Monthly Archives: April 2018

mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi – 43 – sinamA madhakaLiRRin

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avathArikai

AzhwAr wonders whether emperumAn protected only one prahlAdha. He says that when the danger crosses limits, doesn’t he protect everyone by keeping everyone inside him! Aren’t the worlds existing merely by his sankalpam (will)!

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

sinamA madhakaLiRRin thiN maruppaich chAyththu
punamEya bhUmi adhanai dhanamAgap
pEragalaththuLLodukkum pErAra mArvanAr
OragalathuL uLLadhu ulagu

Word by Word Meanings

sinam mA madha – being angry and having huge exultation
kaLiRRin – the elephant (kuvalayApIdam)
thiN maruppai – its strong tusks
sAyththu – one who broke it
punam mEya – being together with arable land
bhUmi adhanai – the earth
dhanam Aga – considering it as a gift
pEr agalaththuL odukkum – one who protected by keeping in his expansive stomach
pEr Aram mArvanAr – emperumAn, who has donned huge chains on his chest, his
Or agalaththu – in a part of his knowledge, which is in sankalparUpam (in the form of his will or solemn vow)
ulagu uLLadhu – all the worlds are existing

vyAkyanam

sina mA madha kaLiRRin thiN maruppaich chAyththu – breaking the tusks of the elephant kuvalayApIdam which was angry, huge, in exultation and not knowing what is going on around it; snatching it effortlessly.

punamEya bhUmi adhanai – the earth which has arable land, which could be enjoyed by the sentient entities [by cultivating]

dhanamAga – considering it as a wealth

bhUmiyadhanaith thanamAga – did he not protect earth which has forests and streams [implying ups and downs or in other words, rough terrain] as a great wealth!

pEragalaththu uL odukkum – one who has the ability to protect it inside his stomach which [stomach] is so huge that even after keeping these worlds inside his stomach, it could be said that there was still a lot of space.

pEr Ara mArvanAr – even when he swallows all the worlds, he does it so capably that his decorations do not get disturbed. His qualities are also equally beautiful. It is implied here that even as he protected the worlds which were his possessions, it appeared that he had decked himself up with ornaments out of that happiness.

Or agalaththuL uLLadhu ulagu – the worlds are in his incomparable, immeasurable sankalpa (will / thought). We can also construe that the worlds are in the memory of his knowledge which is in the form of his will. While he can protect the worlds through his mere thoughts, the fact that he physically carried out the act by keeping them in his stomach indicates the affection that he has for his followers.

We will take up the 44th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi – 42 – kOvalanAy AniraigaL

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avathArikai

In the same breath as when he spoke of emperumAn keeping all the worlds under his divine feet, AzhwAr speaks about the removal of enmities which happened to one town (thiruvAyppAdi or gOkulam) and protection of cowherds.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kOvalanAy AniraigaL mEyththuk kuzhal Udhi
mAvalanAyk kINda maNivaNNan mEvi
ariyuruvamAgi iraNiyadhu Agam
theriyugirAl kINdAn sinam

Word by Word Meanings

kOvalan Ay – being born as a cowherd
Aniraigal – herds of cows
mEyththu – grazing them (by taking them to places which have grass and water)
kuzhal Udhi – playing the flute (to bring the cows together)
mA – the demon kESi who came in the form of a horse
valan Ay kINda – one who tore it capably
maNi vaNNan – one who has the form of a blue coloured gem
mEvi ari uruvam Agi – appropriately taking the form of narasimha (combination of lion face and human body)
iraNiyadhu Agam – the chest of demon iraNiyan (hiraNya kashyap)
ugirAl – with his finger nails
kINda – emperumAn who tore
sinam – anger
theri – (Oh heart) know it.

vyAkyanam

kOvalanAy AniraigaL mEyththuk kuzhal Udhi – born in the clan of cowherds in order to make himself appropriate for herding cows, he grazed the cows by playing on the flute. Just as a brAhmaNa recites vEdham (sacred text), he grazed the cows, which is appropriate for one born in the clan of cowherds and played on the flute. He carried out acts which are apt for the clan.

mA valanAyk kINda – even when he had not attained the apt age, he tore the mouth of a demon kESi who had come in the form of a horse. Instead of stepping back on seeing the demon who came in the form of a horse, he stood face to face, with dexterity, and tore his mouth.

