Monthly Archives: December 2016

rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 61

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

amudhanAr lauded emperumAnAr’s qualities, saying ‘guNam thigazh koNdal’; when asked “what is the nature the glory of his qualities?” amudhanAr divines about the nature of those qualities.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

“You praised his qualities saying ‘guNam thigazh koNdal’, what is the nature of the glory of his qualities?’ – to those who asked this, amudhanAr replies – I am a complete sinner, and am drowned in the sea of material life, and emperumAnAr without my knowing to ask for anything, by his high grace only came himself to me and corrected me such that I became his servant – after that  –  emperumAnAr towards whom parAnkusa, parakAla, nAtha, yAmunAr, and others are having special love, and is having the great thapas of SaraNAgathi after having given gadhya thrayam at the divine feet of periya perumAL for the upliftment of all the sentient, such emperumAnAr’s divine qualities cover all eight directions of the earth, and are completely bright and are seen everywhere in there.

kozhundhu vittOdip padarum venkOL vinaiyAl nirayaththu
azhundhiyittEnai vandhu AtkoNda pinnum – arumunivar
thozhum thavaththOn em irAmAnusan  than/thol  pugazh sudar mikku
ezhundhadhu aththAl nal athisayam kaNdadhu iru nilamE                 61

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Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

aru – As said by ‘sa mahAthmA sudhurlabha:’  they are very rare for emperumAn too to get;
munivar – as said in ‘vAsudhEvas sarvam’,  they think all the time “He is everything for us”
thozhum – emperumAnAr is such that the aforementioned people would come and worship at his divine feet
thavaththOn – emperumAnAr having the thapas that is SaraNAgathi
em – our svAmi
irAmAnusan thanemperumAnAr’s
pugazh – auspicious qualities
kozhundhu vittu – flourishes more and more
Odi – at fast rate
padarum – and is present in the full wide area;
Now, due to
vem – cruel/inauspicious
kOL – and strong (prabalam)
vinaiyAl – karmas,
azhundhiyittEnai – I have drowned
nirayaththu – in the samsAram that is full of sorrows
which is as said in ‘maRRa narakam’, being the opposite of the greatly enjoyed place (SrIvaikuNtam);
vandhu – coming to the place where I was in such state
AL koNda pinnum – (he) got me to be subservient to him; after that
sudar mikku – without ending/diminishing, with the unbounded brightness due to accepting me,
ezhundhadhu – that brightness became more prominent, and is looking for whether there are more like this whom can be accepted;
aththAl – because of that,
irunilam – the big earth
nal athisayam kaNdadhu – saw the great wonder.

Or, for rAmAnusan than pugazh sudar mikku ezhundhadhu – even after taking me who is a sinner, as servant, his glory is not diminishing and not only that, it is flourishing and appeared with unsurpassed  brightness.  In that case, ezhundhu – appeared.

When recited as irAmAnusan thol pugazh –  thol -> thonmai -> from ancient times -> since it has been present from ancient times, the auspicious qualities, they are being according to true nature, and ancient/staying – such qualities are flourishing this way;

kozhundhu vittu -> the karmas are present and flourishing .

vemmai – terrible/cruel;  kOL – midukku –  strength.

 

vyAkyAnam

aru munivar thozhum thavaththOn – aru –  sa mahAthmA su dhurlabha:’ – said gIthAchAryan because he thought “Alas! nammAzhvAr incarnated only after the completion of my incarnation, and so could not get the dharSan of him during my time!”, periyavAchchAn piLLai divines the meaning for this phrase from SrI bhagavath gIthA, so ‘aru’  refers to nammAzhvAr who was hard for Him to get/see.

munivar – As ‘vAsudhEvas sarvam’, and, ‘uNNum sORu, parugu neer, thinnum veRRilaiyum ellAm kaNNan emperumAn [thiruvAimozhi], these are the meanings he was thinking in meditation for sixteen years, which he revealed as dhivya prabandham.  periyavAchchAn piLLai divined this meaning as well.  In this way the completely rare to get nammAzhvAr, and those who got his grace, that is, nAthamunigaL and AlavandhAr, were worshiping the ‘bhavishyadhAchArya vigraham, and were meditating upon his divine incarnation, and were living taking a lot of efforts,  so amudhanAr is calling them together as munivar.

thozhum – As said in ‘pUrvE mUrdhnAnvayam upagathAkEsikA mukthimApthA:’, they are of the faith that he (emperumAnAr) only is the udhdhArakar (who can lift us up from this material world); emperumAnAr is such;

thavaththOn  – he follows the path of SaraNAgathi, who is as praised in ‘thasmAnyAsamEshAm thapasAmathirikthamAhu:’;

jeeyar also divined this meaning about emperumAnAr in ‘kAlathrayEpi karaNAthrya nirmithAthi pApakriyasya SaraNam bhagavath kshamaiva – sAchathvayaiva kamalA ramaNErthithAya kshEmassa Evahi yathIndhra bhavchchrithAnAm’ [yathirAja vimSathi].

em irAmAnusa than – our lord that is emperumAnAr – his –

pugazh – auspicious qualities;

when recited as ‘irAmAnusan thol pugazh’ – it is about the eternal, natural, auspicious qualities.

such auspicious qualities;

perumal_koil_rappaththu_uthsavam_2015_nammazhvar_madhurakavi_azhvar_nathamunigal_DSC_0691aru munivar (nammAzhwAr, madhurakavi AzhwAr and nAthumunigaL – kAnchIpuram)

kozhundhu vittOdip padarum venkOL vinaiyAl nirayaththu azhundhiyittEnai – That which flourishes more and more, and quickly, spanning the world, and as said in ‘dhurAchAra:’, is in the form of doing what should not be done, and not doing what should be done, and so is the target of punishment by emperumAn as said in ‘kshipAmi’, and ‘nakshamAmi’,  and

as said in ‘yath brahma kalpa niyuthAnubhavEbhyA nASyam’, those bad deeds could not be rectified by experiencing its effects or by doing amends – due to such strong bad karma, I am drowned in this material world and where I cannot find the shore,  such world that is of endless sorrows and which is said as ‘maRRa narakam’, that is the opposite of the great happiness of the higher world (SrIvaikuNtam);   vemmai – terrible/cruel;  kOL – midukku –  strength.

vandhAtkoNda pinnumat the time when I did not know to ask that I should be saved, emperumAnAr due to his voluntary grace, from SrIvaikuNtam, came down searching for me to the place I was in, and without discarding me seeing my lack of knowledge, got me as his servant; after that – only after getting (the lowly) me –

sudar mikkezhundhadhu – Not getting satiated with just that, due to accepting me and saving me, it got unbounded glory and grew further; it grew looking for similar people who could be accepted; like how after surrendering to emperumAnAr, amudhanAr’s state changed, after the glory of emperumAnAr came and accepted amudhanAr, they flourished further and further;

aththAl nal athisayam kaNdadhu iru nilamE – Due to the uprising of his auspicious qualities after accepting me who am a complete sinner, as said in ‘vasundharA puNyavathee’, the earth felt relieved that its load (of bad) would reduce.

iru nilam – in the world that is so wide;  irumai – greatness; Or, iru nilam – in this earth that is very wide;

aththAl nal athisayam kaNdadhu – This can also be explained as – only after gracing the sinners like me did emperumAnAr’s auspicious qualities grew with boundless glory, so, due to that uprising, its wonder was seen by everyone in the world;

It can be read together as – ‘sudar mikku ezhundhadhu – kozhundhu vittu Odip padarum – and the meaning can be said as – those uprising auspicious qualities after accepting me, got the disease/wanting of wishing to save more and more people like me if they are present in this world, and so grew more and more and spanned and covered the whole world in all directions.

This is the nature of the glory of auspicious qualities of emperumAnAr – is the thought here.

 

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

kozhundhu vittu … venkOL vinaiyAl – If one tries to do one sin, then it would flourish more and more and quickly keep spreading. Such sins are strong; they were not removable even till now by emperumAn;

nirayaththu azhundhiyittEnai vandhAtkoNda pinnum – nirayam -> hell; here, it is this samsAram (material world/life).

The sorrows given by servants of yama in hell is limited – once the sins are exhausted that sorrow would stop. But living in this material world due to our eternal karmas can be never ending sorrows. amudhanAr says he has drowned in such hell; even emperumAn is not able to lend his long arm to pull him out of it, it seems. Even in that state emperumAnAr came and pulled him out and accepted him.

It is to be relished to see the beautiful way in which amudhanAr has portrayed the divine auspicious qualities of emperumAnAr – Since he came to the place of drowning, his vAthsalaym is seen; since he came without request, his svAmithvam is seen; by accepting him as servant, his Sauseelyam, and by his coming directly himself, his saulabhyam are seen;  since he came knowing me who was drowned, his knowledge (gyAnam), and since he pulled me and saved me and kept as his servant, his completeness (pUrthi) of qualities are seen; saying ‘em irAmAnusan’, shows the connection/goal – and thus gives us enjoyment to see these qualities shown.

aru munivar thozhum thavaththOn em irAmAnusan – noble ones come and surrender to emperumAnAr; So saving me was not because he did not have anyone, it is only due to his own goodness;

There is similarity in how AzhvAr said that thiruvEkatamudaiyAn saved him and is standing there looking for more such people to save, in pAsuram – ‘sOdhiyAgi ella ulagum thozhum.. [thiruvAimozhi – 3.3.5]’.

Also a similarity in where he says ‘neesanEn niRaivu onRum ilEn, en kaN pAsam vaiththa param sudar sOdhikkE [thiruvAimozhi – 3.3.4]’.

