going to stop a herd of elephants marching on us? [We cannot stop your engagement with the girls]
  • em peNmai ARROm – We are unable to suppress our sorrow with our femininity. We cannot survive if you leave.

When asked “If femininity is your nature, should you not sustain yourself till I come?” she says,

  • vadith thadam kaNNiNai nIrum nillA – Can you not see us? Do we have any sign of an alive person in us? Sharp, vast eyes are not stopping to shed tears. What a sharpness where the glance clearly shoots the targeted person! See the torment faced by the eyes which you praised “The enjoyability is beyond the capability of the enjoyers!”
  • nIrum nillA – Even if you stop [leaving], the tears are not stopping. Even if I can stop you, I cannot stop the tears.

When asked “Why are you not stopping it forcefully?” she says “I have to stop at the source to stop the flow of the tears”. He asks “But, why can’t you force your heart?” she says,

  • manamum nillA – Can you not see how we are suffering due to losing our courage?

When asked “you should try hard to control your heart and sustain” she says,

  • namakku – You can do it; to separate and to sustain during separation, one has to be you as said in “yAmudai Ayan than manam kal” (the cowherd, krishNa’s heart has become very hard).
  • adhu thannAlE – Due this heart-broken situation.
  • vedippu nin pasu nirai mEykkap pOkku – Your going to tend the cows is destruction for us.

When asked “Why is it destruction?” she says,

  • vEm … – Our prANa (life) is melting like wax in close proximity of fire. Hence, your going to tend the cows is destruction for us.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 53 (Names 521 to 530)

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<< Part 52

521) ananthAthmA (अनन्तात्मा)

Furthermore, he also stands as the indweller of the giant serpent ‘anantha’ (अनन्तः) atop the kUrma base, which also constitutes the supporting structure for the entire creation. Thus, he is called ‘ananthAthmA’.

The jaya samhitha hails thus:

“One must submit himself unto that anantha, who is resplendent atop the tortoise base (AdhAraSakthi pItam (आधारशक्तिपीठः) with a faultless form holding the conch and the discus along with a mace, and who is surrounded by hundreds of flames”

Etymology: The one who is situated in the form of a serpent (as its indweller) atop the tortoise (that was said in the previous divine name), supporting the entire creation, is called ‘ananthAthmA’.

कमठस्यॊपरि जगदाधारस्तम्भ-भॊगिनः |
स्वरूपॆण स्थितॊ यॊsसावनन्तात्मा प्रकीर्तितः ||

522) mahOdhadhiSaya: (महॊदधिशयः)

The same bhagavAn further sleeps on the same serpent bed of anantha in the vast ocean during the great deluge. Hence, he is called ‘mahOdhadhiSaya:’ – the one who sleeps in the vast ocean on a serpent bed.

The root ‘Si’ शि (to sleep) gets the ‘ach’ (अच्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name. The same rule is also applied in other divine names such as ‘bhUSaya:’ भूशयः (634), et al.

Etymology: He who reclines on the serpent bed (anantha or Adhi-SEsha) in the vast ocean is popularly called ‘mahOdhadhiSaya:’.

तस्मिन्ननन्तपर्यङ्कॆ समुद्रॆ शयनाच्च यः |
महॊदधिशयः ख्यातॊ दशार्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

523) anthaka: (अन्तकः)

During such deluge, since he ends everything, he is called ‘anthaka:’.

SrImath rAmAyaNa hails thus: “At the end of creation, you are seen in the water as a great serpent”

The vishNu purANa glorifies thus: “The great serpent ‘SEsha’ (or ‘AdhiSEsha’) resides in the pAthALa, being worshipped by dhEvas. All of these worlds shine like small gems on his hoods, adorning him like a beautiful flower garland. Since even the gandharvas, apsaras, sidhdhas, kiNNaras, mahOragas (great serpent gods) and others who worship him cannot see the end of his divine qualities, he is called ‘anantha’ in that form.  His valor, effulgence, divine nature and forms cannot be described or comprehended even by dhEvas. At the end of creation, he spits out mighty fire burning poisonous air, from which the destructor rudhra (Siva) emanates – with bhagavAn SankarshaNa indwelling him – and eats all of these worlds”

Etymology: He who ends the worlds (destroys / consumes them and keeps them in his belly) during the great deluge is called ‘anthaka:’.

