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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – தனிப்பாசுரம்

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை

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எறும்பி அப்பா அருளிய தனிப்பாசுரம் – இறுதியில் சேவிக்கப்படுவது வழக்கம்

மன்னுயிர்காள் இங்கே மணவாள மாமுனிவன்
பொன்னடியாம் செங்கமலப் போதுகளை – உன்னிச்
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நிலை பெற்ற உலகத்தில் இருப்பவர்களே! இந்த ஸம்ஸார மண்டலத்திலேயே மணவாள மாமுனிகளின் திருவடிகளான பொன்னடியாம் செங்கமலப் போதுகளை ஆசையுடன் சிந்தித்து, உங்கள் தலையிலே வைத்துக் கொண்டால், இந்த தேஹத்தின் முடிவிலேயே, அர்ச்சிராதி மார்க்கத்திலே சென்று, வ்ரஜா நதியைக் கடந்து, அமானவ புருஷனும் உங்களைத் தீண்டுவதைத் தலையாய கடமையாகச் செய்ய, திவ்யமான சரீரத்தைப் பெற்று, ஆனந்தத்துக்கு எல்லை இல்லாத தேசமான  ஸ்ரீவைகுண்டத்தில் இருக்கும் திருமாமணி மண்டபத்துள் சென்று எம்பெருமானால் ஏற்றுக்கொள்ளப்பட்டு, அடியார் குழாங்களுடன் கூடி இருந்து நித்ய கைங்கர்யத்திலே  எப்பொழுதும் இருப்பீர்கள்.

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 37 – seelamigu kaNNan

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 4.7

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams in lamenting about not enjoying nArAyaNa, the owner of the name, after becoming conscious on hearing such names, and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? As said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 29.6 “varshENa bhIjam prathisanja harsha” (The crop which dried out due to wind and hot weather, became green on seeing the rains, similarly she [sIthA] became happy), after becoming conscious on hearing the names recited by the friend [of parAngusa nAyaki] which are like life-saving medicine, AzhwAr became pacified and awakened having such recital as a caring act towards him and became anguished as if that awakening is leading to more sorrow instead of the goal; emperumAn being the companion during times of danger, the omnipotent who knows the cause and remedy for such dangers, and who has the relationship to protect AzhwAr, did not protect him; as a tormented ocean will rise with high tides, AzhwAr called out with great anguish saying “I must see him only” to melt the hearts of anyone who hears his words; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this mood of AzhwAr which was explained in thiruvAimozhi 4.7seelam illAch chiRiyanElum” starting with “seelamigu kaNNan“.

pAsuram

seelamigu kaNNan thirunAmaththAl uNarndhu
mElavan than mEni kaNdu mEvudhaRku – sAla
varundhi iravum pagalum mARAmal kUppittu
irundhananE thenkurugUr ERu

Listen

word-by-word meanings

then kurugUr ERu – AzhwAr, who is the chief of AzhwArthirunagari
seelam migu kaNNan – krishNa who has abundant auspicious qualities, his
thirunAmaththAl – by the divine name
uNarndhu – having the bewilderment eliminated and acquiring clarity
mEl – after becoming conscious
avan than mEni kaNdu mEvudhaRku – to see his divine form, approach and enjoy the same
sAla varundhi – being greatly anguished
mARAmal kUppittu irundhanan – was calling out continuously.

Simple Translation

AzhwAr, who is the chief of AzhwArthirunagari, had his bewilderment eliminated and acquired clarity by the divine name of krishNa who has abundant auspicious qualities; after becoming conscious, being greatly anguished, he was calling out continuously to see krishNa’s divine form, approach and enjoy the same.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • seelam migu kaNNan thirunAmaththAl uNarndhu – [parAngusa nAyaki] On hearing the divine name of krishNa, who is having auspicious qualities of mingling with his beloved [cowherd] girls, from her friend as in thiruvAimozhi 4.6.9vaNduvarApathi mannan” (the king of the great dhvArakA), she became awakened
  • mEl avan than mEni kaNdu mEvudhaRku – After regaining consciousness, to see, approach and enjoy his form. That is, desiring fully, as highlighted in
    • kOla mEni kANa (to see your beautiful form) [1st pAsuram]
    • en kaN kANa (to be seen by my eyes) [2nd pAsuram]
    • pAviyEn kANa vandhu (to be seen by me, the sinner) [3rd pAsuram]
    • un thOLgaL nAngum kaNdida (to see your four divine shoulders) [4th pAsuram]
    • unnaik kANbAn (to see you with my eyes) [6th pAsuram]
    • nAn unnaik kaNdu koNdE (I, seeing you) [7th pAsuram]
    • kaNdu koNdu (seeing you) [8th pAsuram]
    • enguk kANban (where will I see him?) [9th pAsuram]
    • thakka gyAnak kaNgaLAlE kaNdu thazhuvavanE (with my matching gyAnam as the eyes, I will embrace emperumAn) [10th pAsuram]
  • sAla varundhi – being greatly anguished. That is being anguished in many ways as seen in “nArAyaNA” (Oh nArAyaNa!) [1st pAsuram], “kUvik kUvi” (calling out many times without break) [3rd pAsuram], “vaiyam koNda vAmanAvO!” (Oh vAmana who measured the earth with intent!) [2nd pAsuram], “dhAmOdharA” (Oh dhAmOdhara!) [3rd pAsuram], “ANi sempon mEni endhAy” (Oh our lord who is having a form which is attractive like pure, best gold!) [4th pAsuram], “appanE adalAzhiyAnE” (Oh one who has the nature to bestow favours! Oh one who is having the divine chakra which is of the nature of destroying their [devotees’] enemies!) [5th pAsuram], “nIkkam inRi engum ninRAy” (Oh one who is present everywhere else without missing anything!) [6th pAsuram], “naRundhuzhAyin kaNNi ammA” (Oh sarvAdhika who is wearing divine garland which is having abundantly fragrant thiruththuzhAy (thuLasi)!) [7th pAsuram], “vaNduzhAyin kaNNi vEndhE” (Oh my lord who is wearing distinguished thiruththuzhAy garland!) [8th pAsuram], “chakkaraththaNNalE” (Oh my lord who enslaved me by manifesting the beautiful combination of your divine hand and the chakra!). This is similar to what is said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 28.8 “hA rAma hA lakshmaNa hA sumithrE” (Oh rAma! Oh lakshmaNa! Oh sumithra!) and SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 60.23 “nachaiva dhEvI virarAma kUjithAth” (Sri kausalyA is crying out continuously without a break).
  • iravum pagalum mARAmal kUppittu irundhananE then kurugUr ERu – AzhwAr kept continuously calling out for emperumAn, day and night, as said in “kAlam thORum” (always) [1st pAsuram], “naLLirAvum nanpagalum nAn irundhu OlamittAl” (if I call out in the middle of the night and in the daytime when objects are clearly visible) [2nd pAsuram], “kUvik kUvi nenjurugi” (calling out many times without break and heart melting as water) [3rd pAsuram], “chakkaraththaNNalE enRu thAzhndhu” (Saying “Oh my lord who enslaved me by manifesting the beautiful combination of your divine hand and the chakra!”, falling down on the ground) [10th pAsuram]; mAmunigaL is now feeling the pain in his heart and is mercifully saying “where will this end for AzhwAr?”
  • then kurugUr ERu irundhananE – It makes one doubt “How will AzhwAr rule thirunagari independently anymore?”