– – – – –

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thiruvAimozhi – 4.2.10 – en seygEn

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Second decad

Previous pAsuram

krishna-gopi

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In tenth pAsuram – When asked “Isn’t your daughter under your control? Why don’t you give her good advice?”, mother responds to them “She does not listen to me and is very distressed due to desiring for him”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, Mother says “Being disobedient towards me and being captivated by the beauty of ornaments worn by krishNa, my daughter has become weak, desiring for the thiruththuzhAy (thuLasi) from the divine feet of krishNa to decorate her breast”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

en seygEn ennudaip pEdhai en kOmaLam
en sollum en vasamum allaL nangaimIr
min sey pUN mArbinan kaNNan kazhal thuzhAy
pon sey pUN men mulaikkenRu meliyumE

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

nangaimIr – Oh girls, who are complete in all aspects!
ennudai – my
pEdhai – being ignorant (having not attained the stage to listen to my advice) [pEdhai refers to a girl in the age group of 5 to 7]
en kOmaLam – having a tender-heart (which does not allow her to listen to my advice)
en sollum – whatever I say
en vasamum – whatever I think
allaL – she is not obeying
en seygEn – what shall I do (for this)?

(her state is explained now)
min sey – having radiance
pUN – decorated with ornaments such as kausthubha gem etc
mArbinan – having chest
kaNNan – krishNa
kazhal – divine feet
thuzhAy – thiruththuzhAy (thuLasi)
pon – pale complexion (due to separation)
sey – made
pUN – decorated with ornaments
mel – withered (due to agony in separation)
mulaikku – for breast (to be a decoration)
enRu – desiring so
meliyum – has become weak (since her desire is not fulfilled)

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh girls, who are complete in all aspects! my ignorant tender-hearted daughter is not obeying whatever I say and whatever I think. What shall I do for this? She is desiring for the thuLasi from the divine feet of krishNa who is having a chest which is decorated with radiant ornaments such as kausthubha gem etc. She desires such thuLasi to decorate her withered breast (as decoration) which has pale complexion (which occurs due to separation from the beloved one); since her desire is not fulfilled, she has become weak.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

  • pon sey men mulai – The breast decorated with golden ornaments in anticipation of uniting with emperumAn.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • en seygEn – Looking at her state, it appears that I have lost her; what shall I do?
  • ennudaip pEdhai – She is too young to listen to my good advice.
  • en kOmaLam – Nor can I give her up saying “she is not listening to my advice”; she is very tender-hearted.
  • en sollum allaL en vasamum allaL – Neither she listens to my advice; nor is she prepared to listen to my advice.
  • nangaimIr – I don’t need to explain this to you [you are already completely knowledgeable to know all of these].
  • min sey … – The thuLasi from the divine feet of krishNa who has radiant SrI kausthubha gem in his chest. To be decorated with such thuLasi on her breast which is decorated with golden ornaments and which cannot bear the separation [from such emperumAn]; alternatively, it is explained as breast which has pale complexion [due to separation from emperumAn]; periya thirumozhi 2.7.6 “men mulai pon payandhirundha” (tender breasts acquiring pale complexion due to separation). Another explanation – the breast which has such pale complexion as an ornament as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 29.1 “anindhithAm” (sIthAp pirAtti withered form in separation from SrI rAma, is explained by SrI vAlmIki bhagavAn as “irreproachable” (faultless)).
  • min sey pUN mArbinan – pon sey pUN men mulai – As SrIman nArAyaNan‘s [supreme] masculinity is identified by his kausthubha gem, parAnkuSa nAyaki‘s femininity is identified by her pale compelxion [in separation]; it is an ideal quality to become pale in separation from her beloved person. No one’s thanam (sthana – breast) [generally breast indicates bhakthi] is comparable to parAnkusa nAyaki’s; also explained as no one’s dhanam [wealth of kainkaryam] is comparable to parAnkusa nAyaki’s.
  • men mulai – Due to the separation from her beloved, she is decorating her breast with golden ornaments [to be seen by him].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thirumAlai – 43 – amaravOr angam ARum

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garudan-chandiligarudAzhwAr’s wings got burnt thinking about a devotee’s secluded residence

avathArikai (introduction)

In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr had spoken about those born in high births and with consequent good behaviour. If added to these greatness, they also have high level of knowledge and if they look at those who do not have any greatness due to their birth and behaviour but have good knowledge [in mEmporuL pAsuram], and if the former set of people, without recognising that these people have the grace of emperumAn, think lowly of the latter set of people only on account of their birth and behaviour, these high ranking people will become chaNdALas (people of very low birth) at that very moment.

Let us look at the pAsuram and its meanings.

அமரவோர் அங்கம் ஆரும் வேதம் ஓர் நான்கும் ஓதித்
தமர்களில் தலைவராய சாதி அந்தணர்களேலும்
நுமர்களைப் பழிப்பராகில் நொடிப்பதோர் அளவில் ஆங்கே
அவர்கள் தாம் புலையர் போலும் அரங்கமா நகருளானே.

amaravOr angam ARum vEdham Or nAngum Odhith
thamargaLil thalaivarAya sAdhi anthaNargaLElum
numargaLaip pazhipparAgil nodippadhOr aLavil AngE
avargaL thAm pulaiyar pOlum aranga mAnagaruLAnE

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Word-by-word Meaning

aranga mAnagar uLAnE – Oh, one who resides inside the temple at SrIrangam
Or angam ARum – the unique six parts of vEdham
Or vEdham nAngum – the incomparable four vEdhas
amara –  firmly settled in their hearts
Odhi – reciting them
thamargaLil – among your followers
thalaivar Aya – being the leader
sAdhi anthaNargaLElum – even if they belong to the class of brAhmaNa
numargaLai – your followers
pazhippar Agil – (looking at their birth and behaviour) if they vilify them
nodippadhOr aLavil – in that minute itself
avargaL thAm – those brAhmaNas only
AngE – at that same place
pulaiyar pOlum –  will become chaNdALas [people of low births; a wretch]

vyAkhyAnam (commentary)

amara Or angam Arum – The six parts of vEdha are: (1) SIkshA (articulation or pronunciation of words), (2) vyAkaraNa (grammar), (3) chandhas (poetic metrics), (4) niruktham (etymology), (5) jyOthisham (astrology) and (6) kalpam (rituals). These are unique to vEdhas. amara – learning the texts and the meanings of these 6 parts and retaining them. Or angam – the uniqueness to these parts [of vEdhas] is that if one has knowledge on any of these 6 parts without any deficiency, he is considered by worldly people as having known everything and they celebrate it. It is pertinent to remember that in SrIrangarAja sthavam 2.18, bhattar says “SIkshAyAm varNa SikshA padha samagadhigamO vyAkriyA nirvachObhyam chandhaS chandhaSchithau syAth gamayathi samayam jyauthisham ranganAtha! I kalpE’nushtAnamuktham hyuchithagamithayOr nyAya mImAmsayO: syAth arthavyakthi: purANasmruthishu thadhanugAsthvAm vichinvanthi vEdhA: II” (Oh SrI ranganAtha! In the part of vEdhas called SIksha, the method of pronouncing letters (is described); in the parts vyAkaraNam and niruktham, knowledge about words (is created); in the SAsthra called chandhas, chandhas (such as gAyathri etc) have been told; jyOthisha SAsthram indicates the time for carrying out karmAnushtAnam (carrying out deeds ordained in vEdhas); in kalpa sUthrams, the procedure for carrying out the karmas is mentioned. In the nyAyamImAmsa SAsthram and purANamsruthis which are consistent with the philosophy of vEdhas, clarity of the subject will be obtained; vEdhas, with siksha and other parts mentioned above, are searching for you), thus explaining the 6 parts of vEdhas.

vEdhamOr nAngum – vEdhas are incomparable because unlike other texts compiled by a man [any person], they do not have faults such as iruL (delusion or clouded state of mind), thuyakku (confusion), mayakku (ignorance) and maRappu (forgetfulness). Alternatively, we can consider that they indicate the greatness of sections of vEdhas such as manthram (hymns), vidhi (rules) and arthavAdham (eulogy).

Odhi – while learning vEdhas, the AchAryan (teacher) would first recite the four vEdhas and the six parts, and the Sishya (disciple) will then recite the same.  Odhi is learning vEdhas this way. Since they have learnt this way, we can surmise that they know emperumAn well, indeed.

thamargaLil thalaivarAya – since they know emperumAn well in this way, consistent with that knowledge, they will stand at the forefront in any gOshti (assembly) of his followers.

sAdhi anthaNargaL – while learning vEdhas thoroughly and being in the forefront of their class and such other great qualities are common with kshathriya (warrior) and vaiSya (trader) classes too, apart from these great qualities, they are also of high birth (brAhmaNa). Thus, in their birth, behaviour and knowledge, they are great.

