Monthly Archives: October 2019

SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 33 (Names 321 to 330)

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321) prathitha: (प्रथितः)

Since bhagavAn is popularly known to hold his greatness at all times, he is called ‘prathitha:’ – the popular one.

This is as said in the scriptures thus:

  • “…His name is widely known”
  • “He is the only one who is bound to succeed in everything”, etc.

Etymology: The one who is popular in this world due to his being ‘achyutha’ (as explained in the previous divine name) is called ‘prathitha:’.

अच्युतत्वॆन लॊकॆsस्मिन् प्रख्यातः प्रथितः स्मृतः |

322) prANa: (प्राणः) (also repeated in 67 and 408)

The one who is verily the life force for all souls in this world is called ‘prANa:’. (In the 67th divine name, bhagavAn’s nature of being dear to the nithyasUris as much as their very life force was expounded. In this divine name, bhagavAn being the life force for all individual souls in this world during his incarnations is said)

The scriptures hail thus:

  • “I am verily the life force, and the knower. Know me to be the life of all, and verily the nectar, and worship me”
  • “bhagavAn is the nectar for all dhEvas, and he is verily the life of all souls”
  • “bhagavAn is called ‘prANa:’, since he is the life force in every entity”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is like the life force in every individual soul, he is called ‘prANa:’.

पुंसां जीवितरूपत्वात् प्राण इत्यभिदीयतॆ |

323) prANadha: (प्राणदः) (also repeated in 66, 409 and 956)

Thereafter the ensuing divine names hail the kUrmAvathAra (incarnation as the great tortoise) of bhagavAn.

Since bhagavAn bestowed the dhEvas with all energy necessary to churn the magnificent milky ocean, he is called ‘prANadha:’ – the bestower of power.

In the manthra varNas, bhahavAn is hailed as “the one with immense power”.

Etymology: The one who bestowed the dhEvas with all necessary energy to churn the mighty milky ocean during his incarnation as the great tortoise is called ‘prANadha:’.

मरुतां बलदानाद्धि समुद्रमथनॆ भृशम् |
प्राणदश्च समुद्दिष्टः कूर्मरूपतया हि सः ||

324) vAsavAnuja: (वासवानुजः)

Since bhagavAn was born as the younger brother of indhra – who desired for the lost wealth and nectar by churning the milky ocean, he is called ‘vAsavAnuja:’.

The root ‘jan’ जन् (to be born) is prefixed with the word ‘anu’ अनु (following), due to which it gets the ‘da:’ (डः) suffix, resulting in the word ‘anuja:’. Since bhagavAn incarnated as the brother of indhra, he is called ‘vAsavAnuja:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn was born as the younger brother of indhra, he is called ‘vAsavAnuja:’.

वासवस्यानुजत्वॆन जातत्वात् वासवानुजः |

325) apAmnidhi: (अपांनिधिः)

The one who supported the mighty ocean during its churning is called ‘apAmnidhi:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘apAmnidhi:’ due to his supporting of the mighty ocean that was being churned.

अपांनिधिः मथ्यमान-महार्णव-विधारणात् |

326) adhishtAnam (अधिष्ठानम्)

At the same time as he supported the mighty ocean, he also supported the mandhara mountain that was used as the churning rod by holding it firmly from above. Thus, he is called ‘adhishtAnam’ – the supporting base.

Etymology: The one who firmly held the moving mandhara mountain in the churning waters is called ‘adhishtAnam’. he is indeed the one who supports every entity.

भ्राम्यमाणं मन्दराद्रिं धृतवान् यॊ महाजलॆ |
अधिष्ठानं तमॆवाहुः अधिष्ठानप्रदॊ मनुः ||

327) apramaththa: (अप्रमत्तः)

Since bhagavAn is ever cautious in protecting his devotees thus, he is called ‘apramaththa:’ – the one who never falters.

Etymology: The one who is extremely mindful in protecting his devotees is called ‘apramaththa:’.

अत्यन्तावहितस्त्राणॆ ह्यप्रमत्तः प्रकीर्तितः |

328) prathishtitha: (प्रतिष्ठितः)

Since bhagavAn does not need another support for himself and stands firm in his own greatness, he is called ‘prathishtitha:’.

The chAndhOgya upanishath raises a question and also provides an answer thus: “Where does that bhagavAn rest? He rests in his own greatness”

Even the vishNu dharma says thus: “…that supreme lord, who is ever established in his own greatness…”

Etymology: The one who is established in his own greatness (without an expectation of any external support) is called ‘prathishtitha:’.

स्वॆ महिम्नि स्थितॊ यस्तु स प्रतिष्ठित उच्यतॆ |

============================
स्कन्दः स्कन्दधरॊ धुर्यॊ वरदॊ वायुवाहनः ।
वासुदॆवॊ बृहद्भानुरादिदॆवः पुरन्दरः ॥ ३६ ॥
============================

329) skandha: (स्कन्दः)

Since bhagavAn withers the asuras during his incarnation as mahA kUrma, he is called ‘skandha:’ – the one who destroys.

Etymology: The one who slays or destroys or withers the asuras is called ‘skandha:’.

असुरादीन् शॊषयति स्कन्दः स्कन्दयतीति यः |

330) skandhadhara: (स्कन्दधरः)

Since bhagavAn supports even the commander-in-chief of dhEvas – subrahmaNya (skandha), he is called ‘skandhadhara:’. After all, even subrahmaNya is also included in bhagavAn’s wealth of entities (vibhUthi).

As bhagavAn himself declares in the bhagavath gIthA, he is ‘skandha’ among commanders.

Etymology: The one who supports even the six headed subrahmaNya is called ‘skandhadhara:’.