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 73

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இந்த உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை தன்னைச்

சிந்தை தன்னில் நாளும் சிந்திப்பார் எந்தை

எதிராசர் இன்னருளுக்கு என்றும் இலக்காகிச்

சதிராக வாழ்ந்திடுவர் தாம் 

எழுபத்துமூன்றாம் பாசுரம். இந்த ப்ரபந்தத்தைக் கற்று அனுபவிப்பவர்களுக்கானப் பலனைச் சொல்லி ப்ரபந்தத்தை முடித்தருளுகிறார்.

பூர்வாசார்யர்களின் உபதேச ஸாரத்தை எடுத்துரைத்த இந்த உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை என்னும் ப்ரபந்தத்தைத் தங்கள் சிந்தையிலே எப்பொழுதும் வைத்திருப்பவர்கள், என்னுடைய ஸ்வாமியான யதிராஜராம் எம்பெருமானாரின் இனியதான கருணைக்கு இலக்காகிச் சிறப்பாக வாழ்வார்கள்.

ஆழ்வார்கள் திருவவவதார க்ரமம், அவர்கள் திருவவதார ஸ்தலங்கள், அவர்களின் அருளிச்செயல்களுக்கு ஆசார்யர்கள் இட்டருளிய வ்யாக்யானங்கள், அந்த அருளிச்செயல்கள் மற்றும் வ்யாக்யானங்களின் ஸாரமான ஸ்ரீவசன பூஷண திவ்ய சாஸ்த்ரத்தின் பெருமைகளும் அதில் காட்டப்பட்ட “ஆசார்ய அபிமானம்” என்ற உயர்ந்த கொள்கை ஆகியவற்றை எப்பொழுதும் சிந்தனை செய்பவர்கள், காரேய் கருணை இராமானுசனின் கருணையாலே இவ்வுலகிலும் கைங்கர்யஸ்ரீயுடன் வாழ்ந்து, பிறகு மேலான நித்ய கைங்கர்யத்தையும் பெற்று வாழ்ச்சி அடைவார்கள்.

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 79 (Names 781 to 790)

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781) dhurjaya: (दुर्जयः)

bhagavAn cannot be controlled by either the dhEvas or the human beings or any other life forms. As the scriptures hail, he is the one who is not seen by everyone. What more, then, needs to be said about being searched or sought by the individual souls?

Thus, he is called ‘dhurjaya:’ – the invincible one.

Etymology: He, who can neither be sought nor controlled by the mere mortals such as the demigods, human beings, et al, is called ‘dhurjaya:’.

 शक्त्या दॆवमनुष्याद्यैः वशीकर्तुं न शक्यतॆ |
अन्वॆष्टुं वाsपि यः सः स्यात् दुर्जयः सप्तवर्णकः ||

782) dhurathikrama: (दुरतिक्रमः)

With the next divine name ‘dhurathikrama:’, it is shown that no soul can transgress bhagavAn’s lotus feet. Indeed, there is no other means to attain him (by burning all sins) other than surrendering at his lotus feet. Thus, he is called ‘dhurathikrama:’.

The scriptures popularly say thus:

  • “Only when people become capable enough to bind themselves with the open sky itself as their skin do they become eligible of crossing the sorrowful samsAra without even knowing about bhagavAn” (meaning, it is impossible to end the sorrows without taking refuge in his feet)
  • “Who can ever attain mOkSha without worshipping that supreme lord vAsudhEva?”
  • “There is indeed no means of attaining mOksha other than to worship vishNu. This is how the vEdhas sing his glories at all times”, etc.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘dhurathikrama:’, since there is no means to destroy all sins (and thereby attain him) other than his own lotus feet.

अतिक्रम्य स्वपादाब्जं सर्वॆषां प्रापकान्तरम् |
नास्तीति सर्वपापघ्नः स स्मृतॊ दुरतिक्रमः ||

783) dhurlabha: (दुर्लभः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn cannot be attained by those who have not controlled their senses. The scriptures have spoken thus in this regard:

  • “When a person is focussed on material benefits, then attaining janArdhana is indeed out of his reach”
  • “Oh king! The supreme lord kESava is highly inaccessible to those people who have not won over their senses”, etc.

Etymology: He who is inaccessible to those who have not controlled their senses is called ‘dhurlabha:’.

अजितॆन्द्रियदुष्प्रापॊ दुर्लभः स च कथ्यतॆ |

784) dhurgama: (दुर्गमः)

Just as people who have a weak vision cannot see the shining sun at noon, so also people with weak minds can never know bhagavAn due to his unfathomable effulgence. Thus, he is called ‘dhurgama:’.

Etymology: Just as the sight of afternoon sun is intolerable to people who have a weak vision, so also bhagavAn is out of reach for people with weak minds due to his unassailable effulgence, which is why he is called ‘dhurgama:’.

नॆत्रदुर्बलवृत्तीनां मध्याह्नद्युमणॆर्यथा |
दुष्प्रापाधृष्यतॆजस्त्वात् दुर्गमः परिकीर्तितः ||

785) dhurga: (दुर्गः)

bhagavAn stands hidden from the view of such sinful souls (with a weak mind as stated in the previous divine name) by virtue of their own sinful actions which separate them from bhagavAn like a fortress. Thus, he is called ‘dhurga:’ – the hidden one.

The root ‘gam’ (गम्) gets the ‘dhur’ (दुर्) and ‘da:’ (डः) as its prefix and suffix respectively by grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘dhurga:’ since he is absolutely inaccessible to the sinful souls (by virtue of their own sinful actions which hide bhagavAn like a thick fort).

दुष्प्रवॆशतया दुर्गः पापिभिः सर्वथैव सः |

786) dhurAvAsa: (दुरावासः)

Since bhagavAn is thus well hidden behind a fort of ignorance, he is called ‘dhurAvAsa:’ – the one whose abode is highly inaccessible.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s supreme abode is inaccessible to the ignorant souls, he is called ‘dhurAvAsa:’.