Elum – the greatness described thus far cannot be found in one person, together. AzhwAr brings in this doubt to show that even if these great qualities happen to be with one person, if that person abuses a SrIvaishNava, these qualities will become useless. In reality, these qualities become reasons for a person with vanity to commit bhAgavathApachAram (showing irreverence to emperumAn’s follower). Even if the persons are gyAnis (knowledgeable) but do not have this greatness, others would carry out inappropriate deeds like stepping on their heads etc. Another interpretation for this is that if they do not have the quality of being vain, they can step even on yama’s head.

numargaLai – those having knowledge of mEmporuL pAsuram, as a result of which they become leaders of your [emperumAn’s] followers. Here the word “followers” refers to nithyasUris (permanent dwellers of paramapadham). nammAzhwAr, in his thiruviruththam 79, says “viNNuLArilum sIriyarE” (they are greater than nithyasUris) and in periyathiruvandhAdhi 79, says “uNNAttuth thEsanRE” (the radiance of those who live in samsAram is greater than that of those (nithyasUris) who live in paramapadham).  numargaLai – those who you deem as your followers and who affirm that you are their means and goal. Those who know “it is he [emperumAn] who is happy at attaining us. Hence it is he who gets the benefit out of [our] liberation. Even the happiness that we get is not appropriate for us. It is he who is controlling his possession [us]. We have no engagement with our protection. Only his causeless mercy is our means”.

pazhipparAgil – instead of thinking of them as those who are having the grace of emperumAn, forgetting this due to one’s ego, thinking only of their low birth and consequently thinking of them to be below one’s status, speaking abusive words about them and harming them through deeds. The irreverence shown to these parama bhAgavathas (superior followers) is the worst offence that one could do to emperumAn. pazhiththal – committing an offence. In other words, thinking of the low birth of a SrIvaishNava is as terrible a crime as estimating the importance of emperumAn based on the material with which his vigraham (divine idol) is made of in a dhivya dhESam. pazhipparAgil – while it is apt to celebrate them, due to ego, one ends up thinking lowly of them due to his ignorance.

The calamity due to such abuse is given now……

nodippadhOr aLavil AngE – it is not at some other time, in some other place, with some other body [form]. One would get the effect of abusing them at the same time, in the same place and with the same body. Just as we have seen in pAsuram 41 punidham anRE (getting the) benefit (of having connection with them) instantaneously, the ill-effect of abusing them would also happen instantaneously.

avargaL thAm pulaiyar pOlum – with the same body, they will become chaNdALas (wretch, born in a very low class). Because of the curse of the sons of rich vaSishta, the valorous chain that thriSanku (a king) wore got turned into leather strap. In the same way, the sacred thread that these high birth brAhmaNas wear would turn into leather strap. thAm pulaiyar – despite being great due to their high birth etc as seen earlier, if such greatness becomes cause of their ego and  incites them into carrying out offence against SrIvaishNavas, it will cause irreparable damage to them. If a person were born in a lowly birth, they would still qualify to become a SrIvaishNava. But since these persons fell into a deep pit despite being born in a high birth, and since they had indulged in bhAgavathApachAram (irreverence to SrIvaishNavas), they go lower down to a level of chaNdALa by deed (instead of chaNdALa by birth). It is pertinent to recall an incident in the life of kUraththAzhwAn here. On the day that one piLLaippiLLai AzhwAn became kUraththAzhwAn’s disciple, kUraththAzhwAn, knowing his disciple’s proclivity for committing bhAgavathApachAram because of his high birth, decided to rein him in. On an auspicious day, he asked piLLaippiLLai AzhwAn to grant him a gift. piLLaippiLLai AzhwAn was puzzled since everything (that a disciple has) belongs to AchAryan (kUraththAzhwAn) and what could he gift him? kUraththAzhwAn responded “through all the three karaNas (organs of thought, word and deed) you should promise me that you will not abuse a bhAgavatha”. piLLaippiLLai AzhwAn did the same. After some days, due to force of habit, piLLaippiLLai AzhwAn committed an offence against a bhAgavatha through his thought. He felt very ashamed of himself and covering his head with a piece of cloth, he stayed in his residence itself, without going to AchAryan’s thirumALigai (residence). kUraththAzhwAn, after waiting awhile, came in search of him and found out as to what happened. piLLaippiLLai AzhwAn fell at the feet of kUraththAzhwAn, and weeping uncontrollably, told him “it is so very difficult to live with this body without committing an offence against a bhAgavatha through the three organs”. kUraththAzhwAn felt happy that his disciple felt genuinely sorry for having committed an offence and told him “since you feel so desolate after committing the offence, emperumAn will certainly forgive you. Since you know how you feel after committing the offence through thought, you will not commit an offence by deed. Make sure that you do not commit any offence through your words”.

aranga mAnagar uLAnE – In varAha purANam, SrI varAha mUrthy tells bhUdhEvimadhbhaktham Svapacham vApi nindhAm kurvanthiyE narA: I padhmakOtiSathEnApi na kshamAmi kadhAchana II” (whosoever abuses my followers, even if my followers are of low birth, eating dog’s meat, I will not forgive them even for crores of years). Thus, emperumAn knows clearly the ill-effect of committing an offence against his followers. For those who try to attain emperumAn through other upAyams (means) such as karma yOgam etc, by doing appropriate penance, they can get rid of any offence that they may commit in between and continue with their upAyams. But, for one who has to attain mOksham through connection with emperumAn (by surrendering), if he commits a bhAgavatha apachAram (offence to his follower), it will sever the connection with emperumAn himself and there is no way that he can redeem himself. Just as connection with his followers is enough to attain emperumAn, committing offence against his followers is enough to lose emperumAn. Hence, a prapannan (one who surrenders to emperumAn) should be very careful in ensuring that he does not have any contact with other dhEvathas (deities) and does not commit any offence against his followers. Thus, it is clear from this pAsuram that even if a person does not do anything which is considered as good by emperumAn, if he stays away from the above-mentioned two offences, emperumAn will become easily approachable to such a person.

We shall take up the 44th pAsuram, next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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ఆర్తి ప్రబంధం – 7

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ఆర్తి ప్రభందం

<<ఆర్తి ప్రబంధం – 6

emperumAnAr_thiruvadi_to_a_dumb

శ్రీ రామానుజులు మూగవారిని తన శిష్యులుగా స్వీకరించి వారిని తన పాదపద్మములను మాత్రమే ఆశ్రయించమని చెప్పెను

ప్రస్తావన

ముందు పాశురము వలే ఈ పాశురమున కూడ మణవాళ మామునులు శ్రీ రామానుజులు తనను ప్రశ్నించెనని ఊహించెను. క్రిందటి పాశురంలో, మణవాళ మామునులు శ్రీ రామానుజులను ఈ దేహము అంతముచేసి త్వరగా అతని వద్దకు చేర్చుకోవలెనని ప్రార్ధించెను. అందుకు శ్రీ రామానుజులు ” నేను ఎవరను మరియు నాకు ఏ అర్హత ఉంది , మీ తప్పులను గూర్చి ఆలోచించి మిమ్ముస్వీకరించుటకు? మీరు ఏమి చేయవలెనని విచారించలేని వారా? మీచే చెప్పబడినవాటిని మీరే చేయలేరా? మీ దేహమును అంతంచేసి మీరు చెప్పునట్లు మీకు మేలు చెసుకొనలేరా?” అని ప్రశ్నించెను. ఈ పాశురమున మణవాళ మామునులు ఆ ప్రశ్నలకు సమాధానము చెప్పెను. ఒక శిశువు తన పనులను తానే చేయునచో , మీ శిశువైన నేనూ నా పనులను చేసుకొనెదను. కాని ఒక పసికందుకు తన పనులను చేయడం సాధ్యముకాదు మరియు తనను తాను రక్షించుటకు తెలియదు. అదే విధముగా, ఈ అడియేన్ (నాకు) కు కూడ ఏమి చేయ్యాలో, ఎలా చేయవలెనో అని తెలియదు. నా తల్లి యైన మీరే నా కొఱకు అన్ని చేయవలెను.

పాశురం 7

అన్నై కుడినీర్ అరుంది ములైయుణ్ కుళవి
తన్నుడైయ నోయైత్ తవిరాళో? – ఎన్నే
ఎనక్కా ఎతిరాసా ఎల్లా నీ సెయ్దాల్
ఉనక్కు అదు తాళ్వో ఉరై

ప్రతి పద్ధార్ధం

అన్నై – తన శిశువు ఎడల అసమానమైన వాత్సల్యము గల ఒక తల్లి వలే
కుడినీర్ అరుంది – తాను మొడలు సేవించిన మందు యొక్క చెడు ప్రభవమును తగ్గించుటకు నీరు త్రాగునట్లు
తవిరాళో? – స్వస్థము చేయ లేరా
తన్నుడైయ ములైయుణ్ కుzహవి – పాలు త్రాగు తన పసికందు యొక్క
నోయై – రోగమును
ఎతిరాసా – ఓ! యతిరాజా!!
ఎనక్కా – (మీరు) అంతులేని వాత్స్యలముతో కూడిన నా తల్లి
ఎల్లా నీ సెయ్దాల్ – నాకు బడులుగా, నన్ను రక్షించుటకునెను ఎమి చేయవలెనని తలెచెడరొ
అదు – వాటిని
తాళ్వో – ఏ మొహమును పెంచక
ఉనక్కు – ఎప్పుడు పెరుగు మీ ప్రకాశమునకు?
ఉరై – దయ చేసి చెప్పుము!!!
ఎన్నే – ఎంతో ఆశ్చర్యము!!! (అన్ని తెలిసిన మీరు, ఈ విషయము తెలియపరుచుటకు నన్ను ఎంచినట్లు)

సామన్య అర్ధం

మణవాళ మామునులు ఇక్కడ తన శిశువు యొక్క రోగము తగ్గుట కొఱకు క్రమముగా మందుకు సేవించు తల్లిని ఉపమానముగా చెప్పెను. తల్లి వద్ద పాలు త్రాగే పసికందుకు తనకు తానే వ్యాదిని స్వస్తము చేయుటకు తెలియదు. తల్లియే తన బిడ్డకు బదులుగా చేయ వలసినవాటిని చేసి వ్యాదిని కుదుర్చును. మణవాళ మామునులు శ్రీ రామానుజునితో, వారే తనకు తల్లి అని, కావున తనకు బదులుగా వారె రోగము స్వస్థమగుటకు చేసినచో వారి ప్రకాశము (గొప్పతనము) ఏ మాత్రము తగ్గదని ప్రార్ధించెను

