SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 60 (Names 591 to 600)

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591) SAnthi: (शान्तिः)

Among such firmly placed devotees, bhagavAn causes them to forget all their false identities with lower deeds and soothes them by fixing their minds in himself. Thus, he is called ‘SAnthi:’.

Etymology: Since all other engagements of the devotees of bhagavAn who have firmly fixed their minds in him are purged in their deep state of meditation called ‘samAdhi’, he is called ‘SAnthi:’. This six lettered manthra is capable of conferring highest devotion towards bhagavAn unto the chanters.

सर्वाधिकाराः शाम्यन्ति समाधौ परमॆ यतः |
अतः शान्तिरिति प्रॊक्तः ऋत्वर्णॊ भक्तिदॊ मनुः ||

592) parAyaNam (परायणम्)

Not just that; bhagavAn further enhances true devotion towards himself – which confers the supreme abode – amongst such souls who have stabilized their minds thus (as shown in the previous divine names). Thus, he is called ‘parAyaNam’ – the one who shows the way to the supreme abode.

bhagavAn himself declares this in the bhagavath gIthA thus:

  • “He who gives up the ills of wrong perception of self, strength, ego, desire, anger and greed, and meditates without even a trace of selflessness and with a completely calmed mind, is fit to enjoy the supreme brahman. Such a seeker has a happy mind, and neither desires for any pleasure nor worries for any sorrows. He treats all beings alike, and eventually attains the supreme devotion towards me, which will uplift him”
  • “Oh arjuna, I am not accessible otherwise to such persons who are not equipped with such pure devotion unto me. Such souls (who do not possess such pure devotion) can neither know me, nor see me; they cannot attain me either”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn himself instigates the highest devotion towards himself, which eventually becomes the tool to attain him, he is called ‘parAyaNam’.

यस्मात्तु परमाभक्तिः चरमा प्रापिका मता |
तस्मात् परायणमिति स्मृतॊ ह्यष्टार्ण उत्तमः ||

शुभाङ्गः शान्तिदः स्रष्टा कुमुदः कुवलॆशयः ।
गॊहितॊ गॊपतिर्गॊप्ता वृषभाक्षॊ वृषप्रियः ॥ ६३ ॥

593) SubhAnga: (शुभाङ्गः) (also repeated in 788)

For such a focused devotion / bhakthi, since bhagavAn himself bestows the eight limbs of yOga right from ‘yama’ up till ‘samAdhi’, he is called ‘SubhAnga:’ – the one who bestows the auspicious limbs of yOga.

He only takes care of attainment and safeguarding of the needs of his devotees in reaching him.

Etymology: He who bestows the auspicious eight limbs of yOga such as yama, niyama etc in order to instigate devotion towards himself (as seen in previous divine names) is called ‘SubhAnga:’. This seven lettered manthra bestows the power to meditate unto its chanters.

स्वभक्त्युद्भव-कल्याण-यमाद्यष्टाङ्गसम्भवः |
यः स्यात् शुभाङ्गः स प्रॊक्तः सप्तार्णॊ ध्यानदायकः ||

594) SAnthidha: (शान्तिदः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn bestows eternal peace unto those souls who have developed such pure devotion towards him, by keeping them united with him at all times in his supreme abode, and thus relieving them from the sorrows of the cycles of birth and death.

Thus, he is called ‘SAnthidha:’ – the one who bestows peace.

The SvEthAsvathara upanishath hails thus: “Knowing that auspicious entity SrIman nArAyaNa, who solely pervades all of the worlds, he (the individual soul) attains eternal peace”

bhagavAn also declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “With my grace, you shall attain the supreme abode, which is both eternal and peaceful”

The vEdhas also hail thus: “Having realized that supreme soul bhagavAn, who is the sole master of all worlds and the bestower of desires, the individual soul attains eternal peace”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn bestows the highly blissful and eternal peace unto those souls who have thus (as shown in the previous divine names) developed pure devotion towards him, which comes from their eternal association with bhagavAn in SrIvaikuNtam, he is called ‘SAnthidha:’.

एवं निष्पन्नभक्तिभ्यः शान्तिं सायुज्यसंज्ञिकाम् |
महानन्दां ददातीति शान्तिदः परिकीर्तितः ||

595) srashtA (स्रष्टा) (also repeated in 990)

Even while liberating the ‘mumukshu’s (souls desiring liberation) thus (as shown in the previous divine name), bhagavAn continues to make the other souls (who desire to be in this samsAra) to be born in this samsAra according to their previous karma. Thus, he is called ‘srashtA’ – the creator.

The root ‘sruj’ सृज् (to create) gets the ‘am’ (अम्) adjunct as per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He who makes the souls who are not interested in liberation to be born in this samsAra according to their karma is called ‘srashtA’.