दुष्करावासभूमित्वात् दुरावास इतीरितः |

787) dhurArihA (दुरारिहा)

bhagavAn exploited his inaccessibility due to ignorance (spoken till the previous divine name) in order to destroy the sinful souls by incarnating as budhdha. Thus, the ensuing divine names expound the ‘budhdha’ avathAra of bhagavAn. The first in the series is ‘dhurArihA’.

The sinful souls treading the evil paths are called ‘dhurAri’s (दुरारिणः). bhagavAn hatches umpteen plots such as convincing them to give up the path of vEdhas completely and the like in order to destroy them altogether. Thus, he is called ‘dhurArihA’.

This is hailed in the vishNu purANa thus:

“Using the veil of ignorance, bhagavAn devised many ways of turning the asuras away from the vEdhas. As a result, those ignorant asuras failed to develop a taste for the vaidhika path. Therefore the asuras – who were obstacles in the righteous path of virtuous souls – were destroyed by bhagavAn”

Etymology: The ignorant souls treading the evil path are called ‘dhurAri’s. He who destroys such ignorant souls by various means such as disengaging them from the vEdhic path and the like is called ‘dhurArihA’.

दुरारिणस्तु दुर्मार्गगामिनस्तान् निहन्ति यः |
त्रयीमार्गत्याजनादैः स स्यान्नित्यं दुरारिहा ||

===============================
शुभाङ्गॊ लॊकसारङ्गः सुतन्तुस्तन्तुवर्धनः ।
इन्द्रकर्मा महाकर्मा कृतकर्मा कृतागमः ॥ ८४ ॥
===============================

788) SubhAnga: (शुभाङ्गः)

How does bhagavAn enter the enemy camp with ease? It is because he is ‘SubhAnga:’ – the one with a bewitching form.

bhagavAn manifests with such a deceitful – yet beautiful form that the asuras fall for his beauty and take him to be the most knowledgeable preceptor for them.

Etymology: He, who is considered as the most knowledgeable (authentic preceptor) by the asuras et al due to his mere deceitful yet bewitching divine form, is called ‘SubhAnga:’.

मायामॊहनवॆषॆण विप्रलभ्यासुरानपि
स्थितः प्रत्ययितस्तॆषां शुभाङ्ग इति विश्रुतः

789) lOkasAranga: (लॊकसारङ्गः)

How does bhagavAn deceive the asuras as budhdha? This is said in this divine name ‘lOkasAranga:’. bhagavAn leads the asuras via the path of mean pursuits which are unopposed to logic, and considered as the very essence of materialism. Thus, he is called ‘lOkasAranga:’. The word ‘sAram’ सारम् (essence) is added to the root ‘gam’ गम् (to go), which further gets the ‘khach’ (खच्) adjunct and the ‘didhvath’ (डिद्वत्) bhAva, thus evolving into the word ‘sAranga:’. Thus is derived the divine name.

The vishNu purANa quotes bhagavAn himself as having said thus: “If you desire to go to mOksha, do as I say”

Etymology: bhagavAn always leads the evil minded souls (asuras) on the path of extreme materialism, which is unopposed to pure logic though, thus being called as ‘lOkasAranga:’.

न्यायानपॆतं यत्सारं भॊगनिर्वाणवर्त्म सः |
तद्गच्छति सदा लॊकॆ लॊकसारङ्ग ईरितः ||

790) suthanthu: (सुतन्तुः)

bhagavAn’s words in his budhdhAvathAra were very sweet, and couldn’t be overruled by the asuras. bhagavAn had thus knit a close web with his nectarine words. He also showed a superficially peaceful form to them in order to trap them.

Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘suthanthu:’.

Etymology: The deceit of bhagavAn with his artificially peaceful forms is shown by the word ‘thanthu:’. Since bhagavAn made such forms very attractive only in order to attract the asuras towards his trap, he is called ‘suthanthu:’. This seven syllable manthra removes all blemishes of the chanter.

तन्तुः कृत्रिमशान्त्यादिरूपस्तद्ग्रहणाय वै |
शॊभनॊsस्य सुतन्तुः स सप्तार्णॊ दॊषनाशकः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 72

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தருமா ஞாலத்தே இன்பம் உற்று வாழும் தெருள்

தருமா தேசிகனைச் சேர்ந்து 

எழுபத்திரண்டாம் பாசுரம். ஒரு நல்ல ஆசார்யனை அடிபணிந்து ஆத்மாவின் ஸ்வரூபத்துக்குச் சேர்ந்த கைங்கர்ய ப்ராப்தியை இவ்வுலகிலேயே பெறுங்கோள் என்று மற்றவர்களுக்கு உபதேசம் செய்கிறார்.

ஸத் ஸம்ப்ரதாயத்திலே ஸ்திரமான நிஷ்டை கொண்ட ஒரு ஆசார்யனிடம் சரண் அடைந்து, ஸ்ரீமந்நாதமுனிகள் தொடக்கமான நம் பூர்வாசார்யர்களின் ஞானம் மற்றும் அனுஷ்டானங்களை நன்றாக உபதேசிப்பவர்களிடம் அவற்றைக் கற்றறிந்து, அதிலே நல்ல நிஷ்டை பிறந்து, அஜ்ஞானத்தைக் கொடுத்து அதையே வளர்க்கும் ஸம்ஸார மண்டலத்திலேயே பகவத் பாகவத ஆசார்ய கைங்கர்யம் செய்து இன்பத்துடன் வாழுங்கோள்.

இந்த ஸம்ஸாரம் நமக்கு அஜ்ஞானத்தை அளித்து அதை நன்றாக வளர்க்கும் இடம். நல்ல ஆசார்யனைப் பெற்று அந்த ஆசார்யனிடத்தில் உபதேசங்களைப் பெற்று, ஆசார்யனுக்கு அனுகூலமாக இருந்து, இங்கே இருக்கும் காலத்திலும் திருமால் அடியார்களைப் பூசித்து வாழ்ச்சி பெறலாம்.