स स्कन्दधर आख्यातः षडाननविधारणात् |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 73 – mannivvagalidaththai

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manniv vagalidaththai mAmudhunIr thAn vizhungap                                    103
pinnum Or EnamAyp pukku vaLai maruppin
konnavilum kUrnudhi mEl vaiththeduththa kUththanai                                 104

Word by word meaning

mannu i agal idaththai – this expansive earth where everyone is fitting well
mA mudhu nIr thAN vizhunga – when mAhapraLayam (deluge) swallowed
pinnum – after that
Or EnamAy pukku – entered (the ocean) as a divine boar
vaLai maruppin – of the curved tusks
kol navilum kUr nudhi mEl – on top of the sharp edges which are capable of killing enemies
vaiththu eduththa kUththanai – one who did a great activity, carrying (that earth)

vyAkyAnam

mannu ivvagalidaththai . . . . . kUththanai – parakAla nAyaki says that the fame of one, who protected not only prahlAdha, who had knowledge and firmness of mind, but also those who were not even aware that they were suffering, by looking only at the relationship [between samsAris and himself] and protected them during the danger of deluge, is also going to get destroyed.

mannivvagalidaththai – this property of vAmana, which has been his for a very long time. mannu – standing for a long time. This would also mean the earth where everyone is fitting well.

mAmudhu nIr thAn vizhunga – just as it has been mentioned in thaiththirIya upanishath “adhbhya prithvI” (earth formed from water), water, which created earth, swallowed it. Just as a person who is posted to guard something steals it, ocean, which was the entity to protect earth, set out to swallow it.

pinnum – there is no end to protection.It will keep continuing.

Or Enam – Incomparable wild boar. If one were to look at the beauty of the divine body which he had created to destroy his greatness, it would make that person [who sees that divine body] to carry out something to ward off evil eyes.

Enam – form of wild boar which lives on both marshy land and in water.

konnavilum kUrnudhi mEl – the tusks of the boar were so sharp that one can escape if one were favourable to emperumAn. However if one were inimical to him, the tusks will destroy the person by killing him.

vaiththu eduththa – carrying (earth) on the sharp edge of the tusks.

kUththanaiit is implied that if one were to see this event, it wouldn’t matter if deluge comes everyday.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 17

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மாநிலத்தில் முன் நம் பெரியாழ்வார் வந்துதித்த
ஆனி தன்னில் சோதி என்றால் ஆதரிக்கும் – ஞானியர்க்கு
ஒப்போர் இல்லை இவ்வுலகு தனில் என்று நெஞ்சே
எப்பொழுதும் சிந்தித்திரு 

பதினேழாம் பாசுரம். பெரியாழ்வார் அவதரித்த ஆனி ஸ்வாதி என்றால் உருகக்கூடிய ஞானிகளுக்கு இவ்வுலகிலே வேறு எவரும் ஒப்பில்லை என்று தன் நெஞ்சுக்கு உரைக்கிறார்.

நெஞ்சே! முற்காலத்தில், இந்தப் பெருநிலமான பூமியிலே, பெரியாழ்வார் வந்துதித்த ஆனி ஸ்வாதி தினத்தைச் சொன்னால் நெஞ்சு உருகக்கூடிய ஞானிகளுக்கு இவ்வுலகில் ஒப்பானவர்கள் எவரும் இல்லை என்று எப்பொழுதும் நீ நினைத்திரு.

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.2.3 – Urum putkodiyum

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Second decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the third pAsuram, AzhwAr says “No particular divine name is required to eliminate the hurdles, anyone among the thousand is enough”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

Urum putkodiyum ahdhE ulagellAm uNdumizhndhAn
sErum thaN ananthapuram sikkenap pudhirAgil
thIrum nOy vinaigaL ellAm thiNNam nAm ariyach chonnOm
pErum Or AyiraththuL onRu nIr pEsuminE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

(To protect)
puL – periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr)
Urum – will ride;
kodiyum – the flag hoisted for protecting
ahdhE – is also that;

(during praLayam (deluge) when he cannot go and protect)
ulagu ellAm – whole world
uNdu – consumed (and protected by placing in the stomach)
umizhndhAn – spat it out after deluge
sErum – mercifully resting to give audience to those who are of subsequent times
thaN – invigorating
ananthapuram – thiruvananthapuram
sikkena – with firm faith in not expecting anything other than kainkaryam
pugudhirAgil – if you reach
nOy – disease (of taste for worldly pleasures)
vinaigaL ellam thIrum – all karmas (which are the root for such disease) will be eliminated;
nAm – we, who are experts in this principle

(for you)
aRiya – to know
thiNNam – firmly
sonnOm – told;