mA valanAyk kINda – he disproved the thinking of kESi who thought after looking at the softness of kaNNan (krishNa) that he [kaNNan] was incapable of killing him [kESi].

maNivaNNan – because he destroyed the enemy, his form became such that it removed the fatigue of the beholder. AzhwAr celebrates the beautiful form of emperumAn which he had when he decimated kESi by referring to him as maNivaNNan.

mEvi ari uruvamAgi – fitting well with the form of narasimha. In other words, while the combination of lion and human would be something which cannot gel well and be incongruent, that form was so homogeneous that the two forms merged well. Just as adding candy to well boiled milk would enhance sweetness, the form of narasimha was also very appropriate. Alternatively iraNiyadhu Agam mEvi could be considered as approaching iraNiyan.

iraNiyadhu Agam ugirAL kINdAn sinam – he tore the tough physical form of iraNiyan with his finger nails.

sinam theriAzhwAr tells his heart to think of emperumAn’s anger and determine that what we need is not his grace but the anger that he has on the enemies of his followers and think of that anger. Alternatively, theri ugir could be construed as broad nail.

We will take up the 43rd pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi – 41 – mannu maNi mudi nINdu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr again thinks of emperumAn measuring the worlds and reminisces about it.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

mannu maNi mudi nINdu aNdampOy eNdhisaiyum
thunnu pozhilanaiththum sUzh kazhalE minnai
udaiyAgak koNdu anRu ulagaLandhAn kunRam
kudaiyAga AkAththa kO

Word by Word Meanings

kunRam kudaiyAga – holding the gOvardhana hill as an umbrella
AkAththa kO – the swAmy (lord) who protected the cows
anRu – once upon a time
mannu maNi mudi – the apt crown which has gems
nINdu – growing tall
aNdam pOy – reaching up to the walls of the universe
eN dhisaiyum – all the eight directions
thunnu pozhil anaiththum – the entire earthen region which is inhabited (by jIvAthmAs)
sUzh – pervaded
kazhalE – being only the divine feet
minnai udai Agak koNdu ulagu aLandhAn – measured the worlds, wearing lightning as his divine clothing.

vyAkyanam

mannu maNi mudi nINdu aNdam pOy – the crown of emperumAn, decorated with beautiful gems and being appropriate to his greatness, stretched up to the wall of the universe .

eN dhisaiyum thunnu pozhil anaiththam sUzh kazhalE – the eight directions and the islands in those directions appeared as if they were only the divine feet [the divine feet had stretched that much]

aNdam pOy eN dhisaiyum mannu mudi nINdu – the crown which is symbolic of emperumAn being the lord of all the worlds, stretched in all the eight directions up to the end of universe.

thunnu pozhil anaiththum sUzh kazhalE – making it appear that the worlds, which are full of chEthanas (sentient beings), are nothing but the divine feet

thunnu pozhil – the earth is full of living beings

minnai udaiyAgak koNdu – since the crown went beyond the clouds and grew, emperumAn utilised lightning as his dress.

anRu ulagu aLandhAn – he measured the worlds which he received as gift from mahAbali during that time.

kunRam kudaiyAga AkAththa kOemperumAn who held gOvardhana hill as an umbrella and protected cows. Once (when he measured the worlds) he hid the worlds with his divine feet. Once he hid himself when he lifted the gOvardhana hill. Measuring the worlds was the activity that he carried out on the day that he was born [as vAmana]. Lifting the hill as an umbrella was the activity that he carried out when he was seven years of age. In the former case, he protected all the worlds. In the latter case, he protected one town.

We will move on to the 42nd pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.8 – ponnulagu

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Audio

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the eighth decad – For AzhwAr who previously became greatly eager to be with emperumAn who is the goal, and since he was not qualified to act according to that urge, he becomes desirous to attain emperumAn through a gataka (one who connects, messenger) and highlights the following aspects:

  1. his state of being the creator etc, which make him a desirable target to be united with
  2. his distinguished symbols which are enjoyable
  3. his eliminating the enemies of the devotees
  4. his greatly enjoyable, distinguished sweetness
  5. his magnanimity
  6. his great obedience/humility
  7. the ability to eliminate undesirable aspects by the most beautiful emperumAn who is the in-dwelling soul of everyone
  8. his supremacy over everyone else
  9. his great simplicity which goes along with his supremacy
  10. his being the lord of SrI mahAlakshmi which highlights both his supremacy and simplicity