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 36 – thIrppArilAdha

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 4.6

Introduction

AzhwAr becomes unconscious, being unable to physically enjoy emperumAn who is having the quality of loving affection towards AzhwAr; those who are greatly affectionate towards AzhwAr try to find remedy for that and the awakened well-wishers highlight that it is inapt for AzhwAr’s [and our] nature and explain the apt reason and remedy; in this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams which are in this mood and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? AzhwAr remains unconscious without having any awareness of his own state, after experiencing emperumAn in his mind in the previous decad and not being  able to experience the same externally; those who are present there and who care for AzhwAr become bewildered and set out to worship other dhEvathAs due to their great affection as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.52 “sarvAn dhEvAn namasyanthi rAmasyArthE yaSasvina:” (Elders and women worship all dhEvathAs for the well-being of SrI rAma); SrI madhurakavi AzhwAr et al who are knowledgeable well wishers of AzhwAr who are aware of AzhwAr’s state stopped that and explained the apt remedy; this is explained by AzhwAr in the mood of a friend of pirAtti (parAngusa nAyaki, AzhwAr in feminine mood, as a consort of emperumAn) who united with him and separated from him; seeing parAngusa nAyaki’s bewildered/unconscious state, due to their great affection, the mothers look out for a kattuvichchi (psychic reader) who is a devotee of other dhEvathAs, and seek her help in clearing the confusion of parAngusa nAyaki; her very dear friend who knows her nature fully, knowing well the nature of her disease, tells her mothers “this disease was caused by krishNa; it should be remedied by him only and your act is not going to cure her disease”; she further said “as the cure for the contact made with other dhEvathAs and devotees of other dhEvathAs, one should surrender unto ‘thErppAganAr‘ (the charioteer) who is ‘vaN thuvarApadhi mannan‘ (the king of dhvArakA) and apply ‘mAyan thamaradi nIRu‘ (the dust of the lotus feet of the devotees of krishNa)” and eliminated the confusion. mAmunigaL mercifully explains this concept which was explained by AzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi 4.6 starting with “thIrppAr ilAdha“.

pAsuram

thIrppAr ilAdha mayal thIrak kalandha mAl
OrppAdhum inRi udan piriya – nErkka
aRivazhindhu uRRArum aRak kalangap pEr kEttu
aRivu peRRAn mARan seelam

Listen

word-by-word meanings

thIrppAr ilAdha – not having anyone who could solve (that which cannot be solved by anyone)
mayal thIra – to fulfil the overwhelming love
kalandha mAl – sarvESvara who united
Orppu Adhum inRi udan piriya – as he left without any analysis
uRRArum aRak kalanga nErrka – (the mother et al) relatives (who saw that), to become worried, even more than previously
aRivu azhindhu – losing their mind
pEr kEttu – hearing (emperumAn’s) divine names (from the kattuvichchi et al)
mARan – AzhwAr
aRivu peRRAn – regained his existence;
seelam – this is AzhwAr’s quality.

Simple Translation

sarvESvara, united with AzhwAr to fulfil AzhwAr’s insolvable, overwhelming love and left him without any analysis; the relatives who saw that, became worried, even more than previously and lost their minds; AzhwAr regained his existence [consciousness] on hearing the divine names of emperumAn; this is AzhwAr’s quality.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • thIrppAr ilAdha mayal thIrak kalandha mAl – sarvESvara who arrived and united with AzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi 4.5vIRRirundhu Ezhulagam” decad to fulfil the overwhelming love of AzhwAr highlighted in thiruvAimozhi 4.4.10mayal perum kAdhal” (the great love which causes madness) in thiruvAimozhi 4.4maNNai irundhu thuzhAvi“.
  • Orppu Adhum inRi udan piriya – Not analysing even a little bit of the reason for separation, separated immediately just like a flood draining immediately and the ground underneath becoming very hot, and as the coronation festival was stopped and SrI rAma entered forest. Instead of saying as in periya thirumozhi 9.3.3 “pEdhai ninnaip piriyEn ini” (Oh ignorant girl! I won’t separate from you) and thiruviruththam 11 “porutkO? pirivena” (is the separation for earning wealth?), he left without any reason, as if the union was a dream.
  • nErkka aRivu azhindhu – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 87.4 “SathrugnOnantharasthitha: …” (Sathrugna who was standing alongside bharatha who became unconscious), AzhwAr became unconscious as bharatha did. nErkka aRivazhigai means becoming more bewildered than in thiruvAimozhi 4.4maNNai irundhu thuzhAvi“. There she (parAngusa nAyaki) was able to see, hear, speak and follow. But here, she is fully unconscious as said in thiruvAimozhi 4.6.5kuvaLaith thadam kaNNum, kOvaich chevvAyum payandhu” (her eyes which were dark/large like kuvaLai (blue-lotus) flower and reddish lips/mouth which are like kOvaikkAy (ivy gourd) have lost their complexion and have become pale) and has become bewildered as said in in thiruvAimozhi 1.4.3madhiyellAm uL kalangi” (having the mind totally bewildered).
  • uRRArum aRak kalanga – As said in “yE thu rAmasya suhrudhas sarvE thE mUda chEthasa:” (All of SrI rAma’s well-wishers became bewildered), seeing parAngusa nAyaki’s state, her mother and friends became bewildered, and the mother was trying to find any remedy to regain her just like SrI kausalyA was trying to as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.52 “sarvAn dhEvAn namasyanthi rAmasyArthE yaSasvina:” (Elders and women worship all dhEvathAs for the well-being of SrI rAma). At that time, a kattuvichchi who is a devotee of kshudhra (lowly) dhEvathAs suggested a remedy of offering lowly materials such as meat of goat, alcohol, meat, black rice, red rice to iLam dhevyam (small dhEvathAs) and started performing the rituals; a dear friend of parAngusa nAyaki who understands her nature very well, stopped that and highlighted the cause of the disease as in “thErp pAganArkku ivaL sindhai thuzhAyth thisaikkinRadhE” (she lost her mind for the one [krishNa] who stood as the charioteer in arjuna’s chariot during the battle) [1st pAsuram] and suggested the remedies as said in “sangu chakkaram enRivaL kEtka nIr isaikkiRRirAgil” ( if you all can say Sanka and chakra and make her hear) [2nd pAsuram], “mAyappirAn kazhal vAzththinAl” (if mangaLASAsanams are done for such emperumAn’s divine feet) [3rd pAsuram], in “perundhEvan pEr sollagiRkil” (If you can recite the divine name of para dhEvathA (supreme lord)) [4th pAsuram], “kaLiRatta pirAn thirunAmaththAl thavaLap podik koNdu nIr ittidumin” (reciting the divine names of krishNa, the great benefactor who killed the elephant) [5th pAsuram], “mAyan thamaradi nIRu koNdu aNiya muyalin” (if you try to apply on her, dust from the divine feet of bhAgavathas who are well aware of their subordinate relationship with krishNa) [6th pAsuram], “vaNangIrgaL mAyap pirAn thamar vEdham vallAraiyE” (You start worshipping the bhAgavathas who are best among vaidhikas and who are the devotees of emperumAn) [7th pAsuram], “vEdham vallArgaLaik koNdu” (having bhAgavathas who are experts in the essence of all vEdhams) [8th pAsuram], “Uzhmaiyil kaNNa pirAn kazhal vAzhththumin” ( befitting the true nature of self and following the ancient practice, you perform mangaLASAsanam to the divine feet of krishNa who is a benefactor through his saulabhyam) [9th pAsuram], “vaN thuvarApathi mannanai Eththumin” (you praise krishNa who is the emperor of SrImadh dhvArakA) [10th pAsuram]. Hearing all of these, AzhwAr got relief from his disease as said in “thozhudhAdith thUmaNi vaNNanukku Atcheydhu nOy thIrndha” (performing anjali and dancing up and down, towards krishNa who is having divine complexion resembling a radiant blue jewel, doing all of these as kainkaryam (service) to cure the disease in the form of sorrow of separation from emperumAn) [11th pAsuram]. This is explained as “pEr kEttu aRivu peRRAn” by mAmunigaL.
  • mARan seelam –  This is AzhwAr’s nature. That is, to lose the existence on hearing what is said in thiruchchandha viruththam 64 “sevikkinAdha kIrththiyAr” (unpleasant to hear about) and to regain the existence on hearing the glories of kESava as said in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 69sevikkinbamAvadhuvum sengaN mAl nAmam” (the divine name of puNdarIkAkshan, which are sweet to the ears)