अन्तं करॊति जगतॊ यॊsसावन्तक ईरितः |

==================================
अजॊ महार्हः स्वाभाव्यॊ जितामित्रः प्रमॊदनः ।
आनन्दॊ नन्दनॊ नन्दः सत्यधर्मा त्रिविक्रमः ॥ ५६ ॥
==================================

524) aja: (अजः) (also repeated in 66, 206)

Furthermore, at the time of deluge, bhagavAn is contemplated upon as the object of the syllable ‘a’ (अ) in the praNava (OmkAra, which is made of three syllables ‘a’ अ, ‘u’ उ and ‘ma’ म). This ‘akAra’ (अकारः) or the syllable ‘a’ (अ) is the root of praNava. bhagavAn is denoted by the syllable ‘a’ in the praNava.

The thaiththirIya nArAyaNam (upanishath) says this: “He who is represented by the syllable ‘a’, which is the root of praNavam that is expounded both at the beginning as well as the end of vEdhas, is the supreme lord”

(NOTE: Readers are requested to learn from their respective Acharyas for a detailed knowledge of praNava. That would greatly serve to understand this set of five divine names (524 – 528), dwelling on ‘praNava’, and appreciate the commentaries better. At this time, only that which is said by SrI parASara bhattar in his glorious commentary is being translated, with no addendum)

Etymology: At deluge, since bhagavAn is contemplated upon as the object of syllable ‘a’ (in praNava), he is called ‘aja:’.

तत्त्वावसानॆ प्रणवप्रकृतॆः सत्त्वकारतः |
स्मर्तव्यत्त्वादजः प्रॊक्तः षडर्णॊ ह्यूर्मिनाशकः ||

525) mahArha: (महार्हः)

When the dear devotees of bhagavAn submit themselves to him by dwelling on the meaning of such praNava, bhagavAn accepts it with complete eligibility for such high submission. Thus, he is called ‘mahArha:’ – the one who is eligible for a lofty submission.

The mahOpanishath preaches the individual souls to submit themselves unto bhagavAn with praNava (meditating on its divine meanings).

Etymology: By knowing the nature of self clearly through praNava, when a devotee completely surrenders to bhagavAn, since bhagavAn befittingly accepts such high submission/worship (since he is eligible of such high submissions), he is called ‘mahArha:’.

स्वरूपादिकृतार्थॆन तारॆणात्मनिवॆदनम् |
महं पूजामर्हतीति महार्ह इति कथ्यतॆ ||

526) svAbhAvya: (स्वाभाव्यः)

Also, all the souls who have realized their subservience unto bhagavAn by meditating on the meaning of the praNava manthra treat him as their true lord and approach him. Thus, he is called ‘svAbhAvya:’. The ‘Nyath’ (ण्यत्) adjunct is used here with the root.

The vishNu thathva says thus: “If you have the desire to become a realized soul and thus uplift yourself from this samsAra, then always remember your eternal servitude and hari’s eternal mastership, both of which are natural”

The SvEthASvathara upanishath also says thus: “There is no particular reason for bhagavAn’s mastership on all entities other than his natural mastership”

To sum up, it must always be remembered that the relationship between bhagavAn and ourselves is that of ‘owner and the owned’, which is natural. Thus, he is called ‘svAbhAvya:’.

Etymology: Having realized their true nature from the praNava manthra, since all his dear devotees essentially revere him as their sole master, he is called ‘svAbhAvya:’.

मन्त्रॆणानॆनात्मभिस्तु स्वभूतैराभिमुख्यतः |
अवश्यं भावनीयत्त्वात् स्वाभाव्यः परिकीर्तितः ||

527) jithAmithra: (जितामत्रः)

bhagavAn helps his devotees who meditate upon the praNava manthra (dwelling on its meanings) to win over their internal enemies namely “ahamkAra” (considering the insentient body to be ‘self’, instead of realizing that we are the sentient soul different from the body), “mamakAra” (considering the soul to be independent, or in other words – considering the soul to be the property of its own self, rather than realizing that all souls are solely owned by bhagavAn), “kAma” (desiring for pleasures for one’s own enjoyment, instead of realizing that all souls are naturally meant for bhagavAn’s enjoyment only), etc. Thus, he is called ‘jithAmithra:’ – the one who wins over the enemies.

In this case, the enemies are indeed the internal qualities of ahamkAra, mamakAra, kAma etc, and not external to any individual.

In the bhagavath gIthA, bhagavAn begins preaching to arjuna by saying “the qualities of kAma (desire) and krOdha (anger) are the outcomes of rajOguNa”, and finally instructs thus: “Oh mighty one! Kill your enemy which is in the form of kAma, which is otherwise dangerous for you”.