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr assuming the mood of nAyaki (woman) who is separated from ISvara (supreme lord), her nAyaka (beloved consort), who is seeking to send a messenger to him out of great sorrow, speaks with gratitude to the birds who are ready to go as messenger, thinking “For the great favour of uniting me with such sarvESvaran, out of great love, I am offering everything in this material realm and the spiritual realm, to the messengers”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

The previous two decads explained AzhwAr‘s bewilderment [becoming unconscious] and realisation. Here, it talks about AzhwAr sending messenger; for AzhwAr who has been blessed with unblemished knowledge and devotion as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.1.1mayarvaRa madhinalam aruLinan“, there cannot be any bewilderment which is said in SArIraka mImAmsA (SrI bhAshyam) 3.2.10 “maraNAyArdha sampaththi:” (half the state of death, i.e., being fully unconscious); now, unconscious state for AzhwAr means – having no time for thinking about external objects and having the mind freed from any attraction for worldly aspects, having emperumAn only as the target for his mind and only enjoying him; that is, having the SarIri (bhagavAn who is the AthmA) as the only object of the knowledge and forgetting self.

[For any human being, five states are explained – a) jAgradh (awakened) – both external and internal senses are alert; b) svapna (dreaming) – external senses are subdued, but internal senses are active and will visualize everything clearly as presented by bhagavAn, both glorification and condemnation [based on one’s karma] c) sushupthi (deep sleep) – both external senses and mind are subdued, and just the prANa (life air) is moving around in the form of inhaling/exhaling; AthmA unites with paramAthmA in the purIthath nerve and becomes relieved from fatigue which was accumulated due to the actions of the external senses d) mUrchA (unconscious) – even prANa becomes subtle and just has life e) maraNa (death) – AthmA leaving the body fully].

AzhwAr‘s previous [unconscious] state [in thiruvAimozhi 6.6] is as said in bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath “aham manurabhavam” (I have become manu) and  SrIvishNu purANam .19.85 “sarvagathvAth ananthasya” (As parabrahmam which is known by the name “anantha” is present everywhere, I too am present everywhere). Subsequent [conscious] state [in thiruvAimozhi 6.7] is similar to that of SrI prahlAdha who was able to realise the self and the activities of the world as said in SrIvishNu purANam 1.20.7 “prahlAdha: asmIthi sasmAra” (On seeing the universe with sky etc, prahlAdha realised himself seeing his own form). AzhwAr did not immerse in something which is nirguNa (attribute-less), but one who has great qualities. When one meditates upon the master, one would realise self who is servitor too. Previously, by meditating upon his qualities, he sustained himself, eliminated the weakness and started seeing the external objects; at that time, having sustained himself, he realizes the loss [separation from emperumAn] again, assumes the mood of a pirAtti (consort of lord) and speaks in her words.

In the previous decad, whatever the divine mother of parAnguSa nAyaki feared thinking “enganE pugungol” (how will she reach thirukkOLUr), became reality. parAnguSa nAyaki, who left due to her desire, being unable to reach there, fell down in the forest at the borders of AzhwArthirunagari, and seeing that he has still not arrived, she send the birds which were seen by her, as messengers (bhattar says that “sella vaiththanaL” which means she started her journey, and having not reached, sends messengers due to single focussed desire). As she left on her own, there is no one who would go as a messenger for her; even if there were any one with her, they would be more immersed in him than she; so, there is none other than the birds which are in close proximity, who can reach him; she falls at their feet and prays “you should inform my state to him”.

[Now the decads which were focussed on AzhwAr‘s thUdhu (dhUthu, message) are explained]

In thiruvAimozhi 1.4 “anjiRaiya mada nArAy“, she said “he only thought about me [my faults] but forgot about him [his mercy]”; there she sent a messenger saying that emperumAn should not consider her faults and instead see his own forbearance and should come to her.

In thiruvAimozhi 6.1 “vaigal pUngazhivAy“, the joy in that town (thivaNvaNdUr) made him forget both (emperumAn and AzhwAr); she sent a messenger saying that on indicating her sorrow/urge he will come due to his quality of protecting his devotees; since he is greatly knowledgeable, he will come immediately on hearing about it.