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 78 (Names 771 to 780)

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771) chathurmUrthi: (चतुर्मूर्तिः)

Even during his incarnation in the vibhava form, bhagavAn reminds us of his vyUha forms by taking up four forms (corresponding to vyUha vAsudhEva, SankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha). Thus, he is called ‘chathurmUrthi:’ – the one with four forms.

The four forms attributed to bhagavAn during his incarnation in the yadhu clan are: balarAma (as SankarshaNa), krishNa (as vAsudhEva), pradhyumna (krishNa’s son, as pradhyumna), and anirudhdha (krishNa’s grandson, as anirudhdha).

Etymology: He, who possesses four forms as balarAma (balabhadhra), krishNa (vAsudhEva), pradhyumna and anirudhdha, is called ‘chathurmUrthi:’.

बलभद्रॊ वासुदॆवः प्रद्युम्नश्चानिरुद्धकः |
चतस्रॊ मूर्तयॊ यस्य स चतुर्मूर्तिरुच्यतॆ ||

772) chathurbhAhu: (चतुर्बाहुः)

bhagavAn was born to dhEvaki with his ‘para’ form (the form that bhagavAn sports in his supreme abode SrIvaikuNtam) with four hands, which is the origin of the four vyUha forms discussed before, and which itself is primordial and has no other origin. Thus, he is called ‘chathurbhAhu:’ – the one with four arms.

It is a well known fact that dhEvaki pleads to bhagavAn thus: “Oh lord of all entities! Kindly hide this four armed divine form and take the form of a normal human child with just two arms; for kamsa must not know that you are an incarnation”

Etymology: He, who was born with the ‘para’ form – which is the origin of vyUha forms, and which is itself primordial and has no other origin, and hence possessed four hands, is called ‘chathurbhAhu:’.

व्यूहमूल-परावस्था-निरुपाधिक-रूपतः |
चत्वारॊ बाहवॊ यस्य स चतुर्बाहुरुच्यतॆ ||

773) chathurvyUha: (चतुर्व्यूहः) (also seen in 140)

Even in the four forms in his krishNAvathAra (as krishNa, balarAma, pradhyumna and anirudhdha), bhagavAn possessed all the six divine qualities (gynAna, bala, aiSvarya, vIrya, Sakthi and thEjas) as in his vyUha forms. Thus, he is called ‘chathurvyUha:’.

Etymology: The one who is vested with all six divine qualities in their entirety in his four forms during his incarnation – just as in his vyUha forms – is called ‘chathurvyUha:’. This manthra grants all four kinds of desired fruits upon the chanters, namely dharma, artha, kAma and mOksha.

समस्तव्यस्तषाड्गुण्यव्यूहावस्थाचतुष्टयः |
चतुर्व्यूह इति ख्यातः चतुर्वर्गप्रदॊ मनुः ||

774) chathurgathi: (चतुर्गतिः)

Depending on the kind of worship by his devotees and the intensity therein, bhagavAn bestows four levels of fruits (destinations) upon them namely indhra lOka, brahma lOka, kaivalya and mOksha. Thus, he is called ‘chathurgathi:’ – the bestower of four destinations.

Etymology: He who has four destinations to be bestowed upon his devotees is called ‘chathurgathi:’.

चतस्रः प्राप्तयॊ यस्मिन् भक्तानां स चतुर्गतिः |

775) chathurAthmA (चतुरात्मा) (also seen in 139)

With the same distinction amongst the devotees (on the basis of their level of maturity of devotion), bhagavAn further manifests in four forms – both gross as well as subtle – each corresponding to the four phases of knowledge namely ‘jAgrath’ (जाग्रत् awakened), ‘svapna’ (स्वाप dreaming), ‘sushupthi’ (सुषुप्ति deep slumber) and the fourth state or ‘thurIya’ (तुरीय enlightened). [NOTE: These four forms correspond to the four vyUha forms of bhagavAn, as seen earlier (divine name 139, 140, etc)]

Etymology: Since bhagavAn manifests in four forms – both gross as well as subtle) – in four different states namely waking, dreaming, deep slumber and fully enlightened, he is called ‘chathurAthmA’. This eight lettered manthra is considered as one of the finest manthras.

जाग्रदादि स्थूलसूक्ष्मचातुरात्म्यप्रकाशनात् |
चतुरात्मा स विज्ञॆयः वस्वर्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

776) chathurbhAva: (चतुर्भावः)

With such four states and four forms as seen in the previous divine names, bhagavAn manifests in sixteen ways, and conducts various activities such as protection of the worlds (including creation, sustenance and destruction), bestowing the souls with SAsthras or scriptures, etc – in both gross as well as subtle states. He has this itself as his greatest cause. Hence, he is called ‘chathurbhAva:’. The word ‘bhAva:’ or ‘bhAvanA’ means ‘to manifest’. Thus, he manifests four fold in each of his vyUha forms.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn manifests (in four fold forms of each of his vyUha forms) in both gross as well as subtle states, and conducts various activities such as bestowing of SAsthras and the like (totally sixteen in number), he is called ‘chathurbhAva:’. This manthra bestows good positions in the nether world.