వివరణ

మణవాళ మామునులు ఒక ఉపమానముతో ప్రారంభించెను. ఒక తల్లికి పాలు త్రాగే శిశువు ఉండెను. అట్టి చంటివారికి ఏది తెలియదు, కావునా అన్నింటికీ తన తల్లి మీదే ఆధార పడును. ఒక వేళ ఆ శిశువుకు ఏదైన  కలిగినచో ఏమి చేయవలెను? ఆ తల్లి తన శిశువు యొక్క అనారోగ్యము బాగుచేయుటకు అవసరమైన అన్నింటిని వెంటనే చేసెదరు. ఔషధమగు నీటిని త్రాగెదరు.ఆ ఔషధము ఎక్కవై ఆపద కలుగకుండ, వాటిని కావలినంతమాత్రమే సేవించెదరు. ఇలా ఏదైనను శిశువు యొక్క అనారోగ్యమును గుణము చేయవలసిన అన్ని తల్లి తానే శిశువుకు బదులుగా చేసెదరు. తాను సరిగ్గ శిశువును సంరక్షించక పోవుటచేతనే శిశువుకు అనారోగ్యము కలిగెనని చింతించెదరు. మణవాళ మామునులు శ్రీ రామానుజులను అంతులేని వాత్సల్యం తో కూడిన తల్లియని అతనితో చెప్పెను. మణవాళ మామునులు శ్రీ రామానుజులను ” ఓ యతిరాజా!! నేను చేయవలసినవాటిని నాకు బదులుగా మీరు చేసినచో అది మీకు ఏ విధముగానైనా చెడు పేరు తెచ్చునా? లేదు, అది మీ ప్రకాషమునకు ఇంకనూ మెరుగు చేర్చును. ఇందున ఆశ్చర్యమగు విషయము ఏమి అనగా, ఈ సందేశమును మీరు నా ద్వారా ఈ లోకమునకు తెలియపరుచవచ్చు. అందరికీ ఈ సందేశమును ఎందునకు చెప్పరు?” అని అడిగెను.

మణవాళ మామునులు మన శాస్త్రములు పూర్తిగా ఈ సందేశముతో నిండి ఉన్నండుటను కారణముగ చెప్పెను. ప్రతిఒక్కరూ ఆచార్యులు తన శిష్యుల కొఱకు చేయు కార్యములను గుర్తుంచుకొనవలెను. తన ఆచార్యులు ప్రేమతో ఒక శిష్యుని ఎంచుకొని వారి మేలు కోసం కార్యములను చేయుటను “ఆచార్యాభిమానము”అని చెప్పెదరు. ఆచార్యులు ఆ శిష్యుని దేనిని చేయుటకు శక్తిలేని వారిగా గుర్తించెదరు. అదీగాక శ్రీమన్ నారాయణుడు తన యొక్క ఒక అస్తిని (ఆ శిష్యునిలో ఉన్న ఆత్మ) పొందినచో, ఆనందముచే వారి ముఖారవిందమున మందహాసముతో వెలుగును. కావున ఈ రెండింటిని ( శిష్యుని మరియు శ్రీమన్ నారాయణుని) తలచి ఆచార్యులు శిష్యుని బదులుగా అన్ని అనుష్టానములను చేసి శ్రీమన్ నారాయణుని ముఖమును ఆనందముతో మిక్కిలి ప్రకాశింపచేసెదరు. ఆచార్యుల ఈ కార్యము తన శిశువునకు అనారోగ్యము సరియగుటకు మందు మరియు నీరు త్రాగు తల్లితో సమానమైనది. తన శిష్యుపై అపార కరుణ చూపు ఇట్టి ఆచార్యులు “మహాభాగవతులు” అని చెప్పబడు వారికి నిదర్శనముగ ఉండెను. ప్రతిఒక్కరు వారి గొప్పతనమును తెలుసుకొని, వారి పాదపద్మములనే ఆశ్రయించి, వారు తన యెడల చేయువాటిని స్వీకరించవలెను. అది కొన్ని విషయములను మననుండి విడదీసి మరికొన్ని విషయములను చేర్చవచ్చును. శిశువు తన తల్లిని ఎట్లు పూర్తిగా అండగొని ఉండునో అదే విధముగా శిష్యులు వారి ఆచార్యుని ఆశ్రయించి ఉండ వలెను. ఈ సందేశము పలు మార్లు పేర్కొనబడెను. “వల్ల పరిశు వరువిప్పరేల్ (నాచ్చియార్ తిరుమొళి 10.10)” ఒక ఉదాహరణగా చెప్పవచ్చును.

అడియేన్ వైష్ణవి రామానుజ దాసి

మూలము: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2016/06/arththi-prabandham-7/

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आर्ति प्रबंधं – ५

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आर्ति प्रबंधं

<< पासुर ४

ramanujar-mamunigal

उपक्षेप

पूर्व पासुर में, मणवाळ मामुनि, श्री रामानुज के प्रति “उणर्न्दु पार” अर्थात, अपने परमपद प्राप्ति  पर विचार करने कि प्रार्थना करते हैं। इसके अनुबंध में, यह प्रश्न आता हैं कि मणवाळ मामुनि किस आधार पर श्री रामानुज से इतने अधिकार से प्रार्थना करते हैं। ऐसा क्या संबंध हैं मणवाळ मामुनि का श्री रामानुज से, जो उनका (मणवाळ मामुनि का) रक्षण अनिवार्य हैं ? यह पासुर इस प्रश्न का उत्तर देता हैं। मणवाळ मामुनि दृढ़ निश्चितता (निश्चय) से बताते हैं कि वे श्री रामानुज के पुत्र हैं और इसी कारण उनकी श्री रामानुज द्वारा आश्रय अनिवार्य हैं।  

पासुरम ५

तन पुदलवन  कूड़ामल  तान पुसिकुम  बोगत्ताल
इन्बुरुमो  तन्दैक्कु  एतिरासा – उन पुदलवन
अन्रो  यान उरैयाय आदलाल उन बोगं
नन्रो एनै ओळिन्द  नाळ

शब्दार्थ :

एतिरासा – हे एम्पेरुमानार (हे रामानुज)
तन्दैक्कु  – पिता को
इन्बुरुमो – क्या उनको कोई सुख मिलता है जब
तन – उनके
पुदल्वन – पुत्र
कूडामल – उनके सात न रहे
तान – और वे अकेले (पिता )
पुसिक्कुम –  भोग करे
भोगत्तै – ऐश्वर्य
उन  – आप (मेरे पिता )
यान – और मैं
पुदलवन – मैं आपका पुत्र हूँ, क्योंकि आप मेरे पिता हैं
अन्रो  – सच नहीं हैं ?
उरैयाय – कृपया बताइये
आदलाल  – अतः
उन – आपके
भोगं  –  भोग
नाळ – दिन पर जब (आप )
ओळिन्द – के बिना
एनै – मुझे
नन्रो – आपको सुख देगा क्या ?

सरल अनुवाद

इस पासुर में मणवाळ मामुनि एक दृष्टान्त देते हैं।  क्या पुत्र से अलग पिता संसार के सुख अनुभव कर सकता हैं ? क्या वे परदेश वास, अनुपस्तिथ पुत्र के विचार में ना रहेगा ?  अवश्य वे उस पुत्र के विचार में रहेगा और न सांसारिक सुख की अनुभव  करेगा , पर अपने पुत्र केलिए तरसेगा। मणवाळ मामुनि श्री रामानुज से प्रश्न करते हैं कि उनके (श्री रामानुज ) पुत्र (मणवाळ मामुनि ) के अनुपस्तिथि पर श्री रामानुज परमपद सुख का अनुभव अकेले (पुत्राभाव मे) कैसे कर सकते हैं ?

स्पष्टीकरण

मानिये कि एक पिता का प्रिय पुत्र परदेश मे वास कर रहा है । इस अवस्था में क्या वे अकेले अपने सामने उपस्थित धन जैसे सुखों का भोग कर सकते हैं ? मणवाळ मामुनि श्री रामानुज से विनम्र प्रस्तुति करते हैं , “हे यतिराज (सन्यासियों के राजा), सादृश्य से , अनिवार्य रूप मे (मै) आपका पुत्र हूँ।” (श्री सूक्ति, “करियान ब्रह्मत पिता” के अनुसार) । “हे एम्बेरुमानार ! कृपया इस स्वाभाविक पिता-पुत्र संबंध को निश्चित कीजिये। कट्टेळिल वानवर बोगं  (तिरुवाइमोळि ६.६.११) में चित्रित सुखों को आप अपने पुत्र को खोने पर अनुभव कैसे करेंगें? अडियेन (दास) को पता हैं कि मेरे (आपके पुत्र के) अनुपस्तिथि में आप परमपद के सुखों का भोग नही कर पाएँगे।  इसलिए अडियेन (दास) की प्रार्थना हैं, की आप मुझे अपने संग लें”

अडियेन प्रीती रामानुज दासी

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thiruvAimozhi – 4.2.9 – nangaimIr nIrum

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Second decad

Previous pAsuram

lord-maha-vishnu

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In ninth pAsuram – Mother says “My daughter (parAnkuSa nAyaki) tries to speak about emperumAn‘s weapons but being unable to speak fully about them, becomes anguished”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, mother says “She keeps reciting emperumAn‘s distinguished symbols”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

nangaimIr nIrum Or peN peRRu nalginIr
enganE sollugEn yAn peRRa Ezhaiyaich
changennum chakkaram ennum thuzhAy ennum
inganE sollum irAp pagal en seygEn?

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

nangaimIr – Oh girls who are complete in all aspects!
nIrum – all of you
Or peN – a daughter
peRRu – gave birth
nalginIr – raised them;
yAn – I
peRRa – gave birth
Ezhaiyai – this girl who is desirous [of attaining emperumAn]
engan – how
sollugEn – to speak?