Here, she saw that he has not come, due to engagements; as said in thiruvAimozhi 6.8.6 “than mannu nIL kazhal mEl thaNduzhAy namakkanRi nalgAn” (He will present the thuLasi garland which decorated his divine feet, only to us), his form is very distinguished; as she sees that emperumAn is lovingly engaged with his devotees, she sends a messenger considering such quality in him. Since it is said in many pAsurams “idhuvO thakkavARu” (is this fair), piLLAn explains that she sends a messenger considering his AnruSamsyam (mercy). piLLAn explains parAnguSa nAyaki united with emperumAn in thirukkOLUr and enjoyed with him for long time and then separated like sIthAp pirAtti who enjoyed along with SrI rAma without any disturbance  for twelve years as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 33.18 “bhunjAnAmAnushAn bhOgAn sarvakAmasamrudhdhinI samAdhvAdhaSatharAham” and then separated; subsequently parAnguSa nAyaki is sending a messenger. bhattar mercifully explains “Since she left but had not reached thirukkOLUr, she sends a messenger from the forest at the borders of AzhwArthirunagari“. SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 39.10 “jIvanthIm mAm yathArAmas sambhAvayathi kIrthimAn” (You can speak to me with the same respect given by the glorious SrI rAma to me) – emperumA is coming in a great family heritage where he will not tolerate insult for others. So, he will obviously try to eliminate the blame which he will acquire [if I am not saved]. sIthAp pirAtti said [to hanumAn] “if emperumAn built a bridge over the ocean, kill rAvaNa et al only to find out that I am no more, it will be useless; so, ask him to protect his own glories”; similarly parAnguSa nAyaki too is just informing emperumAn [through the birds] about her status.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi – 40 – uLan kaNdAy

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avathArikai

AzhwAr tells his heart that there is no deficiency in him after emperumAn, who is superior to everyone else, entered his heart.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

uLan kaNdAy nannenjE uththaman enRum
uLan kaNdAy uLLuvAr uLLaththu uLan kaNdAy
viNNodungak kOduyarum vIngaruvi vEngadaththAn
maNNodungath thAnaLandha man

Word by Word Meanings

nannenjE – Oh my good heart, which made him [emperumAn] also to exist [within you]
viN odunga – making the worlds above to appear to be in a corner
kOdu – peaks
uyarum – having them to be tall
vIngu aruvi – having lots of streams
vEngadaththAn – one who is residing in thiruvEngadam
maN – the entire surface of earth
odunga – to make it appear to be in a corner (of his divine foot)
thAn aLandha – one who measured it
man – the king
uLan kaNdAy – you can see that he exists, since he is protecting us
uththaman – that emperumAn who is purushOththaman (best among all souls)
enRum uLan kaNdAy – you can see that he exists at all times (with a vow to protect us)
uLLuvAr uLLaththu – in the minds of those who think of him
uLan kaNdAy – you can see that he resides permanently

vyAkyanam

uLan kaNdAyAzhwAr says that emperumAn did not exist before and he started existing now.  Before, when emperumAn had not attained him, he did not exist, as mentioned in thaiththirIya upanishath “asannEva sa bhavathi”. Now, after attaining us, he exists, says AzhwAr. We do not have to fear that we are not for ourselves. We can be bold that he [emperumAn] is for us. Just as we exist to create destruction for ourselves, he exists to protect us. Our existence is the reason for his existence. Just as it is mentioned in SrIvaikuNtastavam 36 “ichchAtha Eva thava viSvapadhArtha saththA” (all entities get their existence due to your desire), he makes us exist and makes himself to exist.

nal nenjE – Oh my heart, only after becoming non-malevolent towards you [in other words, friendly towards you], did he also become existing. Both non-malevolence and existence happened simultaneously. Only now you are in a state as mentioned in thaiththirIya upanishath 6 “asthi brahmEthi chEth vEdha santhamEnam thathO vidhu:” (only if a person gets knowledge about brahmam (supreme being) will he be considered as existing).

uththaman – he is considering our protection as his benefit. Just as for all the persons other than emperumAn, destroying themselves is a characteristic, for emperumAn making us subservient to him is a characteristic.

enRum uLan kaNdAy – even during times when we do not need him, he desires us. Even when we do not think that he is the reason for our existence, he thinks of us.

uLLuvAr uLLaththu uLan kaNdAn – All that we have to do is just this – think of him. He exists in the hearts of those who do not shun him when he is thinking of entering their minds.  Alternatively, we can consider this to mean that it is enough if we know [that he exists].