Etymology: Since the obstacles to the esoteric knowledge (expounded in the praNava manthra) – such as mamathA (or mamakAra) and others – are won over by bhagavAn for his dear devotees, he is called ‘jithAmithra:’.

(NOTE: In other words, since the devotees win over such obstacles with the help of bhagavAn, he is called ‘jithAmithra:’)

एतद्रहस्यविज्ञान-विरॊधि-ममतादयः |
जितास्तॆषामनॆनॆति जितामित्रॊsष्टवर्णकः ||

528) pramOdhana: (प्रमॊदनः)

bhagavAn also bestows bliss upon his devotees who meditate upon the praNava manthra, right from the first instant. Thus, he is called ‘pramOdhana:’ – the bestower of joy.

Etymology: He who creates joy amongst those devotees who are absorbed in meditating upon the praNava manthra is called ‘pramOdhana:’.

ध्यानासक्तॆषु भक्तॆषु मॊदमानः प्रमॊदनः |

529) Anandha: (आनन्दः)

Thence, the kapilAvathAra or incarnation of bhagavAn as ‘kapila maharishi’ (कपिलमहर्षिः) is expounded.

In his incarnation as kapila, bhagavAn was verily the embodiment of supreme bliss as expounded in the Anandhavalli chapter of thaiththirIya upanishath. Thus, he is called ‘Anandha:’ – the blissful one. The ‘ach’ (अच्) adjunct is in use in this divine name.

Etymology: He who is in an inexpressible (beyond words and thoughts) eternal blissful state as expounded in the Anandhavalli chapter is called ‘Anandha:’.

आनन्दवल्ली मीमांस्यस्त्ववाङ्मनसगॊचरः |
आनन्दॊ ह्यस्य नित्यॊsस्तीत्यानन्दः परिकीर्तितः ||

530) nandhana: (नन्दनः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn also engages the liberated souls in the same bliss in the state of mOksha and derives happiness thereof. Thus, he is called ‘nandhana:’.

The vEdhas declare thus:

  • “He is indeed the one who bestows the supreme bliss”
  • “It is from bhagavAn’s supreme bliss alone that every other individual soul derives its own happiness in just a small fraction”

Etymology: He who always bestows the same bliss (as in the previous divine name) upon liberated and ever-liberated souls in the state of mOksha and keeps them ever happy is called ‘nandhana:’.

तमानन्दं यथॊक्तायां मुक्तौ प्रापय्य यः सदा |
मुक्तान्नित्यान् नन्दयति नन्दनः स तु कीर्तितः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 94 – thunnu padal

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thunnu padal thiRandhu pukkuth thayir veNNey
than vayiRAra vizhungak kozhungayaRkan                                                        138
mannu madavOrgaL paRRiyOr vAnkayiRRAl

Word by word meaning

thunnu padal thiRandhu – by opening the gate woven with densely packed palm leaves
pukku – entering
thayir veNNey – curd and butter
than vayiRu Ara thAn vizhunga – as he gobbled these in order to fill up his stomach
kozhu kayal kaN – eyes which are like carp (a fresh water fish)
mannu madavOraL – women of the hamlet
paRRi – catching him
Or vAn kayiRRAl – with a beautiful rope

vyAkyAnam

thunnu padal thiRandhu – did he enter like I did by turning the dome on top of the turret in budhdha vihAra, and damaging it, and steal? The herdspeople would have woven a densely packed palm gate and would have supported it with the trunk of a tree. Was it not by damaging this dome that he indulged in stealing!

padal thiRandhu pukku – normally, he would not even know the mechanism by which the gate with a stick across it is opened; he only knows to slip in under the gate and steal. However, since it was his house and since he had been stealing for a long time, he was able to carry out the difficult task of opening the gate!

thunnu padal thiRandhu pukku – Since it was densely woven, he entered by opening it. Had it been kept open, he would have entered by closing it!

thayir veNNey – did he steal the golden image of bhudhdha like I did? Was it not the lowly curd and butter!

than vayiRu Ara vizhunga – He did not steal for the sake of others [for the sake of emperumAn]; he did for his own sake!

kozum kayal kaN – the happiness was seen in the eyes of the herdswomen on catching the person who stole.

mannu madavOrgaL paRRi – as soon as he is caught, a thousand girls will hold on to his one hand.