कर्मवैचित्र्यतः सृज्यान् स्रष्टा स्यात् सृजतीति यः |

596) kumudha: (कुमुदः) (also repeated in 813)

The letter ‘ku’ (कु) refers to the prakruthi maNdalam (this leelA vibhUthi), which is the land of enjoyment of both higher as well as lower sensations (as per karma) like sight, sound, touching, etc for all souls who desire to continue in this samsAra. Since bhagavAn satisfies such souls in this leelA vibhUthi by giving them such enjoyments, and thus enjoys himself, he is called ‘kumudha:’.

As per the grammatical rules, the ‘ka:’ (कः) adjunct is used in this divine name.

The SvEthAsvathara upanishath hails thus:

  • “The servile individual soul gets tied up (in this samsAra) in order to enjoy (the fruits of karma)”
  • “The supreme soul and the individual soul are both eternal, and are respectively the most knowledgeable and the ignorant. They are also respectively the master and servant by nature”, etc.

Etymology: He, who himself always enjoys by making the individual souls (who are not interested in mOksham) enjoy the fruits of their actions in this prakruthi maNdalam (ku), is called ‘kumudha:’.

कौ प्राकृतॆ मण्डलॆsस्मिन् स्वभॊक्तॄनपि भॊजयन् |
मॊदतॆ यः सर्वकालं कुमुदः स तु गीयतॆ ||

597) kuvalESaya: (कुवलॆशयः)

In this divine name, the letter ‘ku’ (कु) means ‘condemned’. The root ‘valanthE’ (वलन्तॆ) means to keep coming around in a certain enclosure, which is this ‘samsAra’. Thus, the word ‘kuvala:’ (कुवलः) refers to a condemned individual soul who does not take interest in liberation and keeps cycling in this wheel of samsAra. Such fallen souls consider themselves as the masters of their own body, senses, etc. Thus, they are contextually called as ‘kuvalESA:’ (कुवलॆशाः).

Since bhagavAn is the one who governs even such fallen souls and eventually attains them, he is called ‘kuvalESaya:’. The word ‘yAthi’ (याति) refers to attainment of such souls.

Etymology: The individual souls whose boundaries are condemned (whose boundary is this samsAra) are called ‘kuvalA:’. Since they consider themselves as the masters of their body, senses, etc, (and are driven by material pursuits), they are called ‘kuvalESA:’. He who governs even such fallen souls and eventually attains them is called ‘kuvalESaya:’.

वलं यॆषां कुत्सितं तॆ कुवलाः जीवसंज्ञिताः |
दॆहॆन्द्रियादॆरीशास्तॆ कुवलॆशा इति स्मृताः |
यस्तान् नियच्छन् यात्यॆष कुवलॆशय उच्यतॆ ||

598) gOhitha: (गॊहितः)

The word ‘gO’ (गॊ) in this divine name refers to ‘prakruthi’. It is the place (field) where bhagavAn sows the seed of samsAra. Since he maintains the welfare of this prakruthi, he is called ‘gOhitha:’.

The SvEthAsvathara upanishath hails thus: “He who establishes all these various births in this samsAra, and in whom all these entities merge at the time of deluge, that sole master of all entities must be meditated upon”

It is said thus in other scriptures:

  • “The word ‘gau:’ (गौः) refers to the primordial nature (प्रकृतिः), which has no beginning or no end to it. It is the cause (material cause) for all these creations, and it is the place where all these entities are nurtured”
  • “All of these worlds are established by him, and all the end results are also established by him”, etc.

Etymology: He who establishes (makes manifest) the primordial nature or prakruthi, which is the field of cultivation for the seed of samsAra, (and thus looks after its welfare) is called ‘gOhitha:’.

संसारबीजक्षॆत्रस्य प्रकृतॆः स्थापकश्च यः स गॊहितः |

599) gOpathi: (गॊपतिः) (also repeated in 497)

bhagavAn is also the master of swarga, which is the land of superior enjoyments (in comparison to our own world). Thus, he is called ‘gOpathi:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘gOpathi:’ owing to his mastership over the swarga lOka as well.

स्वर्गभूमॆः पतित्वात् गॊपतिः स्मृतः |

600) gOpthA (गॊप्ता) (also repeated in 498)

bhagavAn further protects this cycle of the fruits of karma (namely birth and death) for all individual souls (who are not interested in mOksham). Thus, he is called ‘gOpthA’.

Etymology: He is called ‘gOpthA’, who looks after maintaining the cycle of fruits of karma.

गॊप्ता स यः कर्मफलचक्रस्य परिपालकः |

Thus ends the sixth centum (shashta Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hAritha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnka miSra (kUraththAzhwan) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The sixth centum is completed.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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