viN odungak kOdu uyarum – the hills of thiruvEngadamalai are such that it will appear that the sky has shrunk. They will be so tall that other worlds and certain limits do not exist and that they are not needed; they will rise beyond all limits making even sky etc to get shrunk. Alternatively, if we consider viN to mean paramapadham, these peaks will rise to that extent that even paramapadham would appear to shrink in size.

vIngaruvi vEngadaththAn – he has as his residence thiruvEngadam which has streams with copious flow of water.

maNNodungath thAn aLandha man – “maNNodunga” making the earth to shrink under the divine feet. When he measured the worlds, he spread out his feet such that only his feet were visible and the earth was not.

man he avoided twin-rulers by making it clear that he is the only ruler and there is no one else. He is the owner of all these possessions. It appears that since he reclaimed the kingdom that indhra had lost and since he seized that from mahAbali, he is the owner of that kingdom. Existence of jIvAthmA (soul) will create a fear within jIvAthmA whereas existence of emperumAn will remove that fear for jIvAthmA. dhraupadhi, when she was dragged by her hair, complained to krishNa in mahAbhAratham uththara parvam 83 “sAham kESagraham prApthA thavyi jIvathyapi prabhO” (Oh lord, even when you existed, I was dragged by my hair by my enemies. There is none who is my protector, other than you. You also did not protect me now. Oh emperumAn! Can you connect your existence and the insult which happened to me? Would I have to weep like this if you are also like me and my husbands (as a burden for the earth))? Just as it is mentioned in jithanthE SlOkam 5 “na thE rUpam na chAkAra: …… bhakthAnAm thvam prakASasE” (your divine form is not for yourself…. you have them all for the sake of your followers), it will be no wonder if one expresses displeasure when he does not help.

We will proceed to the 41st pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi – 39 – iRaiyAy nilanAgi

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that emperumAn, who has the entire world as his divine form, has taken residence in thiruvEngadamalai (thirumalai hills), to be close, and is staying without leaving my heart.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

iRaiyAy nilanAgi eNdhisaiyum thAnAy
maRaiyAy maRaipporuLAy vAnAy piRai vAyndha
veLLaththaruvi viLangoli nIr vEngadaththAn
uLLanththinuLLe uLan

Word by Word Meanings

iRaiyAy – being the lord of all
nilan Agi – being the indwelling soul for earth
eN dhisaiyum thAn Ay – pervading all the entities in the eight directions
maRai Ay – being established by vEdhams (sacred texts)
maRaipporul Ay – being the meanings of vEdhams
vAn Ay – being the controller of SrIvaikuNtam
piRay vAyndha – rising till the lunar region
veLLam aruvi viLangu – being manifested by streams which have copious water
oli nIr – having resounding streams
vEngadaththAn – emperumAn who is residing at thiruvEngadam
uLLaththinuLLE uLan – is residing inside my heart.

vyAkyanam

iRaiyAy – being the lord of both nithyavibhUthi (SrIvaikuNtam) and leelA vibhUthi (materialistic realm)

nilanAgi – pervading throughout the earth

eNdhisaiyum thAnAy – being the controller of the eight directions and the entities which reside in these directions

maRaiyAy – being the vEdhams which establish him truly.

maRaipporuLAy – being the meaning of such vEdhams. Being the secrets of the sacred texts and being established by them.

vAnAy – he has paramapadham, also referred to as paramAkASam (SrIvaikuNtam) as his attribute. He has everything as his attribute. Thus it is implied that he is the indestructible lord.

piRai vAyndha – thiruvEngadamalai which rises up to the lunar region.

veLLaththu aruvi – streams with copious water.

viLangoli nIr vEngadaththAn – vEngadamalai which is manifested by such streams which make lot of noise (due to the rush of water flowing). He has as his residence the thiruvEngadamalai which has such resources.

uLLaththin uLLE uLan – Residing at thirumalai, emperumAn was waiting for an apt moment to enter my heart and at the opportune time, entered it. It appears that emperumAn residing at thiruvEngadam was only to wait for the opportune time to enter AzhwAr’s heart.

uLLaththin uLLE uLan – Just as it is mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 1-10 “dhivyagyAna upapannAs thE rAmam dhrushtvA maharshaya:” (the great sages, with divine knowledge, saw SrI rAma) AzhwAr says that emperumAn, who cannot easily be seen, became visible to him after reaching thiruvEngadam.

We will take up the 40th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi – 38 – thAnE thanakkuvaman

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avathArikai

AzhwAr when asked whether the entity who had entered him wilfully, both inside and outside, is a simple person, says that he is the supreme being!

