SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
Starting with the first pAsuram, until the previous pAsuram those who had spoken of supremacy to brahmA and rudhra as well as those who said that these two entities are equal to emperumAn were rejected. People who argued that all the three deities (brahmA, vishNu and rudhra) are one and the same, now started the argument, giving the following strategy: vEdhas (nArAyaNOpanishath etc ) say “sa brahmA sa Siva:” and “brahmA nArAyaNa: SivaScha nArAyaNa:” (brahmA is nArAyaNa; Siva is nArAyaNa). Hence brahmA, rudhra and nArAyaNa are the same entity. When such is the case, arguing whether this entity is superior or that entity is superior is against vEdhas.
AzhwAr rubbishes this argument in this pAsuram. He tells them “you will go to horrible ways! Along with “brahmA nArAyaNa: SivaScha nArAyaNa” there are also other verses such as “SakraScha nArAyaNa:, kAlaScha nArAyaNa:, dhiSaScha nArAyaNa:, vidhiSaScha nArAyaNa:, Urdhvancha nArAyaNa:, adhaScha nArAyaNa:, antharbahiScha nArAyaNa:, nArAyaNa EvEdham sarvam yadhbhUtham yachcha bhavyam” (indhra is nArAyaNa, time is nArAyaNa, directions are nArAyaNa, intermediate regions are nArAyaNa, above (upper world) is nArAyaNa, below (lower world) is nArAyaNa, inside and outside are nArAyaNa, what was in the past, what is there now and what will be are all nArAyaNa ) which will tell you that apart from sentient entities such as indhra et al, insentient entities such as directions, time etc are also referred to in the same breath. Will you then bring about equality between the supreme entity and insentient entity? Understand that all these entities are emperumAn’s wealth, physical body, effect, being sustained, being controlled, being servitors, being attribute etc. Thus, one can say that everything is him and in the same breath, vEdhas say that brahmA and rudhra are also him. Is there any entity which does not have him [as indwelling soul]? Thus, with the help of vEdhas, AzhwAr rejects those who try to establish thrimUrthi (oneness among three forms) philosophy.
Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:
orungirundha nalvinaiyum thIvinaiyum AvAn
perungurundham sAyththavanE pEsil marungirundha
vAnavardhAm dhAnavardhAm thAragaidhAn ennenjam
Word for Word Meanings
pEsil – if one were to talk the truth
peru kurundham sAyththavanE – Oh kaNNapirAn who uprooted the kurundha tree (a type of wildlime)!
orungirundha nalvinaiyum thIvinaiyum AvAn – he is the executor for the puNya (virtues) and pApa (vices) which are with jIvas (souls).
marungu irundha – staying close-by
vAnavardhAm – celestial entities
dhAnavardhAm – demonic entities
thAragaidhAn – earth
en nenjam AnavardhAm – the sarvESvaran who stays in my heart
allAdhadhu en – what entity is there without that sarvESvaran?
pEsil – if one were to talk with vEdha vAkyams (verses from sacred texts) such as “brahmA nArAyaNa: SivaScha nArAyaNa:”
orungirundha nalvinaiyum thIvinaiyum AvAn – he himself is the pApa and puNya which are always with us. Just as the vEdha vAkyam says “Esha Eva sAdhu karma kArayathi I Esha Eva asAdhu karma kArayathi II” (this paramapurusha (supreme being) makes the jIva to carry out good deeds; this paramapurusha instigates the jIva to carry out bad deeds too), since it is emperumAn who executes the virtues and vices, he is mentioned in the vEdhas as virtues and vices themselves. Is it correct, because of this, to equate karmas, which exist for a transient time, with him?
orungirundha nalvainaiyum thIvinaiyum – just as it is mentioned in brahmavaivarththam prakruthi kaNdam 26-90 “avaSyanubhOkthavyam krutham karma SubhASubham I nA bhuktham kshIyathE karma kalpakOtiSathairapi II”(the [results of] good and deed bad deeds carried out (by jIvAthmAs) have to be necessarily experienced. Even if it takes hundreds of crores of kalpams (a very long period related to the life cycle of brahmA), these cannot be got rid of unless experienced), the puNya and pApa that we earn will not leave us unless we experience them compulsorily.
perungurundham sAiththavanE nalvinaiyum thIvinaiyum AvAn – when emperumAn incarnated as krishNa, kamsa had set upon krishNa many demons in order to kill him. One of them entered a kurundham tree on which krishNa used to climb often. krishNa broke that tree, killing that demon, thus eliminating one of the enemies of the herdsmen. Just as he effortlessly eliminated the enemy of herdsmen, emperumAn will remove our enemies too (our sins) through his vow as he had mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18-66 “sarva pApEbhyO mOkshayishyAmi”. Since karma is controlled by him, he is referred to as virtuous and viceful deeds.
Is this all?
marungirundha vAnavardhAm – (AzhwAr tells samsAris that) since brahmA, rudhra et al are at a far away distance, there may be a bewilderment in your minds that they are one with emperumAn. But in SAsthras, aren’t celestial entities such as indhra, agni (deity for fire), vAyu (deity for wind), sUrya (sun) et al, who are chEthanas like us and are near us, also mentioned as emperumAn? Do not vEdhams say “SakraScha nArAyaNa” “thathEvAgnis thadh vAyu: thadh sUryas thadhu chandhramA:” (that brahmam itself is agni, that itself is vAyu, that itself is sUrya and that itself is chandhra (moon)). Can we say svarUpaikyam (oneness with emperumAn) for these celestial entities?
AzhwAr further mercifully says, when told “what if we say that they have svarUpaikyam?”
dhAnavar thAm – isn’t it said that emperumAn is also the sinful demons? Can we say oneness for these demons with him?
When told “What if we say that there is svarUpaikyam between emperumAn and chEthanas (sentient entities)?” AzhwAr responds saying . . . .
thAragaidhAn – even insentient entity earth is nArAyaNa. Do not vEdhas proclaim that insentient entities are also nArAyaNa as in “dhiSaScha nArAyaNa: vidhiSaScha nArAyaNa: nArAyaNa EvEdham sarvam ” (directions are nArAyaNa, intermediate regions are nArAyaNa, all these are nArAyaNa)! Can one say oneness for achEthana (insentient) entities which are full of faults with the supreme entity who is the opposite of any fault?
Who is that entity who is all of these?
en nenjam AnavardhAn – just as it is mentioned in subAlOpanishath “manaScha nArAyaNa” (mind is nArAyaNa), AzhwAr says that the one who is in his heart is all of these too.
Is this all? AzhwAr further clarifies . . .
allAdhadhen – what entity is there among those mentioned in SAsthras which is not nArAyaNa? vEdhas say “nArAyaNa idham sarvam” (nArAyaNa is all these), “sarvam kalvidham brahma thajjalAn” (since all these (entities) appear, live and fade away in brahmam, these are all brahmam only). Thus, if the argument that brahmA, rudhra et al are to be considered as one with nArAyaNa is to be accepted as valid, then svarUpaikyam (oneness in form) has to be accepted for all sentient and insentient entities which is totally faulty. Since all entities such as brahmA, rudhra et al cannot sustain if separated from him and sustain themselves due to him, we have to consider that everything is emperumAn himself. Thus the opinion is that concepts such as Athmaikyam, dhEvaikyam, thrimUrthyaikyam (oneness with all sentient entities, oneness with all celestial entities, oneness with the three mUrthis) will not be valid.
We will take up the 58th pAsuram next.
adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan
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