Monthly Archives: October 2016

thiruvAimozhi – 3.9.2 – uLan AgavE

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Full series >> Third Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

thirukurungudi-nambi-2

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In second pAsuram – AzhwAr condemns those who sing praises of the ones who are as good as achith (matter which lacks knowledge), who are having worthless wealth instead of praising emperumAn who is eternal, who is complete in all auspicious qualities and wealth.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “What is the benefit of singing the praises of mortal persons instead of singing the praises of the lord of my clan who is standing in thirukkuRungudi with these qualities such as saulabhyam (easy approachability) etc.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Second pAsuram. AzhwAr says “What is the benefit of singing the praise of lowly persons who have wealth which is not worth of even a word of praise, when such wealth is analysed it is false due to its impermanent nature, and the one who owns that wealth is also not worthy, instead of praising sarvESvara who is eternal, having complete wealth, being perfect with respect to true nature, forms and qualities and apt lord [for everyone]?”.

pAsuram

uLan AgavE eNNith thannai onRAgath than selvaththai
vaLanA madhikkum im mAnidaththaik kavi pAdi en?
kuLan Ar kazhani sUzh kaNNan kuRungudi meymmaiyE
uLan Aya endhaiyai endhai pemmAnai ozhiyavE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kuLan Ar – filled with water-bodies (ponds, lakes etc)
kazhani sUzh – surrounded by fields
kaN – having vast space
nal – beautiful
kuRungudiyE – in thirukkuRungudi
meymmaiyE – revealing the ultimate benefit of auspicious qualities such as saulabhya
uLan Aya – one who permanently presented himself
endhaiyai – my benefactor
endhai pemmAnai – the lord of my clan
ozhiya – other than him
thannai – oneself (who is as good as asath (achith) due to lack of knowledge about bhagavAn)
uLan AgavE – to be existing
onRAga – as an entity
eNNi – considering
than  selvaththai – the lowly wealth which is considered as one’s own though not belonging to oneself
vaLanA – greatly distinguished
madhikkum – oneself respecting/considering
i mAnidaththai – this human species which is very lowly
kavi pAdi en – what is the benefit of singing their praises?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

What is the benefit of glorifying this human species which is very lowly where one is considering oneself to be an entity that is existing, considering the lowly wealth which is considered as one’s own though not belonging to oneself, respecting/considering oneself to be greatly distinguished, instead of glorifying the lord of my clan, my benefactor who permanently presented himself revealing the ultimate benefit of auspicious qualities such as saulabhya in beautiful thirukkuRungudi having vast space surrounded by fields which are filled with water-bodies?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • uLan AgavE eNNiAzhwAr considers them to be “ilan” (non-existing) [though worldly persons consider themselves to be existing]. Since it is said in katavalli upanishath “nEha nAnAsthi” (there is nothing but that supreme brahmam) that there is nothing beyond bhagavAn [All sentient and insentient beings are contained in bhagavAn himself]. If one considers bhagavAn to be non-existing that persons is to be considered non-existing as said in thaiththiriya upanishath “asannEva” (as good as non-existing). One is said to exist only when one has knowledge about brahmam. While one should think about the existence of brahmam and exist oneself, there is no way to be existing while denying bhagavAn’s existence. When tied down and taken to the court of rAvaNa, hanuman said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 43.25 “nEyam asthi purI lankA na yUyam na cha rAvaNa: | yasmAdhikshvAkunAthEna badhdham vairam mahAthmanA ||” (For the reason you became inimical with the great SrI rAma, for the same reason all of you, rAvaNa and lankA will cease to exist) [AzhwAr too saying that worldly persons are non-existing due to their lack of acceptance of bhagavAn].
  • eNNi – themselves thinking [to be existing], like imagining the great mEru mountain standing on a needle [which is impossible].
  • thannai – Is this person thinking about some one who remains fearless and rests without anxiety after hearing “emperumAn is there for us” as said in mudhal thiruvanthAdhi 99 “uLan kaNdAy nan nenjE uththaman enRum uLan kaNdAy” (Oh noble heart! emperumAn is present, the best lord is always present)? [No] He is thinking about himself who is like it is said in “asannEva“, where his existence depends on bhagavAn‘s existence.
  • onRAga – thinking intensely
  • than selvaththai – as said in “sathi dharmiNi dharmA:” (if the righteous entity exists righteous will exist), only when his (AthmA) existence is truth, his attributes will exist; when his existence itself is questionable, he thinks that he has some wealth.
  • vaLanA – this means beauty and greatness. He thinks that his wealth is greater than ISvara‘s wealth.
  • madhikkum – he himself would think highly of his wealth; to consider his wealth to be worthy, there is no one lower than him [i.e. he must first be worthy to consider his wealth to be worthy]. [An incident explains how one may consider himself very worthy] In a place called kal brahmadhESam, there was a person named karikAl chOLa brahmarAyan [probably a minister]  who said to nanjIyar “I have written a commentary for thiruvAimozhi” and submitted the same to him. Considering the favours done by him [towards sampradhAyam and SrIvaishNavas], he calls nampiLLai and mercifully tells him to listen to that and praise him accordingly [to keep him encouraged]. nampiLLai too obliges and tells the person “your commentary closely follows AzhwAr’s divine heart”. Hearing that the person [pridefully] says to nampiLLai “Oh piLLai! Can’t you identify the difference between AzhwAr and me? I did this while I was also taking care of my official duties [unlike AzhwAr who was engaged in this full time – hence, my work is more appreciable since I did both official duties and writing commentary].
  • immAnidaththai – already AzhwAr explained the true nature of such worldly people
  • immAnidaththai – AzhwAr does not even want to call them humans; he treats them like achEthana (insentient objects). [mey – truth, body.] One who does not know the true nature of oneself is as good as “matter” [which lacks knowledge]; Also explained as – one who does not know that he is the body of bhagavAn, he is as good as matter.
  • kavi pAdi en – What is the benefit of revealing their defects which they have concealed, in clear writings?
  • kuLan Ar – There is more water-bodies than fertile lands; otherwise the fields will dry out and die.  This implies, that the town where rakshaka (protector) is present more than the rakshya (protected).
  • kaNNan kuRungudi – This is the abode which is considered as his own with great attachment by sarvESvara himself. thamizh scholars explained this as “kaN nal kuRungudi” – this means spacious, beautiful thirukkuRungudi.
  • meymmaiyE uLan Aya – The lord who has all the qualities that are revealed in the verses praising him unlike those who are praised without any real standing and their praises are merely heard in the verses submitted to them. There is no arthavAdha (exaggeration or mere praise without fact) in bhagavAn‘s case. In other matters/entities there is nothing but arthavAdha. In bhagavAn’s case, one cannot fully glorify all the aspects and in others’ case, there is nothing to glorify.
  • endhaiyai – The benefactor who revealed his qualities to be praised by me. He is apt to be praised. Having all qualities in full in thirukkuRungudi and one who is being our lord.
  • endhai … – Since the result does not stop with AzhwAr, he says “emperumAn is the lord of my entire clan”. What is the benefit of glorifying mortal beings who lack good qualities, who are very lowly and who are not apt goals, instead of glorifying the apt lord who has all auspicious qualities?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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ఆర్తి ప్రబంధం – 2