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

thAnE thanakkuvaman thannuruvE evvuruvum
thAnE thava uruvum thAragaiyum thAnE
erisudarum mAlvaraiyum eNdhisaiyum aNdaththu
irusudarumAya iRai

Word by Word Meanings

evvuruvum – all the entities [both sentient and insentient]
than uruvE – will be part of his physical form
thavam uruvum – entities such as brahmA et al, who carry out penance for a long time and obtain exalted physical forms
thAragaiyum – the stars
thAnE – will be part of his physical form
eri sudarum – the glowing agni (fire)
mAl varaiyum – the huge mountains [which sustain the earth]
eN dhisaiyum – all the directions
aNdaththu – belonging to this universe
irusudarum – sun and moon
thAnE Aya iRai – emperumAn, who has all these as his physical body
thanakku thAnE uvaman – is a simile for himself (since nothing else can be compared to him)

vyAkyanam

thAnE thanakku uvaman – he can be compared only to himself. There is none other than himself for comparison. Another entity can be compared to him only if there is another ISvaran! Hence, only he can be compared to himself.

than uruvE evvuruvum – bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 5-7 says “yasyAthmA SarIram yasya pruthivI SarIram”; SrI vishNu purANam 1-22-86 says “thAni sarvANi thadhvapu:”’ SrI vishNu purANam 1-22-38 says “thath sarvam vai harEs thanu: “; SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 20-26 says “jagathsarvam SarIram thE”. As mentioned by all these authentic sources, he has the entire universes as his physical form. The reason for having none to be compared with him is because he is the substrate for all other entities and he does not have a substrate for himself. In other words, all other entities are his physical body.

thAnE thava uruvum – all the higher level purushas (souls) such as brahmA et al are his attributes, since they attained their exalted physical forms after carrying out penance [directed at him] for a long time. mahAbhAratham sabhA parvam 14-8 says “yugakOti sahasrANi vishNumArAdhya padhmabhU: punas thrailOkya dhAthruthvam prApthavAnithi SuSruma:” (we hear that brahmA carried out penance for thousands of yugams (ages) towards vishNu and worshipped him and attained the post of brahmA, the head of the three worlds). The same is true of rudhra too, as mentioned in mahAbhAratham SAnthi parvam 20-12 “mahAdhEva: sarvamEdhE mahAthmA huthvAthmAnam dhEvadhEvO babhUva” (Sivan, the mahAdhEva (greatest among celestial entities) offered himself in the sarvarmEdha yAgam (a sacrificial ritual) and became the head of celestial entities). Thus, all these entities obtained exalted physical forms after carrying out penance over a long period of time towards emperumAn and became part of his physical form.

thAragaiyum thAnE – stars are also his attributes. By mentioning brahmA and Siva in the previous verse and stars in this verse, AzhwAr says that both sentient entities and insentient entities are his physical form, without any distinction.

thAnE erisudarumemperumAn is the glowing fire

mAl varaiyum – he is the great mountains [which sustain the world]

eN dhisaiyum – he is all the eight directions

aNdaththu – all the universes which are made of the five elements

iru sudarum Aya ivai – light emitting objects such as sun and moon in each of these universes are his attributes and are under his control.

iRaiemperumAn who is all these entities, is his own equivalent [and there is none to compare with him].

We will move on to the 39th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi – 37 – avarkkadimai pattEn

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that he, in a way, became a servitor at emperumAn’s divine feet. He says that even though he did not consider emperumAn as a desirable entity, emperumAn considers him as a desirable person. Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

avarkkadimai pattEn agaththAn puRaththAn
uvarkkum karungadal nIruLLAn thuvarkkum
pavaLavAyp pUmagaLum panmaNippUNAram
thigazhum thirumArvan thAn

Word by Word Meanings

avarkku – to that emperumAn [as described in the previous pAsurams]
adimai pattEn – I became a servitor
uvarkkum karungadal nIr uLLAn – he reclines on the dark ocean with salty water.
thuvarkkum pavaLa vAy pU magaLum – pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) who has reddish coral-like mouth
pal maNi pUN – many ornaments with different types of gemstones
Aram – necklaces
thigazhum – being adorned with
thirumArvan thAn – emperumAn with such divine chest
agaththAn puRaththAn – is present both within and outside (of me)

vyAkyanam

avarkku adimai pattEn – I became a servitor to emperumAn. I told him in a superficial way, without feeling wholeheartedly, that I have become his servitor. I said only this much.