(going there)
pErum Or AyiraththuL – among his enjoyable thousand divine names
onRu – anyone
nIr – you
pEsumin – recite.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn will ride periya thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr); the flag hoisted for protection is also the same garudAzhwAr. emperumAn consumed the whole world, spat it out after the deluge, and is mercifully resting to give audience to those who are of subsequent times in invigorating thiruvananthapuram. If you reach there with firm faith in not expecting anything other than kainkaryam, your diseases and all karmas will be eliminated. We, who are experts in this principle, have firmly told this for you to know. You can recite any one among his enjoyable thousand divine names. While all his names are enjoyable, no names are to be considered as primary or secondary.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • Urum puL – He will ride periya thiruvadi, as his vehicle.
  • kodiyum ahdhE – This is a sample for nithyasUris too. This is highlighted to show that the variegated forms/aspects acquired by those nithyasUris who are untouched by samsAram as said in mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 53senRAl kudaiyAm” (becomes umbrella when emperumAn walks), will be applicable even for emperumAn who reached thiruvananthapuram [i.e., nithyasUris will serve archAvathAra emperumAn also in the same way]. Even if the servitor says as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.25 “aham sarvam karishyAmi” (I will serve you both (perumAL and pirAtti) in all the ways), there is no use, unless emperumAn accepts it as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.22 “kurushva mAm” (lakhsmaNa to SrI rAma – You should make me follow you). For the servitor, when he does not engage in small services, he cannot retain his svarUpam (true nature). emperumAn who has no expectation, will take up an inferior position and eliminate the servitor’s shortcomings. He will remain an expectant (of the servitor’s service) and make the servitor become devoid of expectation. emperumAn should remain devoid of any expectation and yet make the servitor retain his true nature. When he minimizes his own stature to have the servitor’s true nature established, that will help in retaining his non-expectant nature. Only after remaining as said in periya thirumozhi 2.2.3 “innAr thUdhan ena ninRAn evvuL kidandhAnE” (He who stood there to be said as ‘he is the messenger of pANdavas’ is now resting in thiruvevvuL”), his true nature (of being subservient towards his devotees) was established.
  • ulagu … – Not only does he accept service from those who are untouched by samsAra, he also consumes the world during the danger of deluge, protects it by placing in his stomach and releases it subsequently by spitting it out so that it does not struggle inside.
  • sErum thaN ananthapuram – During the danger of deluge, the world was in anxiety till it entered emperumAn’s stomach; he had the same anxiety until he entered this dhivyadhESam; it is saying that this the abode where he, who protected us during the danger of delug,e has reached, or is saying that he is mercifully resting here without any worries.
  • thaN ananthapuram –  It is not because of his bewilderment, he is desirous of this town; he cannot leave it due to its enjoyability. Since it is known as “ugandharuLina nilam” (emperumAn dwells there with great eagerness), should it not be like this? It is said in thirunedundhANdagam 6thAnugandha Ur” (the abode which is dear to him). paramapadham is dear to both himself and nithyasUris; here it is only his desire; even when they don’t manifest the same desire, he is eagerly waiting here.
  • sikkena – As said in chAndhOgya upanishath 8.15 “na cha punarAvarthathE” (there is no return), if you reach there with irreversible taste.
  • thIrum … – The sorrows and their cause will be eliminated.
  • thiNNam – As said in ithihAsams/purANams “sathyam sathyam punas sathyam …” (I declare the truth again and again).
  • nAm aRiyach chonnOm – We who have seen it our ourselves, are firmly telling you who don’t understand the greatness, to not lose it.
  • nAm – AzhwAr has suffered a lot previously and finally has seen the shore now.
  • sonnOm – We have told so that we are not blamed for not informing; if they [worldly people], being bound, do not believe it and continue to suffer, let them do that.

You told that reaching thiruvanthapuram is to be done. What do we recite after having reached there?

  • pErum Or … – We have already told that he is having thousand names where each of those names will protect in thousand ways; among those, you can recite any one of the names, which you like.
  • pEsuminE – You don’t even need to do it with heart’s consent – just plain recital is enough.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 16

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இன்றைப் பெருமை அறிந்திலையோ ஏழை நெஞ்சே

இன்றைக்கு என் ஏற்றம் எனில் உரைக்கேன் நன்றி புனை

பல்லாண்டு பாடிய நம் பட்டர் பிரான் வந்துதித்த

நல்லானியில் சோதி நாள் 

பதினாறாம் பாசுரம். மற்றைய ஆழ்வார்களைவிட மிகுந்த பெருமையைப் பெற்றவரான பெரியாழ்வாரின் ஏற்றத்தை இப்பாசுரம் தொடக்கமாக ஐந்து பாசுரங்களில் வெளியிடுகிறார். இப்பாசுரத்திலே பெரியாழ்வார் அவதரித்த ஆனியில் சோதி நன்னாளின் பெருமையை தன்னடைய திருவுள்ளத்துக்கு அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

மற்றைய ஆழ்வார்களின் திருநக்ஷத்ரங்களிலே சபல புத்தி உடைய நெஞ்சமே! இந்த ஆனி மாதம் ஸ்வாதி நன்னாளின் பெருமை உனக்குத் தெரியுமா? நான் சொல்லுகிறேன் கேள். மங்களாசாஸனம் என்ற உயர்ந்த தாத்பர்யத்தை தன்னுள் கொண்டுள்ள திருப்பல்லாண்டை அருளிச்செய்த பட்டர்பிரான் அவதரித்த தினம் ஆகையாலே இது ஒரு சிறந்த நாள்.

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periya thirumadal – 72 – thannudaiya thALmEl

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thannudaiya thALmEl kidAththi avanudaiya
ponnagalam vaLLugirAl pOzhndhu pugazh padaiththa                                 102
minnilangum Azhip padaiththadakkai vIranai

Word by word meaning

thannudaiya thAL mEl kidAththi – making (hiraNya) to lie on his lap
avanudaiya – his
pon agalam – beautiful chest
vaL ugirAl pOzhndhu – parted asunder with his sharp nails
pugazh padaiththa – getting the fame (of having protected his follower, prahlAdha)
min ilangum Azhi padai thadaikkai vIranai – being a great warrior who has the divine chakrAyudham (disc) which is radiant like lightning 

vyAkyAnam

thannudaiya thAL mEl kidAththi – on [emperumAn’s] lap where periya pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) will recline, instead of making me [prakAla nAyaki] recline, will he make a rude entity to recline? One of the commentators for this prabandham, azhagiya maNavALap perumAL nAyanAr quotes nampiLLai who has said that he had heard from bhattar (parASara bhattar) who said that parakAla nAyaki is saying “He should have allowed people like me to approach his lap; on the divine feet which are the goal for his followers, how is he keeping a demonic entity? ”

avanudaiya ponnagalam – the demon’s name is hiraNyan which means one made of gold. Thus his chest is golden hued. Alternatively, just as a sacrificial lamb is nurtured well, his chest is made to look beautiful so that it can be an apt prey for emperumAn’s divine nails.