(Speaking about her as much as I can)
sangu ennum – saying Sanka (which is his unique symbol)
chakkaram ennum – saying chakra
thuzhAy ennum – saying thiruththuzhAy (thuLasi from his divine feet)
irAp pagal – day and night, without any difference
inganE – individually in this manner
sollum – she is saying
en seygEn – what shall I do for this!

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh girls who are complete in all aspects! All of you have given birth to a daughter and raised them too. How can I speak about my daughter who is desirous [of attaining emperumAn]? She is individually saying Sanka, chakra (which are his unique symbols) and thuLasi (from his divine feet) day and night, without any difference. What shall I do for this!

Shall I shut her mouth making her see her own true nature? Shall I give her strength to speak about emperumAn’s symbols? Shall I present those symbols to her now [by bring emperumAn in front of her]? Implies that, she cannot do anything to console her. “nIru Or peN peRRu nalginIr” implies that nammAzhwAr‘s loving mood cannot be matched by the loving mood of other AzhwArs.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • nangaimIr – You are so complete [in knowledge etc], yet you have to hear about the sufferings of my daughter.
  • nIrum Or peN peRRu nalginIr – All of you too gave birth to a daughter and raised them! Did anyone suffer like my daughter?

When asked “What is the difference between our daughters and your daughter?”, mother says,

  • enganE sollugEn – I can only speak about her state if it can be expressed through words. Even  if one can speak about bhagavAn’s qualities which are themselves explained in thaiththirIya upanishath as “yathO vAchO nivarthanthE aprApya manasA saha” (the words returned being unable to glorify bhagavAn‘s quality of bliss fully and even the mind cannot comprehend that), the qualities of those [AzhwArs] who are immersed in emperumAn‘s qualities cannot be comprehended. As said in SrIvishNu thathvam “sadhA para guNa vishtO dhrashtavyas sarva dhEhibhi:” (being engaged in the qualities of bhagavAn and thus qualified to be seen always by others), such devotees can be seen but cannot be spoken about. bhagavAn himself declared in SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.17 “priyOhi gyAninOthyartham” (such gyAni (devotee) is very dear to me). How can I speak about her state of desiring to get the objects from different place/time at this place and now?

When told “Still, you are much closer to her than us. Why don’t you tell as much as you know?”, she says,

  • sangu ennum – As if lifting a mountain, she says with great difficulty “Sanka” (conch). When that sets in, she says chakkaram ennum – [Since she is desirous] she is neither withdrawing; nor saying [since she is weak]. Thinking about the garland, which is placed in between the conch and disc on either hand of emperumAn, thuzhAy ennum. She is not saying [calling out loudly] as in thiruvAimozhi 7.2.1 “sangu chakkarangaL” (conch and disc) or as in 6.9.1 “kUr Ar Azhi veN sangu” (the sharp disc and the white conch). [When there is great danger one will call out like that. Is there any one who did that?] When dhraupathi was in great danger, she called out in mahAbhAratham “Sanka chakra gadhA pANE” (Oh one who has conch, disc and mace in his hands) [Since my daughter is in even greater dangerous situation, she is unable to even call out like that].
  • inganE sollum – She is anguishing by starting to say but unable to complete the words and repeating the same again and again.

For how long is this going on?

  • irAp pagal – always.
  • en seygEn – Should I make her complete what she started to tell? Or should I see her sthrIthvam (femininity) and withdraw from calling out?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 60

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<< previous (kadal aLavAya thisai)

Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

When those who thus heard emperumAnAr’s glories asked how great is his bhakthi (devotion), amudhanAr  divines here about his love for matters related to emperumAn and His devotees, and in thiruvAimozhi which emphasizes those two aspects.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In previous pAsurams, amudhanAr  divined about emperumAnAr’s establishment of the path of vEdhas, his strength to win those philosophies outside of vEdhas, his complete knowledge of vEdhas, and his teaching that knowledge to all in the world; in this – he divines about the three points – emperumAnAr’s, as part of that distinguished knowledge, unbounded love 1) towards emperumAn, and 2) towards His devotees who are like shadows under emperumAn’s divine feet, and 3)_ towards thiruvAimozhi which emphasizes these two aspects, and divines about emperumAnAr’s magnanimity which enables him to help about these three aspects to everyone.

uNarndha mey gyAniyar yOgam thoRum thiruvAimozhiyin
maNantharum innisai mannum idam thoRum – mAmalarAL
puNarndha pon mArban porundhum pathi thoRum pukku niRkum
guNam thigazh koNdal irAmAnusan em kulak kozhundhE                    60

Listen

Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

yOgam thoRum – In each assembly of
uNarndha mey gyAniyar  – those who possess true knowledge of knowing what needs to be known, and.
idam thoRum – in each place
mannum  – which always
maNam tharum – possesses  the fragrance
thiruvAimozhi yin – of thiruvAimozhi
in isai –  with distinguished music,
pathi thoRum – and in each divine temple
porundhum –  where there is gracious and happy presence of
mArvan – one who is having beautiful divine chest
puNarndha – which is resided in at all times
mAmalarAL – by periya pirAttiyAr,
irAmAnusan – emperumAnAr
guNam thigazh – who is having the bright qualities of true self
koNdal – and helping everyone in all the ways using such qualities,
kozhundhu – and who is the head
em kulam – of our clan/group,
pukku – (such emperumAnAr would) enter each such place due to desire to involve in them
niRkum – and would get immersed in them;

This is how the glory of his devotion is, is the thought here.

OR,

It can also be said that amudhanAr , after speaking about the glory of emperumAnAr’s wisdom (gyAna vaibhavam), he himself thought about emperumAnAr’s glory of devotion (bhakthi vaibhavam), became brightened by such quality, and says that emperumAnAr who helps everyone about that love, is the head of our group/clan.

kozhundhu – Also can be said as – head (shoot, blossoming tip of a tree). With the clan/group as the root, and emperumAnAr as the top part, like how if there is any dryness in the root then the shoots would first dry up, if there is any danger to this (SrIvaishNava) clan, then it is emperumAnAr who would be having his divine face go dull.

Music giving out fragrance is – (thiruvAimozhi) having elegance of songs.

vyAkyAnam

uNarndha mey gyAniyar yOgam thoRum – devotion (bhakthi) is  – since it is the result of maturing of knowledge, that is, first understanding completely that SrIpathi (emperumAn) is the owner/lord, and then knowledge that takes in about emperumAn who posses all the auspicious qualities, who is the most joyous, and who enjoys and is enjoyed the most as said in ‘sarva gandhassarva rasa:’, that aspect in us blossoms into something that is just based on love, and is having the name as devotion.

So, uNarvu (in uNarndha) means devotion.

Such devotion

–  is the true knowledge, knowledge of what is fact;

– immersed without any barrier, in emperumAn’s nature, form, and qualities;

– non-blemished knowledge;

Such knowledge driven by devotion (bhakthirUpApanna gyAnam) – which is possessed by AzhvArs – wherever there are group of such AzhvArs – in each such place;

yOgam – group that is together;  conference (parishath).

All the devoted AzhvArs had first gotten non-blemished knowledge (mayarvaRa mathi nalam), were having full knowledge, understood thathva thrayam (chith, achith, eeSvaran), and considered them as is, and were involved in sarvESvaran who is the most enjoyed/enjoyable as said in ‘appozhudhaikku appozhudhu en ArAvamudham [thiruvAimozhi – 2.5.4]’, and as they said in ‘ayarppilan alaRRuvan thazhuvuvan [thiruvAimozhi  – 1.3.10] due to desire to be with Him in any which ways, had worn women’s clothes, sent messengers, performed madal (going around and announcing their love to the people, etc.), and so were having boundless love;  so, it is not inaccurate to say that AzhvArs are ‘uNarndha mey gyAniyar’.

thiruvAimozhiyin maNam tharum innisai mannum idam thoRum – The collection of words from the divine mouth of nammAzhvAr who is the head among the ten AzhvArs, which are known as dhivya prabandham’s;  since thiruvAimozhi talks about the one said as ‘sarva gandha:’, it is also fragrant, and it gives that (Him/fragrance) to those who recite it, that music which is in the form of songs to recite as said in ‘yAzhin isai vEdhaththiyal [thiruvAimozhi thaniyan]’, and ‘thoNdarkku amudham [thiruvAimozhi – 9.4.9]’, and thus is one of the most enjoyable – wherever such music is present and well set, in each such place;

mAmalarAL puNarnda pon mArvan – periya pirAttiyar who is having the most distinguished  lotus flower as her seat, is having her togetherness in the divine desirable chest of Him – such sarvESvaran.