Or vAn kayiRRAl – unlike him who would not be easily accessible, it was a beautiful rope which was caught as soon as one thought of it. It was not a great rope just because it was praised as “kaNNinuN siRuththAmbinAl” (kaNNinuN chiRuth thAmbu 1), “kaNNikkuRungayiRu” (periya thirumozhi 11-5-4) “kaNNiyAr kuRungayiRu” (periya thirumozhi 5-9-7); it was a strong, nice rope to tie the mischievous person.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 39

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பிள்ளான் நஞ்சீயர் பெரியவாச்சான் பிள்ளை

தெள்ளார் வடக்குத் திருவீதிப் பிள்ளை

மணவாள யோகி திருவாய்மொழியைக் காத்த

குணவாளர் என்று நெஞ்சே கூறு 

முப்பத்தொன்பதாம் பாசுரம். இனி த்வய மஹா மந்த்ரத்தின் அர்த்தமான திருவாய்மொழிக்கு வ்யாக்யானங்கள் எம்பெருமானாரின் ஆணை அடியாக அவதரித்ததாலும், எம்பெருமானார் விளக்கிய அர்த்தங்களை அடியாகக் கொண்டு இந்த வ்யாக்யானங்கள் பெருகியதாலும், அவற்றை விளக்கத் தொடங்குகிறார்.

நெஞ்சே! எம்பெருமானாரின் அபிமான புத்ரரான திருக்குருகைப் பிரான் பிள்ளான், பட்டர் சிஷ்யரான வேதாந்தி நஞ்சீயர், வ்யாக்யான சக்ரவர்த்தியான பெரியவாச்சான் பிள்ளை, நம்பிள்ளையின் ப்ரிய சிஷ்யரும் தெள்ளிய ஞானத்தைப் பெற்றவருமான வடக்குத் திருவீதிப் பிள்ளை, பெரியவாச்சான் பிள்ளையின் கருணைக்கு இலக்கான வாதி கேஸரி அழகிய மணவாள ஜீயர் ஆகியோர் நம்மாழ்வார் தன் சோதி வாய் மலர்ந்து அருளிய, நம் ஸம்ப்ரதாயத்தின் ஆணிவேரான த்வய மஹாமந்த்ரத்தின் விவரணமான திருவாய்மொழியைக் காத்து வளர்த்த குணவாளர்கள் என்று கொண்டாடு.

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 52 (Names 511 to 520)

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511) jaya: (जयः)

bhagavAn is very easily won over by those who have completely surrendered unto him. Thus, he is called ‘jaya:’ – the one who lets his devotees win over him.

The scriptures say thus:

  • “I am the one who must be commanded by the sages who have mastered ‘thapas’ ”
  • “Thence, that nArAyaNa – the all pervading self – was delegated by the dhEvas”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is easily won over by his devotees who have completely surrendered unto him, and since he is completely obedient to them, he is called ‘jaya:’.

आश्रितैः जीयतॆ यस्मात् विधॆयीक्रित्यतॆ जयः |

512) sathyasandha: (सत्यसन्धः)

The word ‘sandhA’ (सन्धा) refers to pledge. bhagavAn’s words of assurance to his devotees are ever truthful. Hence, he is called ‘sathyasandha:’ – the one whose words are true.

rAma himself says thus in SrImath rAmAyaNa: “Oh SIthA, even if I have to give up my life, or you, or even my dear brother lakshmaNa, I shall do so. But I will never go back on my words to those who have surrendered unto me – especially these brAhmanas”

Even sage vAlmIki praises rAma thus: “rAma is very honest, and has controlled the senses fully”.

Etymology: he whose assertions are true is called ‘sathyasandha:’.

सत्या प्रतिज्ञा यस्यॆति सत्यसन्धः स उच्यतॆ |

513) dhASArha: (दाशार्हः)

The word ‘dhASa:’ (दाशः) refers to donation. The devotees of bhagavAn submit themselves completely unto him. Alternately, bhagavAn submits himself unto those devotees who have truly surrendered unto him. Since bhagavAn is eligible for both of these offerings/donations, he is called ‘dhASArha:’ – the one befitting for donations.

The word ‘arha:’ (अर्हः) is used with the ‘ach’ (अच्) adjunct in this divine name as per the grammatical rules. The same rule applies to other divine names such as ‘mahArha:’ महार्हः (525) etc.

If this divine name must be attributed to the krishNAvathAra, it can be said thus: the word ‘dhaSArha’ (दशार्हः) refers to yadhu’s clan. Since bhagavAn was born in the yAdhava clan, he is called ‘dhASArha:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is eligible for offerings – in both ways as the devotees submitting themselves unto him, as well as bhagavAn submitting himself unto those devotees, he is called ‘dhASArha:’.