vaLLugirAl pOzhndhu – Since it was golden chest, it melted under the fiery eyes of emperumAn. Then, with his beautiful nails, emperumAn tore it just like one tears the rind of a banana plant.

pugazh padaiththa – emperumAn gained the fame that even when one’s [biological] father turns inimical, he would be the father without any cause and that he is the generous person who would transform himself in order to protect his devotee.

minnilangum Azhi – the fat, huge body of hiraNyan was a small feed for emperumAn’s divine nails. The divine disc, since it could not get any prey, roared and let out effulgence, sticking out its tongue. Did not nammAzhwAr too say in thiruvAimozhi 4-8-7kiLaroLiyAl kuRaivillA ariyuruvAyk kiLarththezhundhu kiLaroLiya iraNiyanadhagal mArvam kizhiththugandha vaLaroLiya kanalAzhi valampuriyan” (emperumAn has the divine disc with its blazing flame and the divine conch even as he appeared with a rage as narasimha and tore apart into two, the broad chest of hiraNya who had a glowing lustre).

vIranai – AzhwAr recalls the nrusimha anushtup manthra which is famous in nrusimha
thApanIyOpanishath “ugram vIram” (the valorous person who is angry).

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 32 (Names 311 to 320)

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311) SishtEshta: (शिष्टॆष्टः)

Since bhagavAn is thus most desired by the scholarly men like mArkandEya and others as the ultimate goal of attainment, he is called ‘SishtEshta:’ – the one who is liked by learned men.

In the same AraNya parvaA of mahAbhAratha, bhagavAn is quoted to have said thus:

“All those learned men who are eternally stationed in saththva guna and have given up the body-mindedness continuously contemplate upon me, and worship me in all ways”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is desired as the supreme goal of attainment by foremost of all learned men and Brahmins such as mArkandEya et al, he is called ‘SishtEshta:’.

मार्कण्डॆयद्विजादीनां पण्डितॆष्वग्रयायिनाम् |
उत्कृष्टपुरुशार्थत्वॆन इष्टः शिष्टॆष्ट उच्यतॆ ||

312) SikhaNdI (शिखण्डी)

As shown in the scriptures that say “I see that lion among men seated, who is radiating immense effulgence”, bhagavAn possesses his immense, inviolable, and ruling effulgence itself as an ornament on his head. Hence, he is called ‘SikhaNdI’ – the one who possesses his greatness itself as his ornament.

Etymology: The one who possesses immense, inviolable and supreme effulgence itself as an ornament on his head is called ‘SikhaNdI’.

अत्यप्रधृष्यमैश्वर्यं परं यत्तॆज आस्थितम् |
तच्छिखण्डं तु यस्यास्ति तं शिखण्डीति चक्षतॆ ||

313) nahusha: (नहुषः)

bhagavAn binds the individual souls with his ‘mAyA’ (a strange power). Thus he is called ‘nahusha:’ – the one who binds. The word ‘nahyathi’ (नह्यति) means to bind. Thus, the etymologists indicate the meaning of this name as ‘the one who binds’.

As the SvEthASvathara upanishath puts it, “All of these are bound in his mAyA”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn always binds the individual souls with his power of ‘mAyA’, he is called ‘nahusha:’.

जीवान् स्वमायया नित्यं नहुषॊ नयतीति सः |

314) vrusha: (वृषः)

The same bhagavAn – who binds the individual souls in this material creation with his strange power called ‘mAyA’ – also revives such souls stuck in the interiors of this ocean (called samsAra) with his nectarine words and charming beauty, and revitalizes them with his nectarine showers of love. Thus, he is called ‘vrusha:’ – the one who sprinkles/showers.

This divine name comes from the root ‘vruSh’ (वृष्), meaning ‘to shower’.

mArkandEya maharishi says thus in the AraNya parva of mahAbhAratha: “Thence that boy with lotus-like eyes, a chest adorned with a mark called ‘SrIvathsa’, and a divine body full of effulgence spoke pleasing words to me thus: ‘Oh mArkandEya, I have known you. You are exhausted, and you need some rest’”

Etymology: Residing like nectar amidst the individual souls fallen into the ocean of samsAra, the one who revives such fallen souls with his charming beauty and sweet words and thus showers his love generously on such souls is called ‘vrusha:’.

सागरस्यॊदरॆ नित्यं वसन्नमृतरूपया |
स्वदॆहकान्त्या वाचाsपि सम्यगाश्वासयन् मुहुः ||
बहुशः सिञ्चति तु यः वृषः स परिपठ्यतॆ ||

315) krOdhahA (क्रॊधहा)

Thence, the incarnation of bhagavAn as bhArgava-rAma or ‘paraSurAma’ is hailed. Having uprooted twenty one generations of unruly kshathriyas, since bhagavAn as paraSurAma subdued his anger at the behest of kashyapa, he is called ‘krOdhahA’ – the one who subdued his anger.

Etymology: The one who subdued his anger that splay ill upon the kshathriyas, at the behest of kashyapa, is called ‘krOdhahA’. This six syllable manthra dispels anger of the chanters.

काश्यपस्य प्रार्थनया यः क्रॊधं क्षत्रहानिदं |
हतवान् क्रॊधहा प्रॊक्तः षडर्णः क्रॊधनाशकः ||

316) krOdhakruth (क्रॊधकृत्)

The one who was roused with anger at the unruly kshathriyas earlier is called ‘krOdhakruth’.