{Translator’s note: The above three phrases could be read together (anvayam) as being applied to emperumAn (pon mArvan): as, in the gathering of SrIvaishNavas, as maNavALa mAmunigaL gave eedu kAlakshEpam (thiruvAimozhi), it was sarvESvaran who had entered that place and got immersed in it (and submitted a thaniyan to His AchAryan)}.

srisailesa-thanian-mamunigal-eedu-goshtiThe place of gathering & fragrance of thiruvAimozhi’s musical hymns (who is immersed in it here?)

porundhum pathi thoRum – in all the divine temples where He is present happily; in the perumAL kOyil where pEraruLALar Himself came with him showing the way and got him reach safety, in the namperumAL kOyil by the command of periya perumAL, in thiruppathi when Saivites came from kALahasthi and caused lowly trouble, in thirunArAyaNapurm for winning the ones whose philosophy did not accept vEdhas, and moreover in each of the many dhivya dhESams like thirunagari, thirumAlirunchOlai, and more,

pukku niRkum – due to the desire to enjoy those places, he went to each such dhivya dhESam in many ways, and organized them completely, due to the higher plane of devotion of fear of separation he was fully immersed in them,  and present there doing mangaLAsAsanam (wishing Him well) at all times, and having love higher than that of the distinguished ones referred to in ‘uNarndha mey gyAniyar (AzhvArs),  he would without separation ever would be immersed in the three aforementioned places.

guNam thigazh koNdal  – As such great quality that is bhakthi got into him and became something worth and became significant, as said in ‘mugach chOdhi vAzhi [Arththi prabandham]’ (Wishing long life to the light on the divine face of emperumAnAr), his knowledge, devotion, and steadfastness, and the glory of those pramAthas (learned ones mentioned above), and the glory of those texts, and periya pirAttiyAr who says ‘apramEyam hithaththEjO yasya sA janakAthmajA:’,  His glory that would make us lose ourselves – emperumAnAr pours and gives all these to everyone, everywhere, at all times,  like how the rain would pour without distinction of land or sea – such ultimately generous –

rAmAnusan –  emperumAnAr

em kulak kozhundhE –  em kulam is – our clan/group – SrIvaishNava group. For that group, emperumAnAr is ‘kozhundhu’ – that is, ­for growing into a tree or to spread around as a creeper, the root cause is the tender shoot,  so for our group he is the root cause. kozhundhu – head/lead.

Or, his saying ‘em kulak kozhundhu’  is –  our group being the root, and emperumAnAr being the tender shoot  (from which leaves etc., grow), and so like how if the root gets a dry spell then it is the tender shoots which would become dull and dry first, if some drawback happens to our group, it is his face that would become dull first.

We can think of the arrangement of lines as “The generous one having great qualities, our root cause,  emperumAnAr, would go to each of those noble places and be immersed”.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

uNarndha ….. yOgam thoRum – As said in ‘svagyAnam prApaka gyAnam prApya gyAnam mumukshubhi: | gyAnathrayam upAdhEyam Ethadhanyannakinchana || ‘  (For those who wish to get liberated, it is only three types of knowledge that is to be gained – about self (AthmA), about the means (upAyam), and about the goal (upEyam); nothing else is needed),

he is referring to such people who have learned what needs to be learned, when saying ‘uNarndha gyAniyar’. After learned them, those who say and do as is, are ‘uNarndha mey gyAniyar’. Now, since it talks about thiruvAimozhi, they would have understood its meaning, that is, of ‘mikka iRai nilaiyum..’, that is, artha panchakam.

yOgam – place of assembly. As said in ‘vasanthi vaishNavA yathra thathra sannihithO hari:’ (wherever vaishNavas live, emperumAn is present in those places),  emperumAnAr goes in and involves himself in those places where such people assemble/ are present.

thiruvAimozhiyin … innisai mannum idam thoRum – In all the places where those like madhurakavi AzhvAr who sings the sweet music of kurugUr nambi,  emperumAnAr goes in and gets involved.  Since nammAzhvAr ‘s earlier three prabandhams are of type iyarpA (not in the poetic form that is singable), he is referring to his thiruvAimozhi (which is not iyarpA category) as ‘innisai’ (sweet music).

Wherever raghunAthan’s glory is sung, thiruvadi (hanuman) would stand there with folded hands and tearful eyes listening to it – likewise, wherever there is the music of thiruvAimozhi, emperumAnAr gets involved and immersed.

porundhum pathi – place where emperumAn is present well set (in this world). It would seem that there would be places where emperumAn would Not be well set – that would be paramapadham. Unlike in paramapadham where He cannot be peaceful due to thinking about us who are suffering here, He is able to be present well set in here amongst us and is happy to be so.

As said in ‘SrI vaikuNta virakthAya’ , and ‘thyakthvA vaikuNtamuththamam’, He got disinclination towards paramapadham, and leaving it he came here living happily in divine temples, and the reason is – pirAttiyAr in his divine chest. The divine couple are together in enjoyment here, and have discarded and forgotten about paramapadham.

emperumAnAr goes to various dhivya dhESams and gets immersed – like thirumangai AzhvAr.

For nammAzhvArthaniyE pugum Ur thirukkOLUr’ (goes by ‘her’self to thirukkOLUr only); for thirumangai AzhvAr who is ‘mada mAn’,  ‘kALaiyOdu pugum Ur – aNi Ali’ only. Whereas in case of emperumAnAr, he goes to all the dhivya dhESams along with all his group and gets immersed.

thirumangai AzhvAr divining ‘pathiyE paravith thozhum thoNdar [periya thirumozhi – 7.1.7] (~ devotees who go across to dhivya dhESams), he might have meant emperumAnAr and his group itself!

The three places referred to in this pAsuram in which emperumAnAr gets immersed, are about pramAthA (those who learn from the authoritative references), pramANam (authoritative references), and pramEyam (who/what is learned using such references).

– – – – –

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thirumAlai – 42 – pazhudhilA ozhugalARRu

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periyaperumal-thiruppanazhwarperiya perumAL – thiruppANAzhwAr

avathArikai (introduction)

Those who have this knowledge of mEmporuL pAsuram, even if they are born in lowly births and consequently have lowly behaviour, are qualified to be worshipped by those who are born in higher births (chathurvEdhis, those who are conversant with all the four vEdhas), on a par with sarvESvaran, and are also qualified for exchanging gyAnam (knowledge) with those born in higher births.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings.

பழுதிலா ஒழுகல் அற்றுப் பல சதுப்பேதிமார்கள்
இழி குலத்தவர்களேலும் எம்மடியார்களாகில்
தொழுமினீர் கொடுமின் கொள்மின் என்று நின்னோடும் ஒக்க
வழிபட அருளினாய் போல் மதிள் திருவரங்கத்தானே.

pazhudhilA ozhugal ARRup palasadhuppEdhimArgaL
izhi kulaththavargaLElum emmadiyArgaLAgil
thozhuminIr kodumin koLmin enRu ninnOdum okka
vazhipada aruLinAy pOl madhiL thiruvarangaththAnE

Listen

Word-by-word Meaning

madhiL thiruvarangaththAnE – Oh one who is residing inside the temple with high walls!
ozhugal ARu – in the lengthy lineage starting with brahmA, up to themselves
pazhudhu ilA – without any blemish
pala sadhuppEdhimArgaL – those who are learned in the four vEdhas!
em adiyArgaL Agil – if they are regarded as “our servitors”
izhi kulaththavargaL Elum – even if they are born in a lowly birth
nIr – you
thozhumin – worship (them)
kodumin – teach them (the special knowledge that you have)
koLmin – learn from them (if they have special knowledge)
enRu – thus
ninnOdum  okka – as your equal
vazhipada – to worship
aruLinAy pOl – did you not divine!

vyAkhyAnam (commentary)

pazhudhilA ozhugalARRu – Starting from brahmA and reaching up to them, they come from a lineage where no blemish [transgression] could be pointed at them. ozhugal – long lineage; ARu – path. Either in their birth or in their behaviour, they do not slip from their quality of brahminhood (quality of being a brAhmaNa).

pala sadhuppEdhimArgaL – in this lineage there were many  who had studied all the four vEdhas. Just as it is said chathurvEdhA rushaya: (rishis are those who recite the four vEdhas), the people from this lineage are learned like the rishis. sadhuppEdimArgaLAzhwAr is calling out to those in this lineage, Oh! chathurvEdhimArgaLE (those who have learned the four vEdhas)!

izhi kulaththavargaLElum – even if they are born in a class below which there is no other class. Elum – as said in SrI gIthA “bahunAm janmanAm anthE” a person gets the knowledge that emperumAn is the prApyam and prApakam (goal and means) only after many [hundreds of thousands of] births. For those with such a high level of knowledge [of mEmporuL], it is unlikely that they would be born in a low birth. If they had been born in a low birth, like a vidhura or a dharmavyAdha . . .

em adiyArgaL Agil – if they know all the relationships with me [emperumAn] [it is said that there are nine types of relationships between a chEthana and emperumAn] and if they act according to that knowledge. The meaning here is that these people think that kainkaryam to emperumAn alone is beneficial and emperumAn also thinks that for them he is the upAyam and upEyam (means and goal) and all types of relationships for these people.

thozhumin nIr – you worship them. “vidhyAmadhO dhanamadhas thruthiyO’bhijanO madha: I EthE madhAvalipthAnAm Etha Eva sathAm dhama: II” (for the arrogant, being learned becomes a cause for arrogance; being wealthy is also a cause for arrogance; being born in a high lineage also becomes a cause for arrogance. These (education, wealth and lineage) become the causes for good people to be humble). Thus, you people, who feel that your education, wealth and high lineage should become reasons for humility instead of arrogance, fall at their feet [prostrate to them]. jithanthE SlOkam 1.9 says “kAlEshvapi cha sarvEshu dhikshu sarvAsu chAchyutha I SareerE cha gathau chApi varthathE mE mahath bhayam II” (Oh one who does let his followers down! In all the puNya kAlam (auspicious times), in the puNya kshEthrams (holy places) in all directions, in the physical body (which is the implement for virtuous deeds) and in the state other than physical body, I have great fear). Thus, as said in sacred texts, only emperumAn’s causeless grace gives fearlessness and all the other implements create only fear. You people, who have this belief, worship those who have the same belief. As kUraththAzhwAn, in SrIvaikuNta sthavam 77 says “ kainkarya nithya nirathair bhavathEkabhOgair nithyairanukshaNanavInarasArdhrabhAvai: I nithyA’pi vAnchithaparaspara nIcha bhAvair madhdhaivathai: parijanaisthava sangasIya II” (make me to be together with those who are your beloved ones and who are fit to be worshipped by me, who are always engaged in kainkaryams, who consider you as their greatest enjoyment, those whose hearts melt in new experienes [about you] every moment, who desire to be servitors to each other), the true nature of AthmA, which is being humble, comes naturally to those born in lower births. It is very rare for you people, born in high lineage and being learned in the four vEdhas, due to the arrogance of being born in high birth. The opinion here is that “if you people worship them, your arrogance which makes you suffer in this samsAram, will go”. Have we seen anywhere a person from lower birth protecting one from higher birth? In kaiSika vruththAntham (incident), we have seen that nampAduvAn, a person from chaNdALa class, was able to get rid of brahmarakshas (a demoniacal entity) from the body of a brAhmaNa who had lost his quality of being a brAhmaNa.