आत्मनॊ वाsर्पणं भक्तैः तॆभ्यॊ वा स्वात्मनॊsर्पणम् |
दाशस्तमर्हतीत्यॆषः दाशार्हः परिकीर्तितः ||

514) sAthvathAm pathi: (सात्त्वतां पतिः)

The word ‘sath’ (सत्) refers to the supreme godhead who is eternal. he is himself called ‘sathvam’, which is indicated by the usage of ‘mathup’ (मतुप्) adjunct, which tells that the quality of saththva (as explained in divine name 479) is abundant in bhagavAn. The one who knows and realizes such ‘sathvam’ is called ‘sAthvika’. The noble act of such sAthvikas is termed as ‘sAthvatham’. Thus, ‘sAthvathas are the dear devotees of the lord, also called ‘bhAgavathas’. The lord of such sAththvathas is called ‘sAthvathAm pathi:’.

bhagavAn himself declares thus in another place: “Oh king among the noble ones, know that I created those noble souls who discharge their prescribed duties with utmost renunciation and are thus established in the highest knowledge with which I am seen”

This declaration of bhagavAn clearly reinforces the aforesaid derivation of the divine name.

Alternately, the word ‘sAthvatha’ refers to the yAdhavas. Thus, again, as explained in the previous divine name, since bhagavAn incarnated in the yAdhava clan and ruled them later, he is called ‘sAthvathAm pathi:’.

Etymology: The one who is the master of all sAthvikas or noble souls who are devoted to bhagavAn, otherwise called ‘bhAgavathas’, is called ‘sAthvathAm pathi:’. He is indeed the protector of all such souls.

सात्त्वतां भगवद्भक्तजनानां पतिरीश्वरः |
सात्त्वतांपतिरित्युक्तॊ नवार्णः साधुरक्षकः ||

=================================
जीवॊ विनयिता साक्षी मुकुन्दॊsमितविक्रमः ।
अम्बॊनिधिरनन्तात्मा महॊदधिशयॊsन्तकः ॥ ५५ ॥
================================

515) jIva: (जीवः)

bhagavAn delivers such bhAgavathas (as explained in the previous divine name) from the destruction of nature of self by bestowing upon them his eternal servitude. Thus, he supports them, which is why he is called ‘jIva:’.

It is said thus in the scriptures in this regard: “Oh dhEvi, bhagavAn is verily the embodiment of bliss, and is worshipped by people of all three worlds. He doesn’t stand the sight of slightest discomfort for his dear devotees”

Etymology: He who delivers the bhAgavathas from loss of nature of self by bestowing upon them his eternal servitude and thus restores them is called ‘jIva:’. He cannot stand the sight of suffering for his devotees.

तानात्मनाशात् व्यावर्त्य सत्त्वान् यश्च स्वसॆवया |
उज्जीवयति जीवः स भक्तक्लॆशासहॊ मनुः ||

516) vinayithA (विनयिता)

Not just stopping at bestowing servitude upon his devotees, bhagavAn goes further and looks after (protects and nurtures) them like royal princes. Thus, he is called ‘vinayithA’.

The root ‘naya’ (नय) gets the meaning of movement as well as protection.

Etymology: With the root ‘nayathi’ meaning ‘protection’ in this context, since bhagavAn always protects and looks after his dear devotees like royal princes, he is called ‘vinayithA’.

भक्तान् नित्य राजपुत्रलालन-न्यायतः सुखम् |
रक्षत्यतॊ विनयिता नयतॆः रक्षणार्थतः ||

517) sAkSI (साक्षी) (also repeated in 15)

For the sake of protecting his devotees, since bhagavAn acts as a direct witness to all their enjoyments, he is called ‘sAkSI’.

Etymology: The one who directly witnesses the actions of his devotees in order to protect them (as explained in the previous divine name) is called ‘sAkSI’.

साक्षात्करॊति यः साक्षी तद्वृत्तं रक्षणाय सः |

518) mukundha: (मुकुन्दः)

Having been requested by such dear devotees with their faultless devotion, bhagavAn goes out and grants the highest land of mOksha (SrIvaikuNtam) to them. Thus, he is called ‘mukundha:’ – the bestower of mOksha.

Etymology: With the devotees requesting him, he who bestows the highest land of mOksham to such devotees is called ‘mukundha:’.

तैः प्रार्थितः स्वयं मुक्तिं मुकुन्दः स्यात् ददाति यः |

519) amithavikrama: (अमितविक्रमः) (also repeated in 647)

Furthermore, bhagavAn is himself the bearer of all the power required for supporting the contemplation, worship and all other practices of his dear devotees in the form of various entities (thathvas).