Etymology: ‘krOdhakruth’ is the one who was earlier roused with anger against the kshathriyas (for a full 21-generation period).

क्रॊधकृत् क्षत्रियॆभ्यॊ यः पुरा क्रॊधं करॊति सः |

317) karthA (कर्ता) (also repeated in 382)

The one who killed kArthavIrya who actually triggered such fierce anger in him is called ‘karthA’. The vishNu dharma says, “paraSurAma is the one who dispelled kshathriyas from the face of this earth”.

Etymology: The slayer of kArthavIrya, who was the main reason for triggering fierce rage is called ‘karthA’.

क्रुद्धॆतॊर्कार्तवीर्यस्य छॆत्ता कर्तॆति शब्द्यतॆ |

318) viSvabAhu: (विश्वबाहुः)

Since bhagavAn’s hands are thus beneficial to the entire world by removing thorns is called ‘viSvabAhu:’.

Etymology: The one whose hands are beneficial to the entire world is called ‘viSvabAhu:’.

विश्वस्मै यस्य बाहू स विश्वबाहुः प्रकीर्तितः |

319) mahIdhara: (महीधरः)

The one who bears the entire world by eliminating the weight in the form of evil people is called ‘mahIdhara:’.

Etymology: The one who reduces the load (by eliminating evil people) of this earth and bears it is called ‘mahIdhara:’.

भारावतरणं कृत्वा गां धत्तॆ स महीधरः |

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अच्युतः प्रथितः प्राणः प्राणदॊ वासवानुजः ।
अपांनिधिरधिष्ठानमप्रमत्तः प्रतिष्टितः ॥ ३५ ॥
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320) achyutha: (अच्युतः) (also repeated in 101, 557)

bhagavAn is hailed by brahmA, indhra, varuNa, and other dhEvas thus: “Oh lord, you are the one who never falter from your position (of protector). Thus, you are hailed by everyone as ‘achyutha:’ ”.

Since bhagavAn doesn’t give up his greatness even during his incarnations (births in various species) unlike the other demigods such as brahmA, rudhra, et al, he is called ‘achyutha:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn doesn’t lose his greatness even in his incarnations amidst the demigods such as brahmA, rudhra et al who are bound to lose their positions some day, he is called ‘achyutha:’.

साधर्म्यॆणावतारॆsपि ब्रह्मॆन्द्रवरुणादिभिः |
न स्वैश्वर्यात् प्रच्युतॊ यः सॊsच्युतः परिकीर्तितः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.2.2 – inRu pOy

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Second decad

Previous pAsuram

Image result for thiruvananthapuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram, AzhwAr says “Reciting a single divine name is sufficient to eliminate the hurdles;  that itself is a protection in thousand ways”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

inRu pOyp pugudhirAgil ezhumaiyum Edham sArA
kunRu nEr mAda mAdE kurundhu sEr serundhi punnai
manRalar pozhil ananthapura nagar mAyan nAmam
onRum OrAyiramAm uLLuvAr umbar UrE

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

inRu – without any delay, on the same day when the desire is acquired
pOy – go
pugudhir Agil – if you reach

(as said in “nOpajanam smaran“)
ezhumaiyum – forever
Edham – the defect of samsAra
sArA – will not affect;

(the abode which is reached)
kunRu nEr – like a mountain
mAdam – mansions
mAdE – in the proximity
kurundhu sEr – with kurundhu tree
serundhi – serundhi flower tree
punnai – punnai tree
manRu – in the centre of the town
alar – blossoming
pozhil – being enjoyable, having garden
ananthapura nagar – in the town of thiruvananthapuram
mAyan – (having qualities such as saundharya (beauty), sauSeelya (simplicity), saulabhya (easy approachability) etc which are enjoyed by his devotees) the amazing lord’s
nAmam – the names which highlight such qualities
onRum – any one of them
Or – being distinguished
Ayiram A – in thousand ways
uLLuvArkku – for those who determine

(the enjoyment of such qualities in that abode itself)
umbar Ur – paramapadham.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