kodumin koLmin – if they desire to obtain knowledge from you, tell them supportively. If they desire to divine knowledge about emperumAn to you, seek it and enjoy it. Since those exchanges which take place because of class of birth and engaging with each other because of qualities, will not last beyond that birth, they will be like words written on the surface of water and will not last long. Relationship established with these people [having knowledge of mEmporul] through exchanging of knowledge will continue beyond this birth, into paramapadham and will last as long as AthmA lasts [forever].

enRu ninnOdum okka vazhipada aruLinAy pOl – The opinion here is that “since all the meanings until now in this pAsuram have been divined by you [emperumAn] , who grants mOkshapalam (benefit of liberation), there is no scope for any doubt in this”. enRu ninnOdum okka aruLinAy – you divined “since there is no one superior to me, fit for worshipping, worship them just as you worship me and proceed in the path of righteousness”. aruLinAy – vyAkhyAthA (commentator) quotes emperumAn who divined in gArudam 219.6…9  “madhbahakthajana vAthsalyam pUjAyAnchAnumOdhanam I svayamabhyarchananchaiva madharthE damba varjanam II mathkathASravNE bhakthi: svaranEthrAnga vikriyA I mamAnusmaraNam nithya yachcha mAm nOpajIvathi I bhakthirashtavidhA hyEshA yasmin mlEchchE’pivarththathE II sa viprEndhrO muni: SrImAn sa yathi: sa cha paNditha: I thasmai dhEyam thathO grAhyam sa cha pUjyO yathA hyayan II” ((1) motherly love towards my followers, (2) agreeing to my being worshipped, (3) the person himself worshipping me, (4) not being ostentatious in my matters, (5) showing affection in hearing my stories, (6) when thinking about me, voice faltering, eyes shedding tears and body developing goose-bumps always, (7) always thinking about me and (8) not asking for any other benefit from me [except myself] – if these eight different types of devotion are seen in a person, even if he is a lowly person, he alone is a superior brAhmaNa; he alone is a sage; he alone is a wealthy person; he alone is a scholar; he can be taught knowledge; knowledge can be obtained from him; he is fit to be worshipped like me).  aruLinAy – isn’t this secret divined by you out of your causeless mercy? nammAzhwAr in his thiruvAimozhi 7.10.11 “thIrththangaLE enRu pUsiththu nalgiyuraippar tham dhEviyarkkE ” (nithyasUris also will tell their consorts about the pure nature of those who have connection with emperumAn)

pOl – like that. We can consider that in the SlOka seen earlier on varAha avathAram (incarnation as varAha), what he divined as varAha, he carried out as periya perumAL in the case of thiruppANAzhwAr. First varAha perumAL divined the meanings for this. (thoNdaradippodi) AzhwAr composed the meanings in this pAsuram in thamizh. periya perumAL, after hearing this pAsuram, carried it out in the case of thiruppANAzhwAr. Just as SrI rAma heard SrI rAmAyanam from agasthya (a sage), periya perumAL heard these meanings from this AzhwAr.

madhiL thiruvarangaththAnE – instead of merely giving a discourse on this as varAha avathAram, did you not come to thiruvarangam (SrIrangam) and make lOka sArangamuni (a temple priest) who is from a higher birth and status to carry on his head, thiruppANAzhwAr, who is from a lower birth and status? madhiL thiruvarangaththAnE – only if it is possible to cross the temple compound wall can one cross the limit set by you.

In some texts, it is mentioned that this pAsuram extols the virtues of SrIpAdha thIrtham (divine water from the feet of emperumAn’s followers). The previous pAsuram, pOnagam seydha sEdam, mentioned about the greatness of food partaken from a follower of emperumAn. It is apt that this pAsuram mentions about the greatness of SrIpAdha thIrtham. The meaning for kodumin koLmin should be changed in keeping with this order. If the followers pray for it, provide SrIpAdha thIrtham and accept if they offer SrIpAdha thIrtham.  ninnOdum okka vazhipada aruLinAy – in SAsthram, it is mentioned that AchAryan is to be treated as emperumAn’s avathAram (incarnation). Hence, ninnOdum okka would mean treating AchAryan like emperumAn. Just as it says svAchAryamiva tham dhrushtvA (looking  (at a SrIvaishNava) (with dignity) as one’s AchAryan ….), one should worship a SrIvaishNava like one’s AchAryan. Similarly avidhyam vA sa vidhyam vA (irrespective of whether a SrIvaishNava is learned or not, he should be treated with dignity). thiruvAimozhi 7.10.11 that we had seen earlier dhEvar vaigal thIrththangaLE enRu , nithyasUris also lauded because of the connection with SrIpAdha thIrtham. nammAzhwAr in his thiruvAimozhi 10.9.10 said pAdhangaL kazhuvinar meaning that nithyasUris accepted SrIpAdha thIrtham.

We shall next take up the 43rd pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 4.2.8 – kombu pOl

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Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Second decad

Previous pAsuram

lord-rama

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In eighth pAsuram – Mother says “My daughter (parAnkuSa nAyaki) desires for the thiruththuzhAy (thuLasi) from the divine feet of chakravarathi thirumagan (SrI rAma, the son of emperor dhaSaratha) who burnt down lankA for sIthA, the daughter of SrI janakarAja”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kombu pOl sIthai poruttu  ilangai nagar
amberi uyththavar thAL iNai mEl aNi
vambavizh thaN am thuzhAy malarkkE ival
nambumAl nAn idhaRku en seygEn? nangaimIr!

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kombu pOl – extremely beautiful like a slender twig
sIthai poruttu – for sIthA, the daughter of SrI janakarAja
ilangai nagar – in the town of lankA
ambu eri – fiery arrows
uyththavar – one who made them enter
thAL iNai mEl – on the divine feet
aNi – submitted (by brahmA et al after praising SrI rAma)
vambu avizh – freshly blossomed with fragrance
thaN – cool
am – beautiful
thuzhAy – thiruththuzhAy’s (thuLasi)
malarkku – flower garland
ivaL – my daughter
nambum – desires
nangai mIr – Oh girls who are complete in all aspects!
idhaRku – this great attachment
nAn – I
en seygEn – what shall I do?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

SrI rAma shot the fiery arrows to make them enter the town of lankA for the daughter of SrI janakarAja, sIthA, who is extremely beautiful like a slender twig. Oh girls, who are complete in all aspects! My daughter desires for the cool beautiful flower garland of thuLasi which is freshly blossomed with fragrance and submitted (by brahmA et al after praising SrI rAma) on the divine feet of such SrI rAma; what shall I do for this great attachment [of my daughter towards emperumAn]?

Implies that, emperumAn only can incarnate and fulfil the desire of her daughter.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

  • ambu eri uyththavar – Fire (agni dhEvathA) will only cook food in this town. It will not manifest its fiery nature. Even when hanuman entered lankA, he was sent by SrI rAma, like sending an arrow only.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kombu pOl – Like a “vanjik kombu” (a variety of slender twig); also explained as a part of the singular whole (bhagavAn) as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 21.15 “ananyA …” (sIthA – Like sun’s rays never separate from the sun, I never separate from SrI rAghava).
  • sIthai poruttu –  for sIthA.
  • ilangai nagar – the town which was feared by sun and moon to freely move around [due to rAvaNa’s rule].
  • ambu eri uyththavar – He sent the collection of fiery arrows and made them enter there. [How did fire enter the town when sun and moon were fearful?] SrI rAma touched the arrows and sent them along with fire after giving them enough power/force; this is why, they entered with that strength given by SrI rAma. That which adorns the divine feet of such SrI rAma who can give strength to even those who are fearful.
  • vambu avizh thaN am thuzhAy malarkkE – Fragrant flower, ever fresh flower. SrI rAma, even though being the son of emperor [in a human form], he is present along with all his glories as in paramapadham (spiritual realm) – similarly, whatever garland he wears, that appears as thiruththuzhAy only for his devotees.
  • nambumAl – she always desires for that.
  • nAn idhaRku en seygEn nangaimIr – Unlike krishNa who was commonly accessible for everyone, SrI rAma is an EkadhAravrathan (strictly attached to a single wife). How can I go and search for the thiruththuzhAy from the divine feet of such emperumAn? Please tell.
  • nangaimIr – While you all are complete, please see her suffering.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thirumAlai – 41 – vAnuLAr aRiyalAgA

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thyaga-mandapamemperumAnAr prayed for the remnants of thirukkachi nambi who was a beloved devotee of kAnchIpuram varadharaja bhagavAn

avathArikai (introduction)

In the previous two pAsurams, AzhwAr said that there is no shortcoming for these people [those who have knowledge about the meanings of mEmporuL pAsuram] either because of their birth or because of their behaviour. In this pAsuram, AzhwAr says that “it is not only that they do not have any shortcoming. They have the greatness that other samsAris, by having a connection with them, will become purified because of that connection itself”.

Let us enjoy the pAsuram and its meanings.