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ఆర్తి ప్రభందం

<< ఆర్తి ప్రభందం – 1

Ramanuja_Sriperumbudur

ఇరామానుశాయ నమ ఎన్ఱు సిందిత్తిరా
మనుసరోడు ఇఱైప్పోళుదు – ఇరామాఱు
సిందిప్పార్ తాళిణైయిల్ సేర్న్ది రుప్పార్ తాళిణైయై
వందిప్పార్ విణ్ణోర్గళ్ వాళ్వు

ప్రతి పద్ధార్ధం

వాళ్వు – శాశ్వతమైన ధనము
విణ్ణోర్గళ్ – నిత్య సూరులు
తాళిణైయై – వారి ఇరు పాదకమలములను
వందిప్పార్ – నమస్కరించువారి
సేర్న్దిరుప్పార్ – కలిసి ఉందురు
తాళిణైయిల్ – ఇరు పాదకమలములను
సిందిప్పార్ – తలచువారిని
ఇఱైపోళుదు – చాల తక్కువ సమయమైనను
ఇరామాఱు – వారిచే జీవించుటకు నిర్దేశించు
మనుసరోడు – అట్టి మనుషులతో
సిందిత్తిరా – చింతించని
ఇరామానుశాయ నమ ఎన్ఱు– ” రామానుజాయ నమ” అని శ్రీ రామానుజులను గూర్చి

సామన్య అర్ధం

కొందరు (మొదటి వర్గం) ” రామానుజాయ నమ” అని కూడ స్మరించలేరు. మరికొందరు (రెండవ వర్గం) వీరితో అతి తక్కువ సమయమునకు కూడ చేరి ఉండ కూడదని తలెచెదరు. ఇంకొందరు (మూడవ వర్గం) ఈ రెండవ వర్గం వారి గొప్పతనమును తెలుసుకొని, వారి పాదకమలములకు సాష్టాంగముగా దండములు సమర్పించుదురు. నిత్యసూరులు మూడవ వర్గం వారి రెండు పాదపద్మములే వారి నిత్య ధనముగ తలిచెదరు.