If you go without any delay on the same day when the desire is acquired, and reach thiruvananthapuram, the defect of samsAra will forever not affect you; in thiruvananthapuram, blossoming gardens are present in the centre of the town which has proximity of mountain like mansions, kurundhu trees, along with serundhi trees and punnai trees; for those who determine in thousand ways, any one of the names which highlight the qualities of the amazing lord in such thiruvananthapuram, that town itself is paramapadham. Implies that paramapadham can be given up. manRu also implies manRal (spreading), meaning the garden which spreads fragrance.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • inRu pOy pugudhirAgil – If you go and reach there, today itself when you acquired the desire to go. “To become a qualified person, is it not required to have detachment towards worldly aspects etc? Is it enough to have the desire alone?” Yes. They are required for the matter [bhakthi yOgam etc] where such qualifications are expected as said in jAbAli smruthi “yadhaharEva virajEth thadhaharEva pravrajEth” (one should accept sanyAsam as soon as one acquires vairAgyam [detachment]); for that matter (emperumAn related matter) which is common for all, which is apt, and which is already desiring for him and waiting for his desire, such desire alone is required; since he cannot earn the qualification matching emperumAn’s greatness and emperumAn as said in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 60ALpArththuzhi tharuvAy kaNdu” (Oh! Lord you are in search of a person who has surrendered unto your divine feet), nothing else is required. He is of the nature to say as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.19 “yadhivA rAvaNasvayam” (even if it is rAvaNa himself, bring him); [SrI rAma says] don’t come back empty handed, even if rAvaNa had come carrying the name “vibhIshaNa”. When asked “Why?” [SrI rAma says] Don’t think whether it is not enough if we accepted someone who came from lankA. Only those who have shortcomings are desired by us; that (shortcomings) is present in rAvaNa. Since vibhIshaNa has good qualities as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 17.23 “vibhIshaNasthu dharmAthmA’ (vibhIshaNa is of noble character) , he can even come in the future; isn’t rAvaNa the one who is in a dangerous situation where even if he delays a fraction of a moment, he will see disaster? Hence, should we not accept rAvaNa first? Now, if we accept vibhIshaNa, these four assistants will also benefit along with him; but if we accept rAvaNa, we can accept the whole of rAkshasa clan; just as we accepted sugrIva mahAraja, leading to the uplifting of the whole monkey clan.
  • ezhumaiyum Edham sArA – Calamities will never befall us.
  • sArA – Even he need not specifically think about it. As said in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5.4.3 “summenAdhE kaivittOdum” (will run away being unable to breathe), they will not come close thinking “this is not the abode for us”; due to our relationship with the royal clan [of emperumAn], they will flee; periiya thiruvandhAdhi 54vAnO maRikadalO …” (After worshipping the divine feet of krishNa who killed vathsAsura and kapiththAsura, I don’t know where my sins went. Did they hide in the sky? Did they dissolve in the ocean? Did they merge in the wind? Did they melt in the fire? Did they hide in the forest?)
  • kunRu … – The enjoyability of the wealth in the town is such that even if we are affected with the sufferings, we will desire to go there. The mansions which seem to be carved out of mountains, the kurundhu, serundhi and punnai trees which are in close proximity as if giving shade for the mansions; they are located close to each other.
  • manRalar pozhil – The gardens which are blossomed in the surroundings of the town. Alternatively, manRu – manRal which means fragrance, and alar means spreading, indicating the gardens where the fragrance is well spread.
  • kunRu nEr mAdam – nanjIyar would mercifully say “I saw with reverence, piLLai thirunaRaiyUr araiyar and bhattar entering [the SrIrangam town with saptha prAkAram – seven layers] and circumambulating the same; others would do it quickly, but these two would see the divine palaces [residences] and divine towers as if drinking through their eyes; seeing that, I thought ‘while the act of circumambulation is the same for all, what a great distinction they have over others’ “.
  • sEr serundhi – It is as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 16.5 “raghavOrhathi vaidhEhim” (SrI rAma suits sIthA pirAtti in all aspects). Here AzhwAr is talking about the plants/trees while subsequently he talks about nithyasUris. In dhivyadhESams, due to all of them being desirable for emperumAn, AzhwArs/AchAryas would think that there is no difference between distinguished personalities and plants/trees; for nithyasUris, there is scope to go to paramapadham; while they will not think like that due to their great love towards dhivyadhESam out of knowledge; but they do have the ability to think like that; but, for these plants, they don’t even have that scope [so, they are most fortunate to remain in dhivyadhESams forever]. [An incident is explained] Think about embAr’s merciful words when piLLai jananAtha brahmarAyAr was organizing a tree cutting event in SrIrangam [This incident is explained in detail in thiruvAimozhi 5.9.1]. When AchchAn thiruvAli nAdu dhAsar gave some high quality betel nuts to bhattar, bhattar mercifully said “How are they looking so good? Did they grow in thiruvaruL kamugu (areca trees which received the divine mercy of emperumAn)?” They were not grown with water but with his merciful glance.
  • ananthapura nagar mAyan – His great simplicity of leaving SrIvaikuNtam and arriving here thinking “Let me give audience to lowly persons” and not leaving thiruvananthapuram, is spoken here.
  • nAmam onRum Or AyiramAm – It is said that even his single name will eliminate all the hurdles; in the same manner, one who has thousand divine names, which will protect in thousand ways.
  • uLLuvArkku – Desirability is abundantly available; now, those who can meditate upon that are required.
  • uLLuvArkku – Those who can meditate upon emperumAn’s quality of simplicity in thinking “let me give audience to lowly persons” and residing here joyfully, while he, as sarvESvaran, lives amidst nithyasUris in SrIvaikuNtam.
  • umbar UrE – For those who meditate upon the divine names, their residence itself is paramapadham; alternatively – the abode which those who meditate upon the divine names attain is paramapadham. paramapadham is desirable due to his eternal presence there. Now, when one who has dharmaikyam (being the same in paramapadham and thiruvananthapuram), is residing here, there is nothing wrong to say that this abode is desirable.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 31 (Names 301 to 310)

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युगादिकृद्युगावर्तॊ नैकमायॊ महाशनः ।
अदृश्यॊ व्यक्तरूपश्च सहस्रजिदनन्तजित् ॥ ३३ ॥
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301) yugAdhikruth (युगादिकृत्)

Thence, the boundless wonder of bhagavAn is shown with the ensuing divine names. The divine form of bhagavAn as a baby lying on a banyan leaf is instantiated for expounding bhagavAn’s marvellous deeds.

At the end of brahmA’s day, a partial destruction of the first three worlds occurs, which is called ‘naimiththika praLayam’ in the philosophical parlance. At the end of every such praLayam, since bhagavAn restores the beginning of a new cycle of yugas, he is called ‘yugAdhikruth’ – the one who begins the cycle of yugas (or time). He is the one who isn’t affected by the destruction waters, and restores the cycle of time (helpful in creation and sustenance of entities) without fail.

Etymology: The eternal and supreme lord bhagavAn lies on a banyan leaf, and causes the recurrence of yugas in a new cycle at the end of destruction, due to which he is called ‘yugAdhikruth’.