வானுளார் அறியலாகா வானவா என்பராகில்
தேனுலாம் துளப மாலைச் சென்னியாய் என்பராகில்
ஊனமாயினகள் செய்யும் ஊனகாரகர்களேலும்
போனகம் செய்த சேடம் தருவரேல் புனிதம் அன்றே.

vAnuLAr aRiyalAgA vAnavA enbarAgil
thEnulAm thuLaba mAlaich chenniyA enbarAgil
UnamAiyanagaL  seyyum UnakArakargaLElum
pOnagam seydha sEdam tharuvarEl punitham anRE

Listen

Word-by-word Meaning

Unam AyinagaL seyyum –  if they carry out lowly activities [or]
Una kArakargaLEm – if they carry out lowly activities through others
vAn uLAr aRiyalAga vAnavA – Oh one who lives in paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam) and who cannot be known even by the dwellers of upper worlds such as brahmA et al !
enbar Agil – if they say so
thEn ulAm thuLaba mAlai senniyA – Oh one who adorns on his divine crown, the garland of thuLasi, from which honey is dripping !
enbar Agil – if they say so
pOnagam seydha sEdam – the remnants of bhagavath prasAdham (food that had been served to emperumAn) eaten (by them)
tharuvar El – if they give (with compassion)
anRE – immediately
punitham – (that ) will be very purifying

vyAkhyAnam (commentary)

vAnuLAr aRiyalAgA vAnavA – One who lives forever in paramapadham [SrIvaikuNtam], not known even to brahmA and other celestial entities. Those sitting on the loft (which is at a higher elevation than the floor) cannot know about starts because they are at a higher level. In the same way, even if they are living in sathyalOka (brahmA’s dwelling place) and other such places, these celestial entities cannot know about paramapadhanAthan. Even though they have some greatness because of  higher level of gyAna (knowledge) and Sakthi (power), they cannot reach paramapadham with that. The word AgA means “not possible” here. Alternatively, AgA can also mean “should not”. Just as a chaNdALa (person born in a low caste) should not enter a place where rituals are conducted, these celestial entities should not enter paramapadham. But we have seen that gyAnis such as AzhwArs know about paramapadhanAthan. This is not because of their efforts, but because of his [emperumAn’s] mercy. As said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 16.14, those who think that they are “God” cannot see or know about him. Just as people cross oceans with the help of ship, AzhwArs cross the ocean of samsAram with the help of ship called vishNu. But these celestial entities are like people who think that they could cross the ocean with their own efforts. Without any distinction between one who knows swimming and one who does not know, it is not possible for a person to cross the ocean by swimming. In the same way, one cannot know about emperumAn on his own efforts by anyone irrespective of the fact whether he has or does not have the strength [to know]. As per the prapaththi lakshaNa vAkhyam of bharatha muni “ananyasAdhyE svAbhIshtE mahAviSvAsa pUrvakam I thadhE gOpAyathA yAnchA prapaththi: SaraNAgathi: II” (when it is not possible through any other means as per one’s desire, beseeching him to be the means through deep faith is prapaththi. That itself is SaraNAgathi), the AzhwArs qualified as prapannars (those who surrendered) by taking refuge under him. That he is the only upAyam (means) will be clear when one looks at his greatness of being without any connection with samsAram and having aprAkrutha vigraham (his divine physical form is composed of sudhdha sathvam, purely good). When one looks at the lowliness of chEthana (sentient entity) controlled by the three qualities of sathva, rajas and thamas (purely good, passion and ignorance), emperumAn’s upAyathvam (being the means) will be evident. When one dvelves into the chEthana’s athyantha parathanthra svarUpam (having the basic nature of being completely dependent on emperumAn), emperumAn’s upAythvam will be evident.

enbarAgil – just as thaiththirIya samhithai 7.5.3 says “mana: pUrvO vAguththara:” the faculty of  speech says what the faculty of  thought thinks first. In the same way vAnuLAr aRiayalAgA vAnavA comes out of a person who has taken refuge under emperumAn through his mind. Just as ahirbudhya samhithai 37.30 states, it is evident that these people pray that emperumAn should be the upAyam for them. Agil AzhwAr indicates that it is very difficult for people to renounce their ability to protect themselves. Thus, it has been shown that these people are those who have taken emperumAn as their upAyam.

Next it shows that they have taken emperumAn himself as upEyam (goal or benefit) too.

thEnulAm thuLabamAlaich chenniyA – Oh, the one having divine crown decorated with thuLasi garland, dripping with honey! Since he is adorning with thuLasi garland, considered to be best among  flowers, it is indicated that he is the greatest among dhEvas. Since he is referred to as having thEnulAm thuLaba mAlai, it indicates that he is very sweet and enjoyable. With these two, it is indicated that he is the one to be attained above all.

enbarAgil – just as the word enbarAgil [in the earlier part] indicates the prArthanA (prayer) for emperumAn being the means, this word indicates the prayer for attaining him. Agil – it is very rare to leave aside all the other goals and consider emperumAn as the superior goal. kaNNan (krishNa) himself had indicated this in his SrI gIthA SlOka “sa mahAthmA su dhurlabha:

UnamAyinagaL seyyum – people who will torture other creatures for feeding their own stomachs. They are such dishonourable people that they would tie animals such as live goats and cows so that they can give the flesh after cutting them to pieces to those who desire to have these, even in the dead of night. Compassionate persons such as sibi chakravarthy will give their flesh for saving other creatures. These people are exact opposite of such compassionate people.

Una kArakargaL – Not only will they carry out such heinous acts themselves and become sinners, they will also engage others in such acts and make them sinners. kArakargaL – engaging others for carrying out tasks. Unam – lowly acts. Since these people would not indulge in such heinous acts after acquiring knowledge about mEmporuL, we should presume that these acts have been carried out earlier.

Elum – even if they would have done such crimes earlier, they would not do such acts after acquiring knowledge. If they see others suffer {after acquiring this knowledge], they will suffer the pangs of the others’ pain and swoon. It is pertinent to remember here that kUraththAzhwAn once heard the wailing of a frog that had been caught by a snake and thought “Oh, how terrible! Who is it calling out for who could hear it and save it in this state?” He became very agitated and swooned. If such people torture others, it will be only for their benefit, as said by this AzhwAr in the 8th pAsuram “thalaiyai AngE aRuppadhE karumam kandAy” (severing the heads of people who abuse emperumAn is the correct action), just as emperumAn poses difficulties to jIvAthmAs [for their ultimate benefit].

pOnagam – food. Since these gyAnis (knowledgeable people) are more supportive than emperumAn, just as one says “amudhu seydhu” (offer divine food) in emperumAn’s case, AzhwAr says pOnagam seydhu in these gyAnis’ case, for want of a better word.

seydha sEdam – the food remnants (after partaken by the gyAni). ALavandhAr, in his sthOthra rathnam 42 says “thvadhIya bhukthOjjithaSEshabhOjinA thvayA nisrushtAthmabharENa yath yathA   I priyENa sEnApathinA nyavEdhi thath thathA’nujAnandhamudhAra vIkshaNai: II” (one who eats the food that remains after you have eaten, one who acts as the administrator of your two vibhUthis (realms) having been appointed by you, one who is sweet (to everyone), such vishvaksEnar’s acts were carried out with divine mercy as per the way you ordained . . .). periyAzhwAr in thiruppallANdu 9 says “kalaththadhuNdu” (eating the remnants after you had eaten). Thus these terms refer to the food that remains on the (banana) leaf [which is used as a plate to eat out of, traditionally] after the food had been partaken.

tharuvarEl – if one gets such a rare offering. This is not like the bhagavath prasAdham (emperumAn’s mercy) that those, who desire other things also, get. Thus, if such a great rare benefit were to be obtained . . . It is pertinent to recall an incident here – One day, parAsara bhattar (kUraththAzwAn’s son) was discoursing on thiruviruththam (One of the works of nammAzhwAr) when he gave the meaning of the word “maippadi mEni” as – no one can know that “it is like this” – such is his thirumEni (divine form) that it will darken [blind] the eyes of the beholder. His disciple, nanjIyar, who was listening to this, told him that the pAsuram by thirumangai AzhwAr in periya thirumozhi 10.10.9 “innAr enRaRiyEn” has similar meaning to this. bhattar was overjoyed on hearing this and gave the remnants of his food (pOnagam seydha sEdam) to nanjIyar as his prasAdham (grace).

punidham anRE – if one takes the remaining portion of the food that these knowledgeable people had, it will sanctify that person who takes it, immediately, just as the kuLigai (magic lump, touchstone) called sparSavEdhi converts iron into gold as soon as it touches it. There is no need to wait for another body, another time, another place, for this effect (to sanctify). vihakOSam (a sacred text) says “nArAyaNaika nishtasya yA yA vruththis thadharchanam I yO yO jalpas sa sa japas thath dhyAnam yannirIkshaNam  II thathpAdhAmbvathulam thIrtham thadhuchchishtam su pAvanam I thadhukthimAthram manthrAgryam thathsprushtamakhilam Suchi II” (whatever activities are performed by a person who is an exclusive devotee of nArAyaNa, they are all bhagavath ArAdhanam (worship of emperumAn); whatever words are mumbled by him, they are prayers; whatever he sees, are meditation on vishNu; whichever water comes into contact with his feet, becomes incomparable thIrtham (sacred water); the food that remains after he has eaten, is sanctified; his every word becomes a manthra (vEdhic hymn); everything he touches becomes purified). Thus SAsthrams also spoke high of pOnaga sEdam. If emperumAn’s prasAdham (grace) is pAvanam (purifying), the prasAdham of his followers is supAvanam (very purifying).

We shall move on to the 42nd pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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