SrI paushkara samhitha says thus: “He is kAla (time). He is indeed the fire within all creatures. He is the indweller of all of them. He resides in all creatures with an imperceptible form. He is thus called ‘AdhAraSakthi’ – the supporting power. He takes on the forms of his choice and acts as per his whims”.

Etymology: He who possesses immense power with which he (effortlessly) bears the mass of entities that are contemplated upon by such devotees is called ‘amithavikrama:’.

तॆषां ध्यानानुसन्धॆय-तत्त्वसन्दॊहधारिणीम् |
तां शक्तिं धृतवान् यॊsसौ स्मृतॊ ह्यमितविक्रमः ||

520) ambOnidhi: (अम्बॊनिधिः)

Further, bhagavAn resides in the waters in the pAthALa as the supporting base for the entire creation (consisting of all fourteen worlds above) in the form of the great tortoise (Readers please note that this form of tortoise is different from the popularly known ‘kUrma avathAram’). Thus, he is called ‘ambOnidhi:’. He is called ‘AdhAraSakthi’ in this form, since he is the supporter of the entire creation in this form.

The manthra varnas hail this form of bhagavAn thus: “…unto that bhagavAn who possesses infinite power, and who bears the entire creation in the form of a tortoise”

Etymology: He who stands in the waters in the pAthALa in the form of a tortoise, supporting the entire creation, is called ‘ambOnidhi:’.

आधारशक्तिकमठः स्वरूपॆणार्णवाम्भसि |

निधीयतॆ स्वयं यॆन स ह्यम्बॊनिधिरुच्यतॆ ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 38

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை

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எம்பெருமானார் தரிசனம் என்றே இதற்கு

நம்பெருமாள் பேரிட்டு நாட்டி வைத்தார் அம்புவியோர்

இந்தத் தரிசனத்தை எம்பெருமானார் வளர்த்த

அந்தச் செயல் அறிகைக்கா 

முப்பத்தெட்டாம் பாசுரம். எம்பெருமானார் ப்ரபத்தி மார்க்கத்தை நன்றாக நடத்தியும், ஸ்ரீ பாஷ்யம் முதலான க்ரந்தங்கள் மூலமாக இந்த மார்க்கத்தை ரக்ஷித்தும், இவற்றின் மூலம் நம் ஸம்ப்ரதாயத்தை நன்றாக வளர்த்தருளியதும் எல்லோரும் அறிந்து கொள்ளும்படி நம்பெருமாள் இவருக்குச் செய்த பெரிய கௌரவத்தை அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

நம்முடைய ஸ்ரீவைஷ்ணவ ஸம்ப்ரதாயத்துக்கு “எம்பெருமானார் தரிசனம்” என்று நம்பெருமாள் நன்றாக ஸ்தாபித்து வைத்தார். இது எதற்காக என்றால், எம்பெருமானார் ஸ்ரீபாஷ்யம் முதலான க்ரந்தங்களை அருளிச்செய்வதன் மூலமும், பல ஆசார்யர்களைக் கொண்டு நம் ஸம்ப்ரதாய அர்த்தங்களை எல்லோரும் அறிந்து கொள்ளும்படிச் செய்தும், திவ்யதேசங்களில் சீர்திருத்தம் செய்தும் இந்த ப்ரபத்தி மார்க்கத்தை நன்றாக எடுத்துரைத்து வளர்த்தார். இப்படி இவர் செய்த பேருபகாரங்களை உலகத்தில் உள்ளோர் எல்லோரும் அறியும்படி நம்பெருமாளே இதை ஸ்தாபித்தார். இவரின் பெரும் கருணையைக் கண்ட திருக்கோஷ்டியூர் நம்பி இவருக்குத் எம்பெருமானார் என்று திருநாமம் சார்த்தி அருளியதை மனதில் கொண்டு நம்பெருமாள் தாமே நம்பி மூலமாக இந்தப் பெருமையை இவருக்கு ஏற்படுத்தினார் என்றும் சொல்லலாம்.

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.3.5 – paNi mozhi

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fifth pAsuram, emperumAn mercifully asks parAnguSa nAyaki “Why are you tormenting like this when I am here in front of you” and she says “Since you have to tend the cows, you will be leaving; after you leave, I am being tormented by entities which torment like the sandhyA (evening time); hence you should do acts like embracing me etc and enliven me”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

paNi mozhi ninaidhoRum Avi vEmAl pagal nirai mEykkiya pOya kaNNA!
piNiyavizh malligai vAdai thUvap peru madha mAlaiyum vandhanRAlO
maNi migu mArvinin mullaip pOdhu en vana mulai kamazhviththun vAy amudham thandhu
aNi migu thAmaraik kaiyai andhO adichchiyOm thalai misai nI aNiyAy!