शास्त्रदानादिकृत्याभिव्यञ्जनात् स्थूलसूक्ष्मतः |
चतुर्भावः समाख्यातः मन्वर्णश्च गतिप्रदः ||

777) chathurvEdhavith (चतुर्वॆदवित्)

From the ocean of greatness of bhagavAn in these vyUha and vibhava forms (as seen till now), only a small droplet is only known even to those who have mastered all four vEdhas and who have thereby tried to realize the supreme entity. Thus, he is called ‘chathurvEdhavith’.

Etymology: He who is known (albeit very less) by those who are learned in all four vEdhas is called ‘chathurvEdhavith’. This nine lettered manthra grants the knowledge of vEdhas.

चतुर्वॆदप्राज्ञनिष्ठावित्तिर्यद्विषयॆ स तु |
चतुर्वॆदविदित्युक्तः नवार्णॊ निगमप्रदः ||

778) EkapAth (एकपात्)

bhagavAn is called ‘EkapAth’ in his incarnation. This is because he incarnated as krishNa (and all other incarnations) with just a small fraction of his unfathomable splendour.

That is why it is hailed thus in many places in the scriptures such as vishNu purANa, SrI rAmAyaNa, etc:

  • “Oh brahmarishi! Know this incarnation of krishNa as just a portion of his real splendour”
  • “Having born out of just a small fraction of his real glory in this world…”
  • “The glories of vishNu cannot be fully known whatsoever”
  • “He is indeed one quarter of vishNu himself”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn incarnated with just a small portion of his real splendour, he is called ‘EkapAth’.

एकांशॆनावतीर्णत्वात् एकपादिति कथ्यतॆ |

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समावर्तॊ निवृत्तात्मा दुर्जयॊ दुरतिक्रमः ।
दुर्लभॊ दुर्गमॊ दुर्गॊ दुरावासॊ दुरारिहा ॥ ८३ ॥
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779) samAvartha: (समावर्तः)

With such divine incarnations and forms, bhagavAn completely shows his divine glories of his vyUha forms repeatedly in his incarnations. Thus, he is called ‘samAvartha:’ – the one who keeps cycling back.

Etymology: In this way (seen till the previous divine name), bhagavAn manifests with his divine glories of vyUha forms at all places, at all times and in all ways. Thus, he is called ‘samAvartha:’ [The one possesses such glories of vyUha forms, which are shown repeatedly is called ‘samAvartha:’]. This eight syllable manthra destroys our cycle of births.

एतादृशं हि सर्वत्र सर्वदा सर्वथाsपि च |
व्यूहस्य विभवस्यापि यस्यास्त्यावर्तनं स तु |
समावर्तः समाख्यातः वस्वर्णॊ जन्मनाशकः ||

780) nivruththAthmA (निवृत्तात्मा) (also seen in 231, 453)

Although bhagavAn is in control of all the worlds out of his sheer compassion, he still doesn’t mix with this lowly world, and stays aloof. Thus, he is called ‘nivruththAthmA’ – the one whose mind is aloof from this lowly world.

The chAndhOgya upanishath says: “bhagavAn is ever silent and indifferent…”

Etymology: He whose mind is aloof from this lowly world at all times is called ‘nivruththAthmA’.

निवृत्तात्मा मनॊ यस्य सदा जगदमिश्रितम् |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 71

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எழுபத்தோறாம் பாசுரம். கீழ்ப் பாசுரங்களில் பார்த்த அனுகூலர்கள் மற்றும் ப்ரதிகூலர்களின் உபதேசங்கள் எப்படிப்பட்டவை என்று அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

முன்னோர்களான ஸ்ரீமந்நாதமுனிகள் தொடக்கமான பூர்வாசார்யர்களின் உபதேச க்ரமத்திலே அடிபணிந்து கேட்டு அந்த அர்த்தங்களை நன்றாக ஆராய்ந்து பார்த்து, தாமும் அதே க்ரமத்திலே உபதேசம் செய்யாமல், தங்களுடைய நெஞ்சிலே தோன்றிய அர்த்தங்களை மற்றவர்களுக்கு உபதேசித்து, அதற்கு மேலும், நான் சொன்ன அர்த்தங்கள் சுத்த ஸம்ப்ரதாய பரம்பரயிலே சொல்லப்பட்ட அர்த்தங்களே என்று பொய்யுரைப்பவர்கள் மூர்க்கர்கள்.

மூர்க்கன் என்றால் அறிவிலி என்று அர்த்தம். நம்முடைய ஆசார்யர்கள், பரம்பரையாக, ஸத் ஸம்ப்ரதாய அர்த்தங்களைப் பேசிற்றே பேசும் ஏககண்டர்களாக அருளிச்செய்துள்ளனர். அந்த உயர்ந்த ஸ்ரீஸூக்திகளைக் கொள்ளாமல், தாங்களாகவே புதிது புதிதான அர்த்தங்களைக் கற்பிப்பவர்கள் ஆசார்ய பக்தியும், சாஸ்த்ர ஞானமும், ஸத் ஸம்ப்ரதாய ஞானமும் இல்லாத அறிவிலிகளே.

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 35 – vIRRirukkumAl

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 4.5

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of seeing emperumAn’s manifestation of his form as in the divine spiritual abode of paramapadham and becoming blissful on enjoying the same, and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? sarvESvaran who is hailed as in thiruvAimozhi 4.4.11valvinai thIrkkum kaNNan” (krishNa who eliminates our strong sins), to completely eliminate AzhwAr’s delirium of considering entities which are similar and related to emperumAn as emperumAn himself, manifested his supreme presence in paramapadham along with his svarUpa (true nature), guNa (qualities), vigraha (forms), vibhUshaNa (ornaments), Ayudha (weapons), pathnI (consorts), parijana (servitors) and how he protects the residents of the leelA vibhUthi (samsAram – material realm) through srushti (creation), anupravESam (pervading inside them) etc and also incarnating in the forms of human etc. As sarvESvara mercifully and fully united with AzhwAr, AzhwAr saw that and performed mangaLASAsanam which is performed after reaching paramapadham, as done by him beyond thiruvAimozhi 10.9 “sUzh visumbaNi mugil” decad and became kruthakruthya (one who has accomplished the desired task) and blissful thinking “there is none comparable to me in both spiritual and material realms”. mAmunigaL mercifully explains this blissful state of AzhwAr highlighted in thiruvAimozhi 4.5 starting with “vIRRiukumAl viNNil“.

pAsuram

vIRRirukkumAl viNNil mikka mayal thannai
ARRudhaRkAth than perumai AnadhellAm – thORRa vandhu
nanRu kalakkap pORRi nangugandhu vIRuraiththAn
senRa thuyar mARan thIrndhu