agaththAn puRaththAn – What did emperumAn do when I said this? The minute I became his servitor, emperumAn pervaded me, both from within and outside equally, just like the sage saubhari, and started enjoying me. He became powerless to move away from me.

uvarkkum karungadal nIr uLLAn – It is said that apart from thiruppARkadal (milky ocean) emperumAn reclines in the oceans which surround the earth. It is said that he reclines in all oceans which are great. When he churned thiruppARkadal, haven’t [knowledgeable] people mercifully stated that he had churned other oceans too, such as in thiruppAvai 30vangakkadal kadaindha”! We can also construe this to mean that he has taken thiruppARkadal as his dwelling place. (he is reclining in the dark, salty oceans surrounding the earth. Has it not been mentioned in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 2-6-6 “neelak kadalil nedungAlam kaNvaLarndhAn” (he reclined in the bluish ocean for a very long time)).

thuvarkkum pavaLa vAy pU magaLum – periya pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) who has lips which are like reddish coral. AzhwAr says that the reason for emperumAn pervading him is only to get the approval of periya pirAtti, who is happy due to this [act of entering me], through her smile.

panmaNip pUN Aram thigazhum thirumArvan thAn – emperumAn has divine chest which is decorated with ornaments made of the nine gemstones and necklaces. Alternatively, panmaNippUNAram could be considered as one word and the meaning would be that he has necklace made of different types of gems.

agaththAn puRaththAnemperumAn, who has a divine chest which is sweet and appropriate for periya pirAtti, remains within and outside of AzhwAr and is overjoyed that he has got something which he couldn’t ever get. Is it not such emperumAn who has such ornaments, greatness and the affection of pirAtti, who has come with desire, inside and outside of AzhwAr! AzhwAr is very joyous that emperumAn has such affection for him.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi – 36 – kaiya kanalAzhi

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai

In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr said yAm thozhudhum (we will worship with our hands). Just as he desired, he enjoys emperumAn in this pAsuram.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kaiya kanalAzhi kArkkadalvAy veNsangam
veyyagadhai sArngam venjudar vAL seyya
padai paravai pAzhi pani nIr ulagam
adiyaLandha mAyar avarkku

Word by Word Meanings

pani nIr ulagam – world surrounded by cool waters
adi – with his divine feet
aLandha – one who measured
mAyar avarkku – for that emperumAn who has amazing activities
kaiya – in the hand
kanal Azhi – the divine disc which is radiant
kAr kadal vAy veN sangam – the white coloured divine conch which appeared in the dark ocean
veyya – valorous
gadhai – mace
(veyya) – valorous
sArngam – the bow sArngam
vem sudar vAL – the sword nAndhagam which has radiant glow

(all these)
seyya padai – are the divine weapons
paravai – the ocean
pAzhi – is the mattress

vyAkyanam

kaiya kanal Azhi – the chakrAyudham (divine disc) which spits fire on enemies.

kArkkadal vAy veN sangam – the conch pAnchajanyam which has the roar of clouds, has the ocean as its place of birth and has white complexion. Or, the conch which makes furious sound similar to the cloud and ocean. Or, the divine conch which has as its place of birth, the dark coloured ocean.

veyya gadhai sArngam – the valorous mace and the valorous bow.

venjudarvAL – the divine sword which glows with radiance.

All  these are

seyya padai – great weapons. The term seyya padai refers to the weapons which are appropriate for eliminating the enemies of emperumAn’s followers. If these weapons are considered as ornaments, the word seyya will refer to their radiance. Since these weapons are present, there is no need to praise emperumAn to live long. It is enough to praise the weapons as said in thiruvAimozhi 7-4-1 “thisai vAzhi ezha” (let the sounds of praise rise in all directions). periyAzhwAr too, in his thiruppallANdu mercifully said “sudarAzhiyum pallANdu; pAnchasanniyamum pallANdu ” (praise to the divine radiant disc; praise to the divine conch), praising the weapons.

kaiya – all these are in his hands

paravai pAzhi – the milky ocean is his mattress

pani nIr ulagam adi aLandha mAyar avarkku – for emperumAn who measured the world which is surrounded by cool waters with his divine feet, disc, conch, mace, bow and sword  are the beautiful divine weapons.

We will move on to the 37th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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