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

paNi mozhi – the words you say to pacify me

(due to being the reason for separation)
ninaidhoRum – every time I think about
Avi – heart
vEm – burning;
pagal – the daytime fully
nirai mEykkiya – to tend the cows
pOya – gone
kaNNA – krishNa!
piNi – bound by the string
avizh – expanding
malligai – jasmine (which has honey)
vAdai – northerly wind
thUva – as it blows
peru – huge
madham – pride

(like a wild elephant)
mAlaiyum – evening
vandhanRu – has arrived;

(not to be caught by it)
maNi – kausthuba gem
migum – very shining
mArvinil – in the divine chest
mullaip pOdhu – jasmine flower
en vana mulai – on my beautiful bosom
kamazhviththu – embracing me to spread the fragrance
un vAy amudham thandhu – giving me your ultimately sweet nectar from your mouth
aNi migu – attractive and well decorated
thAmarai – like a lotus flower
kaiyai – hand
adichchiyOm thalaimisai – on the head of ours, servitors
nI – you
aNiyAy – indicates the desire for wild union saying “you should place your hand as decoration”.
andhO! – It is tragic that I have to explain my suffering to you!

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Every time that I think about the words you say to pacify me, my heart is burning. Oh krishNa who has gone to tend the cows during the daytime fully! As the northerly wind blows the jasmine flowers bound by the string, expanding their fragrance, the hugely prideful evening has arrived; you should embrace my beautiful bosom to spread the fragrance of the jasmine flower which is in your chest having very shining kausthuba gem; you should give me your ultimately sweet nectar from your mouth; you should place your hand which is like an attractive and well decorated lotus flower, on the head of ours, servitors; indicates the desire for wild union. It is tragic that I have to explain my suffering to you!

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • paNi mozhi ninaidhoRum Avi vEmAl – My words are unlike yours where you think about separation but say “I won’t leave you”; since your words are as in thiruvAimozhi 10.3.4kaLvap paNi mozhi“, they are false, and since my words express my experience, they are truthful.

He asks “Did I go?” She says,

  • pagal … – You went to tend the cows all through the daytime.
  • kaNNA – She is calling him “kaNNA” and directly telling him! [Commentator becomes amazed at AzhwAr’s mood]
  • mEykkiya – To tend.
  • piNi … – As those harmful entities starting with as said in thiruvAimozhi 9.9.1malligai kamazh thenRal” (southerly breeze fragrant with jasmine flavour) etc started tormenting me, hence it is certain that you have left. The northerly wind is spreading the fragrance of the blossoming jasmine. Just as rAvaNa assumed the form of a sanyAsi and appeared, the northerly wind is harming me in the form of cool breeze.
  • thUva – It is blowing on me by staying apart so that I don’t feel warm; SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 1.17 “padhma kEsara samsrushta:” (with the buds of lotus flowers) – just as a mad elephant would arrive with band music in front of it, the evening arrives following the northerly wind. Since the evening respects her, it is coming along with companions to torment her.
  • vandhanRAlO – It has arrived; it touched my body and left. Just as you faced the arrows shot by bhagadhaththa aimed at arjuna by covering him and accepting them in your chest, you come in front of me and face this. We are not fearing for very fierce evening to come, it has already arrived.