न्यग्रॊधशायी भगवान् पुराणः पुरुषॊत्तमः |
करॊत्यादिं युगस्यान्तॆ स युगादिकृदीरितः ||

302) yugAvartha: (युगावर्तः)

bhagavAn causes the cycle of yugas to recur each time with all the dharmas of each yuga intact, and hence called ‘yugAvartha:’.

Etymology: With all the rights (dharmas) of each yuga intact (such as in krutha, thrEtha, dvApara and kali), since bhagavAn causes the cycle of four yugas to recur, he is called ‘yugAvartha:’. He is verily the ‘hari’, who is of the form of time.

धर्मव्यवस्थया स्वस्य युगाद्यावर्तनान्मुहुः |
युगावर्तः समाख्यातः कालरूपधरॊ हरिः ||

303) naikamAya: (नैकमायः)

Although bearing the form of an innocent baby, bhagavAn possesses a number of immensely marvelous deeds such as swallowing the entire world, sleeping on a small banyan leaf all alone in the deluging waters without any support, etc, which are incomprehensible and beyond logic. Since the count of such wondrous deeds is large, he is called ‘naikamAya:’ – the one whose wondrous deeds are multitude.

The word ‘mAyA’ in this divine name doesn’t signify delusion as the advaithins put it. Rather, it is used in a number of other contexts to mean ‘truth’, such as in the following quotes:

“Know the mAyA to be verily this prakruthi” (in here, the word ‘prakruthi’ has numerous interpretations).

The etymologists define the meaning of ‘mAyA’ as ‘knowledge’.

The scriptural statements such as “the learned gain knowledge from bhagavAn”, “…the one who knows the knowledge of all entities”, etc., the word ‘mAyA’ is understood to mean ‘knowledge’.

Similarly, the vishNu purANa says thus: “With the fiercest effulgence and lightening speed, the chakra destroyed the thousand ‘mAyAs’ of shambara one by one”. In this case, the word ‘mAyA’ is used in the context to mean ‘wondrous body’, and not ‘delusion’. This is clear from the fact that it was slain with a weapon, which is not possible in case of ‘delusion’.

In the varAha purAna, the wonders of bhagavAn are listed thus:

“The rise of clouds and their return to the ocean, the waxing and waning of the moon, the flow of wind, the occurrence of lightening, the movement of the sun – all go on to show the wondrous acts of vishNu”

All these scriptural statements clearly show the meaning of the word ‘mAyA’ as ‘extreme wonder’.

The AraNya parva of mahAbhAratha captures the utter amazement of sage mArkaNdEya at the sight of bhagavAn lying on a small banyan leaf in the deluging waters, and quotes him thus: “Oh king! At that very sight of all the worlds in the small belly of bhagavAn (lying in the form of a baby on a banyan leaf), I was taken by great surprise…”

He is further quoted to have said thus: “Oh, the scion of bharatha clan! Having shown such wondrous sights, bhagavAn vanished all of a sudden. All those sights are greatly surprising to me even now”.

Thus, the scriptures abundantly quote the word ‘mAyA’ in the contexts to mean ‘extremely wondrous’.

Etymology: Taking the form of an innocent child, since bhagavAn possesses numerous wondrous deeds such as swallowing the worlds, sleeping on a small banyan leaf with no support, etc, he is called ‘naikamAya:’.

मुग्धार्भकत्वरूपॆण जगन्निर्भरणादपि |
वटैकपत्रशयनान्निरालम्बजलॆ मुहुः ||
अनन्ताश्चर्यसंयुक्तॊ नैकमायस्तु स स्मृतः ||

304) mahASana: (महाशनः)

Since bhagavAn swallows all worlds at the time of destruction, he is called ‘mahASana:’ – the one with a great appetite.

The AraNya parva of mahAbhAratha says thus: “I saw all the moveable and immoveable entities – which I have seen in this world till now – in the belly of that great Lord”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn swallows all worlds, he is called ‘mahASana:’.

भुवनानां निगरणात् महाशन इतीरितः |

305) adhruSya: (अदृश्यः)

bhagavAn is called ‘adhruSya:’ since he possesses divine deeds that are hidden from the mundane logic. The root ‘dhruS’ (दृश्) gets the ‘kyap’ (क्यप्) adjunct as per grammatical rules, resulting in the word ‘dhruSya:’ (that which is seen). This divine name negates the captivity of such divine deeds of bhagavAn from the mundane logic.

As the scriptures put it, “How is it ever possible that a small baby sleeps blissfully while the entire world has been destroyed? How is it that I am unable to comprehend the greatness of that child even with fierce penance?”

Etymology: With his wondrous deeds even during the great deluge that are beyond all logical boundaries, since bhagavAn is hidden from the comprehension (of even great seers such as mArkaNdEya maharishi, who constantly meditate upon him), He is called ‘adhruSya:’.

अतर्क्यवृत्तान्ततया जगतः प्रलयॆsपि यः |
न लभ्यश्चिन्त्यमानॊsपि सॊsदृश्य इति कथ्यतॆ ||

306) vyaktharUpa: (व्यक्तरूपः)

Although beyond comprehension as expounded thus, since bhagavAn shows himself in glorious divine forms, he is called ‘vyaktharUpa:’ – the one who is manifest.

As the AraNya parva of mahAbhAratha puts it, “bhagavAn always shines forth in my mind like the linseed flower, with a divine mark in his chest called ‘SrIvathsa’ which is verily the abode of SrI mahAlakshmi”.

“Oh king! The divine lotus feet of that bhagavAn – which are coppery in color, and which are gentle in nature, beautiful to behold and decorated with reddish toes – were borne on my head and saluted”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn manifests in glorious and divine forms, and since he showed himself thus manifestly to the learned mArkaNdEya maharishi – who was moving about in the deluging waters (when he sought to behold the glorious form of bhagavAn), he is called ‘vyaktharUpa:’.