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word-by-word meanings

vINNil – in paramapadham
vIRRirukkum – mercifully seated
mAl – emperumAn
mikka mayal thannai – (AzhwAr’s) great bewilderment
ARRudhaRkA – to eliminate
than perumai Anadhu ellAm thORRa vandhu – arriving here manifesting his glorious qualities, forms etc
nanRu kalakka – to unite well (with AzhwAr)
pORRi nangu ugandhu – seeing sarvESvaran, worshipped him and becoming joyful
mARan – AzhwAr
senRa thuyar thIrndhu – having eliminated the sorrows which were experienced
vIRu uraiththAn – mercifully announced his own greatness (of he being distinguished in both realms)

Simple Translation

emperumAn who is mercifully seated in pramapadham, arrived here, manifesting his glorious qualities, forms etc to eliminate AzhwAr’s great bewilderment and to unite well; AzhwAr, upon seeing sarvESvaran, worshipped him and becoming joyful, having eliminated the sorrows which were experienced, mercifully announced his own greatness .

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • viNNil vIRRirukkumAl – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 4.25 “AsIna: kAnchanE dhivyE sa cha simhAsanE prabhu:” (Lord, seated in a divine golden throne), SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 128.59 “rAmam rathna mayam pItE sahasItham nyavESayath” (SrI rAma was asked to be seated on the divine throne, along with sIthAp pirAtti), “parivArya mahAthmAnam manthriNas samupa SirE” (), sarvESvaran who remains as “vAnak kOn” (leader of paramapadham) [9th pAsuram], “viNNOr perumAn” (lord of paramapadham) [2nd pAsuram], “maiya kaNNAL malar mEl uRaivAL uRai mArban” (lord who has in his chest, the dark-eyed SrI mahAlakshmi who is seated on a flower) [2nd pAsuram].
  • mikka mayal thannai – AzhwAr’s ultimate bewilderment. The great bewilderment which makes even the parents to say as in thiruvAimozhi 4.4.10 “mayal perum kAdhal en pEdhaikkum en seygEn valvinaiyEnE” (What shall I do for my disobedient daughter who is having great love and has become mad? I am most sinful having to witness her such suffering) and give up.
  • ARRudhaRkA – emperumAn who is married to her [AzhwAr/parAnguSa nAyaki], himself is trying to eliminate [her sorrows].
  • than perumai Anadhu ellAm thORRa vandhu – To pacify all the bewilderment AzhwAr had previously, emperumAn manifested the following aspects and arrived here:
    • his togetherness with pirAtti and nithyasUris as said in “pUvin misai nangaikkum inban” (one who gives pleasure to SrI mahAlakshmi who resides on a flower) [8th pAsuram], “thUvi am puLLudaiyAn adal Azhi ammAn thannai” (Lord who has garudAzhwAr with wings and fierce chakra) [4th pAsuram]
    • he being the lord of the opulence of both spiritual and material realms as said in “gyAlaththAr thamakkum vAnaththavarukkum perumAnai” (the lord of this world and the spiritual world) [8th pAsuram],
    • he having distinguished qualities, forms etc as said in “vIvil sIran malarkkaNNan viNNOr perumAn thannai” (who has endless qualities, lotus-eyed and is the leader of the residents of paramapadham) [3rd pAsuram]
  • pORRi nangu ugandhu – On seeing sarvESvaran who is greater than all, AzhwAr performed mangaLASAsanam saying as in “pORRi enRE kaigaLArath thozhudhu” (performing mangaLASAsanam with joined palms, to their full satisfaction) [1st pAsuram] and being very blissful as said in “vIvil kAlam isai mAlaigaL Eththi mEvap peRREn vIvil inbam miga ellai nigazhndhanan mEviyE” (I attained by praising him continuously with collection of words in the form of songs;  having attained [him], continuous [joyful] endless aspects occurred.) [3rd pAsuram]

Due to that joy,

  • vIRuraiththAn – AzhwAr spoke about how he is unique in both spiritual and material realms as in “vAnak kOnaik kavi solla vallERku ini mARuNdE” (is there any match for me who can praise the lord of paramapadham] [9th pAsuram] and “ini Avar nigar agal vAnaththE” (who can match me in paramapadham?)
  • senRa thuyar mARan thIrndhu – AzhwAr who was freed from sorrows. The sorrow of separation. Or the sorrow explained in “veyya nOygaL muzhudhum viyan gyAlaththu vIyavE” ( I got to praise such emperumAn to destroy all sorrows which cause grief, with garlands of words collected together, while being in this vast world) [2nd pAsuram], “kARRin munnam kadugi vinai nOygaL kariyavE” (to make the sins, great diseases flee faster than wind and to have them burned) [5th pAsuram].
  • senRa thuyar – thIrndhu – mARan – nangugandhu – vIRuraiththAn – AzhwAr spoke about his own glories which resulted out of the overwhelming bliss after being pleased having his sorrows eliminated.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 77 (Names 761 to 770)

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761) sathyamEdhA: (सत्यमॆधाः)

bhagavAn has said thus to the yAdhavas in many instances:  “I have born in your womb…”, “Know me as your close relative…”, etc.

As seen in these words, bhagavAn didn’t incarnate as krishNa just for the sake of it, with all hypocrisy. Rather, he heartily took birth in the clan of yAdhavas, and identified himself very closely with them as the son of vasudhEva, a close associate of the cowherd folks, etc.

Thus, he is called ‘sathyamEdhA:’ – the one with an honest mind.

bhagavAn himself says thus to the cowherd folks:

  • “If you all have true love towards me, and if I am respected amongst you folks, then know me also to be one amongst you, without differentiating me on any grounds”
  • “I am no dhEva; I am not a gandharva; I am no yaksha; nor am I a dhAnava. I am one amongst you, born as a cowherd. Therefore, you must not set me apart from yourself”, etc.

Etymology: He, who is honest in his heart in identifying himself with the cowherd folks, vasudhEva, and others, is called ‘sathyamEdhA:’.

वल्लवीवसुदॆवादि साजात्यस्याभिमानिनी |
मॆधा यस्यास्ति सत्या सः सत्यमॆधाः प्रकीर्तितः ||

762) dharAdhara: (धराधरः)

When indhra got angry at krishNa for taking away his share of food and started raining hailstones (some say only ‘stones’), bhagavAn decided to protect the innocent cowherds.

The bhAgavatha purANa shows this incident thus:

“bhagavAn then decided that he must protect the cowherds from the onset of hail rains. He thus decided to daringly lift the mountain which was next to them (gOvardhana) and hold it as an umbrella under which all the cowherds could seek shelter from the rain.”

