SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
761) sathyamEdhA: (सत्यमॆधाः)
bhagavAn has said thus to the yAdhavas in many instances: “I have born in your womb…”, “Know me as your close relative…”, etc.
As seen in these words, bhagavAn didn’t incarnate as krishNa just for the sake of it, with all hypocrisy. Rather, he heartily took birth in the clan of yAdhavas, and identified himself very closely with them as the son of vasudhEva, a close associate of the cowherd folks, etc.
Thus, he is called ‘sathyamEdhA:’ – the one with an honest mind.
bhagavAn himself says thus to the cowherd folks:
- “If you all have true love towards me, and if I am respected amongst you folks, then know me also to be one amongst you, without differentiating me on any grounds”
- “I am no dhEva; I am not a gandharva; I am no yaksha; nor am I a dhAnava. I am one amongst you, born as a cowherd. Therefore, you must not set me apart from yourself”, etc.
Etymology: He, who is honest in his heart in identifying himself with the cowherd folks, vasudhEva, and others, is called ‘sathyamEdhA:’.
वल्लवीवसुदॆवादि साजात्यस्याभिमानिनी |
मॆधा यस्यास्ति सत्या सः सत्यमॆधाः प्रकीर्तितः ||
762) dharAdhara: (धराधरः)
When indhra got angry at krishNa for taking away his share of food and started raining hailstones (some say only ‘stones’), bhagavAn decided to protect the innocent cowherds.
The bhAgavatha purANa shows this incident thus:
“bhagavAn then decided that he must protect the cowherds from the onset of hail rains. He thus decided to daringly lift the mountain which was next to them (gOvardhana) and hold it as an umbrella under which all the cowherds could seek shelter from the rain.”
Thus, bhagavAn lifted the gOvardhana mountain, which is why he is called ‘dharAdhara:’ – the one who holds the mountain.
Etymology: The one who instantly bore the gOvardhana mountain (with his little finger) is called ‘dharAdhara:’.
धरं गॊवर्धनं शीघ्रं धृतवान् स धराधरः |
तॆजॊवृषॊ द्युतिधरः सर्वशस्त्रभृतां वरः ।
प्रग्रहॊ निग्रहॊ व्यग्रॊ नैकशृङ्गॊ गदाग्रजः ॥ ८१ ॥
763) thEjOvrusha: (तॆजॊवृषः)
In this way, bhagavAn showers his effulgence in the form of protection of his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘thEjOvrusha:’.
Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘thEjOvrusha:’, since he showers his divine effulgence in the form of protection of his devotees. This eight lettered manthra bestows kinsmen among the chanters.
तॆजॊsभिवर्षति यतः सुहृत्पालनलक्षणम् |
तॆजॊवृषः समाख्यातॊ वस्वर्णॊ मित्रवृद्धिदः ||
764) dhyuthidhara: (द्युतिधरः)
For the same reason (of showering effulgence in the form of protection of his devotees), bhagavAn possesses extraordinary effulgence which can even pacify the ego of indhra although krishNa is in his youth. Thus, he is called ‘dhyuthidhara:’.
Etymology: The one who possesses extraordinary effulgence that can tame even the egotistic feeling of indhra is popularly called ‘dhyuthidhara:’. This eight lettered manthra confers effulgence upon the seekers.
अमानुषीं यॊ धृतवान् द्युतिमैन्द्राभिभावुकम् |
ख्यातः स हि द्युतिधरः वस्वर्णः कान्तिदॊ मनुः ||
765) sarvaSasthrabhruthAm vara: (सर्वशस्त्रभृतांवरः)
bhagavAn showed that he is the best among the wielders of weapons while fighting against narakAsura, jarAsandha, et al. Thus, he is called ‘sarvaSasthrabhruthAm vara:’ – the best among the wielders of all weapons.
The vishNu purANa hails thus: “That act of wielding various kinds of weapons at his enemies is a divine sport of that lord of all worlds in his human incarnation”
Etymology: He, who proved to be the best amongst all wielders of various weapons in fighting against jarAsandha and others, is popular in all worlds as ‘sarvaSasthrabhruthAm vara:’.