महाजलॆ सञ्चरतॊ मार्कण्डॆयस्य धीमतः |
दृश्यॊ यॊ व्यक्तरूपत्वात् दिव्यविग्रहधारणात् ||

307) sahasrajith (सहस्रजित्)

bhagavAn wins over everything even while lying for the entire duration of creation spanning over thousand cycles of chathuryugas. Thus, he is called ‘sahasrajith’.

The AraNya parva of mahAbhAratha quotes bhagavAn thus: “Oh brahmarishi! I shall lie down for the entire duration of thousand chathuryugas…”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn wins over everything in the thousand cycles of chathuryugas even while lying down, he is called ‘sahasrajith’.

सहस्रयुगसंख्याकं सर्वकल्पान्तमॆव हि |
शयान इव जयति सहस्रजिदिति स्मृतः ||

308) ananthajith (अनन्तजित्)

Although bearing the form of a small child (with limited attributes), since bhagavAn’s greatness cannot be measured by anyone anytime in anyway. Thus, he is called ‘ananthajith’.

mArkaNdEya maharishi claims thus in the AraNya parva of mahAbhAratha: “Oh king! Even after wandering in his belly for more than a hundred years, I could not reach the end. Not just that, I could not even see how his end looked even from a distance!”

Etymology: bhagavAn’s greatness has no bounds and cannot be traced by anyone anytime in anyway, although he sports the form of a small child with limited attributes. Thus, he is called ‘ananthajith’.

मितस्य शिशुरूपस्य कदाचित् कश्चिदॆव च |
कथञ्चिदवधिर्नास्ति महिम्नः परमात्मनः |
तस्मादनन्तजिदिति वस्वर्णॊ जयदॊ मनुः ||

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इष्टॊsविशिष्टः शिष्टॆष्टः शिखण्डी नहुषॊ वृषः ।
क्रॊधहा क्रॊधकृत्कर्ता विश्वबाहुर्महीधरः ॥ ३४ ॥
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309 and 310) ishta: (इष्टः),  aviSishta: (अविशिष्टः)

Since bhagavAn is most desired by each and every entity alike in his belly – irrespective of birth – just like an infant craving for its mother, he is called ‘ishta:’ (the one who is desired) and ‘aviSishta:’ (the one who is equal).

Etymology: The one who is engrossed in protecting all entities alike is called ‘ishta:’ and ‘aviSishta:’. (Just as all entities desire him alike, so also bhagavAn protects every entity without any bias)

इष्टॊsविशिष्टः कथितः सर्वरक्षणतत्परः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 15

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உண்டோ வைகாசி விசாகத்துக்கு ஒப்பொரு நாள்

உண்டோ சடகோபர்க்கு ஒப்பொருவர் உண்டோ

திருவாய்மொழிக்கு ஒப்பு தென் குருகைக்கு உண்டோ

ஒரு பார் தனில் ஒக்கும் ஊர் 

பதினைந்தாம் பாசுரம். கீழ்ப் பாசுரத்திலே சொன்ன ஆழ்வார், அவர் அவதரித்த நாள், ஊர் மற்றும் அவர் அருளிச்செய்த திருவாய்மொழி ஆகியவற்றின் பெருமையைத் தாமே நன்றாக அனுபவித்துப் பேசுகிறார்.

ஸர்வேச்வரனான ஸ்ரீமந் நாராயணனும் அவன் விபூதிகளும் ஓங்கும்படி மங்களாசாஸனம் செய்த நம்மாழ்வார் அவதரித்த இந்த திருவைகாசித் திருநாளுக்கு ஒப்பாக ஒரு நாளுண்டோ? (கிடையாது) நம் சடகோபரான நம்மாழ்வாருக்கு ஒப்பாக ஒருவர் உண்டோ? (ஸர்வேச்வரனும், நித்யர்களும், முக்தர்களும், இவ்வுலகத்தவர்களும் ஒருவரும் ஆழ்வாருக்கு ஒப்பாக மாட்டார்கள்) வேதத்தின் ஸாரத்தை விரிவாக உரைக்கும் திருவாய்மொழிக்கு ஒப்பான ஒரு ப்ரபந்தம் தான் உண்டோ?  (கிடையாது) இப்படிப்பட்ட ஆழ்வாரை நமக்குப் பெற்றுத் தந்த திருக்குருகூருக்கு ஒப்பான ஒரு ஊர் உண்டோ? (ஆதிநாதப் பெருமாளுக்கும் நம்மாழ்வாருக்கும் ஸமமான பெருமையைக் கொடுக்கும் ஊர். எம்பெருமானின் பரத்வம் அர்ச்சாவதாரத்திலே பொலிந்து தோன்றும் திவ்யதேசம். நம்மாழ்வாரின் திருவவதார ஸ்தலம். நம்மாழ்வார் அருளாலே, எம்பெருமானார் காலத்துக்கு நான்காயிரம் ஆண்டுகளுக்கு முன்பே அவரின் பவிஷ்யதாசார்ய விக்ரஹம் அவதரித்த ஊர். எம்பெருமானாரின் புனரவதாரமான மணவாள மாமுனிகளின் திருவவதார ஸ்தலம். இப்படிப் பட்ட ஏற்றம் வேறு எங்கும் நாம் காண முடியாது). இப்படி எம்பெருமான், ஆழ்வார் மற்றும் ஆசார்யர்களுக்குப் பெருமை சேர்க்கும் ஸ்தலமாக இருப்பதால் முப்புரியூட்டினதாகக் (மூன்று மடங்கு ஏற்றம் பெற்றதாக) கொண்டாடப்படுகிறது.

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