Thus, bhagavAn lifted the gOvardhana mountain, which is why he is called ‘dharAdhara:’ – the one who holds the mountain.

Etymology: The one who instantly bore the gOvardhana mountain (with his little finger) is called ‘dharAdhara:’.

धरं गॊवर्धनं शीघ्रं धृतवान् स धराधरः |

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तॆजॊवृषॊ द्युतिधरः सर्वशस्त्रभृतां वरः ।
प्रग्रहॊ निग्रहॊ व्यग्रॊ नैकशृङ्गॊ गदाग्रजः ॥ ८१ ॥
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763) thEjOvrusha: (तॆजॊवृषः)

In this way, bhagavAn showers his effulgence in the form of protection of his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘thEjOvrusha:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘thEjOvrusha:’, since he showers his divine effulgence in the form of protection of his devotees. This eight lettered manthra bestows kinsmen among the chanters.

तॆजॊsभिवर्षति यतः सुहृत्पालनलक्षणम्  |
तॆजॊवृषः समाख्यातॊ वस्वर्णॊ मित्रवृद्धिदः ||

764) dhyuthidhara: (द्युतिधरः)

For the same reason (of showering effulgence in the form of protection of his devotees), bhagavAn possesses extraordinary effulgence which can even pacify the ego of indhra although krishNa is in his youth. Thus, he is called ‘dhyuthidhara:’.

Etymology: The one who possesses extraordinary effulgence that can tame even the egotistic feeling of indhra is popularly called ‘dhyuthidhara:’. This eight lettered manthra confers effulgence upon the seekers.

अमानुषीं यॊ धृतवान् द्युतिमैन्द्राभिभावुकम् |
ख्यातः स हि द्युतिधरः वस्वर्णः कान्तिदॊ मनुः ||

765) sarvaSasthrabhruthAm vara: (सर्वशस्त्रभृतांवरः)

bhagavAn showed that he is the best among the wielders of weapons while fighting against narakAsura, jarAsandha, et al. Thus, he is called ‘sarvaSasthrabhruthAm vara:’ – the best among the wielders of all weapons.

The vishNu purANa hails thus: “That act of wielding various kinds of weapons at his enemies is a divine sport of that lord of all worlds in his human incarnation”

Etymology: He, who proved to be the best amongst all wielders of various weapons in fighting against jarAsandha and others, is popular in all worlds as ‘sarvaSasthrabhruthAm vara:’.

जरासन्धादिसमरॆ श्रॆष्ठः शस्त्रभृतां च यः |
स ख्यातः सर्वलॊकॆषु सर्वशस्त्रभृतां वरः ||

766) pragraha: (प्रग्रहः)

arjuna was controlled by krishNa through his words, just as the horses pulling his chariot were controlled by the reins held by krishNa. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘pragraha:’ – the one who holds the reins.

Etymology: With bhagavAn as his charioteer, arjuna was controlled by his words just as much as the horses pulling his chariot were controlled by the reins held by him. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘pragraha:’.

पार्थः सारथिनानॆन सदश्व इव रश्मिभिः |
प्रग्रह्यतॆ यतस्तस्मात् प्रग्रहः समुदाहृतः ||

767) nigraha: (निग्रहः)

Without even depending on arjuna’s valour, bhagavAn oppressed the entire enemy camp single handed – just by his skilful charioteering. Thus, he is called ‘nigraha:’ – the oppressor of all enemies.

Etymology: He – by whom the enemies were subdued by mere virtue of skilful charioteering – is called ‘nigraha:’. This seven lettered manthra destroys all enemies of the chanter.

यॆन सारथ्यवैचित्र्यात् निगृह्यन्तॆ स्म शत्रवः |
स निग्रहः समाख्यातः सप्तार्णः शत्रुनाशकः ||

768) vyagra: (व्यग्रः)

bhagavAn is called ‘vyagra:’ because he was impatient to wait till arjuna fought the battle and destroyed his enemies. The root ‘aga’ (अग) means to traverse a crooked path. It gets the ‘ran’ (रन्) adjunct and the ‘vi’ (वि) upasarga, resulting in this divine name. This means bhagavAn took to alternate ways to destroy the enemies in the battle.

This is shown in SrI mahAbharatha; where bhagavAn himself says thus while charging towards bhIshma:

“Oh sAthyaki! Those who are gone are gone forever. Those who are remaining here shall also go soon. Now behold bhIshma who shall fall from his chariot giving away to my charge. Also see for yourself how dhrONa and others shall be busted by me in this battle”.

Having said thus, bhagavAn jumped from his chariot leaving the reins of the horses. He took the mighty chakra in his hands and charged towards bhIshma and others.

Etymology: He who was impatient to wait till arjuna fought the battle to win over his enemies (and who himself jumped into the war field to ruin the enemy camp) is called ‘vyagra:’. This six syllable manthra destroys all enemies of the chanter.

युद्धकर्मासहिष्णुत्वात् पार्थविद्विड्विनिग्रहॆ |
यॊsसौ व्यग्रः समाख्यातः षडर्णॊ वैरिनाशकः ||

769) naikaSrunga: (नैकशृङ्गः)

bhagavAn possessed a multitude of means of oppressing the enemies in the battlefield, such as his intellect, his charioteering skills, his vow of never taking up any weapon on the war field, yet taking up his chakrAyudha when needed, etc. In this way, he took to several ways of defeating the enemies of his dear devotees. Thus, he is called ‘naikaSrunga:’ – the one who has a multitude of oppressing ways.

The root ‘Sru’ (शृ) means to cause suffering. It gets the ‘gan’ (गन्) adjunct, with an import of ‘kith’ (कित्) and ‘nut’ (नुट्), resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He is called ‘naikaSrunga:’, who possesses a multitude of ways of oppressing his enemies.

नैकशृङ्गॊ यस्य नैकं स्यात् शृङ्गं वैरिबाधकम् |

770) gadhAgraja: (गदाग्रजः)

bhagavAn krishNa was born as the elder brother of gadha (गदः), who was the son of vasudhEva and sunAmA. Thus, he is called ‘gadhAgraja:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn was the elder brother of a person named ‘gadha’, he is called ‘gadhAgraja:’.

गदनाम्नश्चाग्रजत्वात् गदाग्रज इतीरितः |

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चतुर्मूर्तिश्चतुर्बाहुश्चतुर्व्यूहश्चतुर्गतिः ।
चतुरात्मा चतुर्भावश्चतुर्वॆदविदॆकपात् ॥ ८२ ॥
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adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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