जरासन्धादिसमरॆ श्रॆष्ठः शस्त्रभृतां च यः |
स ख्यातः सर्वलॊकॆषु सर्वशस्त्रभृतां वरः ||
766) pragraha: (प्रग्रहः)
arjuna was controlled by krishNa through his words, just as the horses pulling his chariot were controlled by the reins held by krishNa. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘pragraha:’ – the one who holds the reins.
Etymology: With bhagavAn as his charioteer, arjuna was controlled by his words just as much as the horses pulling his chariot were controlled by the reins held by him. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘pragraha:’.
पार्थः सारथिनानॆन सदश्व इव रश्मिभिः |
प्रग्रह्यतॆ यतस्तस्मात् प्रग्रहः समुदाहृतः ||
767) nigraha: (निग्रहः)
Without even depending on arjuna’s valour, bhagavAn oppressed the entire enemy camp single handed – just by his skilful charioteering. Thus, he is called ‘nigraha:’ – the oppressor of all enemies.
Etymology: He – by whom the enemies were subdued by mere virtue of skilful charioteering – is called ‘nigraha:’. This seven lettered manthra destroys all enemies of the chanter.
यॆन सारथ्यवैचित्र्यात् निगृह्यन्तॆ स्म शत्रवः |
स निग्रहः समाख्यातः सप्तार्णः शत्रुनाशकः ||
768) vyagra: (व्यग्रः)
bhagavAn is called ‘vyagra:’ because he was impatient to wait till arjuna fought the battle and destroyed his enemies. The root ‘aga’ (अग) means to traverse a crooked path. It gets the ‘ran’ (रन्) adjunct and the ‘vi’ (वि) upasarga, resulting in this divine name. This means bhagavAn took to alternate ways to destroy the enemies in the battle.
This is shown in SrI mahAbharatha; where bhagavAn himself says thus while charging towards bhIshma:
“Oh sAthyaki! Those who are gone are gone forever. Those who are remaining here shall also go soon. Now behold bhIshma who shall fall from his chariot giving away to my charge. Also see for yourself how dhrONa and others shall be busted by me in this battle”.
Having said thus, bhagavAn jumped from his chariot leaving the reins of the horses. He took the mighty chakra in his hands and charged towards bhIshma and others.
Etymology: He who was impatient to wait till arjuna fought the battle to win over his enemies (and who himself jumped into the war field to ruin the enemy camp) is called ‘vyagra:’. This six syllable manthra destroys all enemies of the chanter.
युद्धकर्मासहिष्णुत्वात् पार्थविद्विड्विनिग्रहॆ |
यॊsसौ व्यग्रः समाख्यातः षडर्णॊ वैरिनाशकः ||
769) naikaSrunga: (नैकशृङ्गः)
bhagavAn possessed a multitude of means of oppressing the enemies in the battlefield, such as his intellect, his charioteering skills, his vow of never taking up any weapon on the war field, yet taking up his chakrAyudha when needed, etc. In this way, he took to several ways of defeating the enemies of his dear devotees. Thus, he is called ‘naikaSrunga:’ – the one who has a multitude of oppressing ways.
The root ‘Sru’ (शृ) means to cause suffering. It gets the ‘gan’ (गन्) adjunct, with an import of ‘kith’ (कित्) and ‘nut’ (नुट्), resulting in this divine name.
Etymology: He is called ‘naikaSrunga:’, who possesses a multitude of ways of oppressing his enemies.
नैकशृङ्गॊ यस्य नैकं स्यात् शृङ्गं वैरिबाधकम् |
770) gadhAgraja: (गदाग्रजः)
bhagavAn krishNa was born as the elder brother of gadha (गदः), who was the son of vasudhEva and sunAmA. Thus, he is called ‘gadhAgraja:’.
Etymology: Since bhagavAn was the elder brother of a person named ‘gadha’, he is called ‘gadhAgraja:’.
गदनाम्नश्चाग्रजत्वात् गदाग्रज इतीरितः |
चतुरात्मा चतुर्भावश्चतुर्वॆदविदॆकपात् ॥ ८२ ॥
adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan
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