When asked “What shall we do?” She says,

  • maNi migu mArvinil – The chest which will add shine to SrI kausthuba jewel; alternative explanation – the whole chest will have the lustre of SrI kausthuba jewel. It is of such nature that even during embrace, it need not be removed as said in SaraNAgathi gadhyam 5th chUrNikainirathiSaya sukha sparSa:” (wondrously soft on emperumAn’s body); just as her femininity is identified by her bosom, his masculinity is identified by SrI kausthubam. This is an identity of purushOththama (supreme lord). Adding fragrance to my beautiful bosom with the jasmine garland on that chest. My bosom became an enjoyable tool for him on his chest just like SrI kausthuba and garland. She is explaining this wild union to have the fragrance of the jasmine garland on his shoulders to be transferred to her bosom. These bosoms are waiting to be decorated by the garland just as those who would take bath and wait for flowers to decorate their hair. Instead of letting these bosoms remain celibate, make these fragrant with the fragrance of the garland; you should transfer the fragrance of the garland here and leave the residue on your chest. It is not possible to have the fragrance of the garland on my bosoms without union/embrace; as said in “kim mukham vanamAlA sankramasya” (how to attain the vanamAlA of emperumAn).
  • vAy amudham thandhu – As the union reaches ultimate stage, to sustain themselves there will be some romantic speech – that is highlighted here; alternatively, it is highlighting his necatrean saliva. Mainly, it is explained as speech.
  • aNi … – My tongue has become dry thinking about your leaving. As a remedy, can you please place your hand on my head? This is their mundhirigai fruit (a type of fruit) which will remove dryness in mouth.
  • aNi migu thAmaraik kai – Hand which is well decorated with ornaments and which is an ornament in itself negating the need for any other ornament as said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 3.15 “sarvabhUshaNa bhUshArhA:” (the shoulders which bring about beauty for the ornaments which are worn by him). He will collect the ornaments showing his great attachment towards them saying “When I go to tend the cows, to sustain myself, give me your ornament [to one gOpikA], give me your ornament [to another gOpikA and so on]” and would wear them; she may also be talking about how he has decorated himself to go to tend the cows. As he gets decorated and gets ready to leave, she became broken.
  • thAmaraik kaiyai – The hand which needs no ornament to make it look more beautiful.
  • andhO – I have to request this from you as if a thirsty person needs to be requested to drink cold water!
  • adichchiyOm – She is highlighting that he has won over her with his beauty.
  • thalai misai nI aNiyAy – Just as his hand is for the ornament, her head is for his hand. They are trying to get their goal accomplished by holding his hand and falling at his feet as said in thiruvAimozhi 9.2.2pAdha pangayamE thalaikkaNiyAy” (your lotus feet are the decoration for my head) and “adichchiyOm thalai misai nI aNiyAy“. They [AzhwArs/AchAryas] remain as said in sthOthra rathnam 31 “… madhIya mUrdhAnam alankarishyathi” (when will my head be decorated with your divine feet?) He said “Who knows these conditions? If you desire so, you can take my hand and place it on your head yourself!” Will I have to put in my own effort to accomplish my goal, which is like letting kAla (death personified) to put a ring on my finger? Am I not of the nature that you will yourself desirously grant me that? They [AzhwArs/AchAryas] always accept any benefit only by bhagavAn’s will and effort.
  • aNiyAy – Just because of overwhelming grief, we won’t do improper acts! Are we supposed to perform your duty?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 93 – than nilaimai ellAm

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than nilaimai ellAm aRivippan thAn munanAL
minnidai Aychchiyar tham sErikkaLavinkaN                                                         137

Word by word meaning

than nilaimai ellAm aRivippan – I will expose all his qualities
munam nAL – in earlier time (during krishNAvathAram)
minnidai Aychchiyar tham sEri – in the hamlet of cow-herd girls whose slender waists were like lightning
kaLavin kaN – in a cunning way

 vyAkyAnam

than nilaimai ellAm aRivippan – I will expose everything – how he showed his divine form, then separated from me, created distress in me, made me engage with madal, and even after that, not showing up for me. Since he has decided that I alone am not required for him, I will make him not required for this world, by exposing his bad qualities.

Now, thirumangai AzhwAr (as parakAla nAyaki) intends to prove that all the divine activities of emperumAn which made AzhwArs like him to become bewildered saying “eththiRam” (how amazing!) as lowly activities.

thAn munanAl . . .  peRRimaiyum – I will make it known to the whole world as to how he had stolen butter from the hamlets of cow-herd girls and how he was caught and tied to the mortar.

thAn – how shameful that he has indulged in this activity [of stealing butter] and is proud that “I have done it”

muna nAL – did not this activity come about at a very young age? Is he remaining calm since he thinks that the worldly people would have forgotten it?

minnidai – was it not to see how the lightning-like waists of the cow-herd girls trembled when they came chasing him that he indulged in stealing butter!

minnidai Aychchiyar tham – It is true that he indulged in stealing. But was it carried out with valorous men like me? Was it not from weak women that he stole?

Aychchiyar tham sErikkaLavin kaN – Did he steal like I did, crossing nine well guarded streets in nAgappattaNam? [thirumangai AzhwAr, in order to feed thousand brAhmaNas every day, had to indulge in stealing valuable materials; one such activity was in stealing a golden statue of budhdha from a budhdha vihAra in nAgappattaNam] Was it not from the hamlets of cow-herd boys and cow-herd girls which had only huts, without any protection?

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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