ప్రస్తావన

తిరువాయ్ మొళి లో మొదటి పాశురములోనే నమ్మాళ్వార్లు ” తొళుదు ఎళు ఎన్ మనమే” అని చెప్పెను. నమ్మళ్వార్లు తన మనసును శ్రీమన్ నారాయణుని చరణములందే పడి ఉండవలెనని చెప్పెను. ఇంకను నమ్మళ్వార్లు, రెండవ దశకమున ” వణ్ పుగళ్ నారణన్ (తిరువాయ్ మొళి 1.2.10)” లో “నారాయణుని” నామములను జపించుట గూర్చి చెప్పెను . అదే విధముగా మణవాళ మామునులు రెండవ పాశురమున “రామానుజుల” నామమును ఘోషించెను. మొదటి పాశురము ” అన్వయం” (దృవీకరణము) కాని రెండవ పాశురము “వ్యతిరేకం”. దేని ప్రాధాన్యతను చెప్పవలెననెచో, దానిని పాటించే మార్గము ఉండును. మొదట ఆ విషయము యొక్క గొప్పతనమున/ ప్రాధాన్యము  గూర్చి చెప్పెదము. ఇది అన్వయం. తరువాత ఆ విషయము తప్ప మిగిలిన వాటి యొక్క అధమ స్వభావము గూర్చి చెప్పెదము. ఇది వ్యతిరేకము.మొదటి పాశురములో మణవాళ మామునులు యతిరాజుల విశిష్టతను గూర్చి వివరించెను. రెండవ పాశురములో “రామానుజాయ నమ” అను వాక్యాము తప్ప మిగిలిన వాటి యొక్క అధమత్వమును తెలిపెను. ఇట్లు అన్వయ వ్యతిరేకము అను యుక్తితో మణవాళ మామునులు యతిరాజుల గొప్పతనమును కొనియాడెను.

వివరణ

మన ధర్మ గ్రంధములన్నియూ “రామానుజాయ నమ” అను మంత్ర మును నిరంతరము చింతించ వలెనని నిర్దేశించెను.కాని చాల మందికి ఇది తెలియుట లేదు, కొందరికి తెలిసినా పాటించుటలేదు. వీరిని “ప్రతికూలులు” లేదా వెతిరేకముగా నిలుచు(వారి మొక్షమునకు) వారు అని సూచించెదరు. వీరు జీవనాధరము అనగా రామానుజులను గూర్చి జపించుట మరియు ధ్యానించుట చేయరు. వీరిని జీవనాధారం లేని వస్తువుగా చెప్పెదరు మరియు నాలుగు కాళ్ల గల ఆవు వంటి జంతువుతో పొల్చెదరు. ఇంకొక వర్గం వారు ఇట్టి “ప్రతికూలులను” చూచి భయపడెదరు మరియు వారితో కొద్ది పాటి సమయము కూడా కలిసి ఉండుటకు ఇష్టపడరు. ప్రతికూలులను చూచి భయపడు ఈ వర్గం వారిని “అనుకూలులు” లేదా మొక్షమును ఆకంక్షించువారు అని పిలుచుదురు. మరియొక్క వర్గం వారు ఈ అనుకూలుల పాదపద్మములనే ఆశ్రయించెదరు. “అరుమ్పేఱు వానత్తవర్క్కు (ఙ్ఞాన సారం 4)”లో చెప్పినట్లు నిత్యసూరులు , అనుకూలులను ఆశ్రయించి ఇట్టి వారినే కొనియాడెదరు.

అడియేన్ వైష్ణవి రామానుజ దాసి

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.9.1 – sonnAl virOdham

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Full series >> Third Centum >> Ninth decad

srinivasa

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In first pAsuram – AzhwAr who set out to give advice for their well-being to those who praise others, explains his own philosophy to develop the taste in them.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In first pAsuram – AzhwAr explains his own philosophy saying “I will not praise any one other than the upakAraka (benefactor) who is present in thirumalA to accept my praises”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

In first pAsuram – AzhwAr who set out to advice “it is not good for you to praise petty persons”, to develop the taste in them, mercifully explains his own philosophy saying “See my stature”.

pAsuram

sonnAl virOdham idhu Agilum solluvan kENminO
en nAvil in kavi yAn oruvarkkum kodukkilEn
thennA thenA enRu vaNdu mural thiruvEnkataththu
en Anai en appan emperumAn uLan AgavE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

idhu – this good advice (which is focussed on eliminating your praising of others)
sonnAl – when spoken
virOdham – inimical (to your desire);
Agilum – in spite of that
solluvan – I will say (unable to bear your disastrous situation);
kENmin – (you) listen;
vaNdu – beetles
thennA thenA enRu – (being joyful as a result of consuming honey) sweet humming
mural – making sound
thiruvEnkataththu – being present in thirumalA (thiruvEnkatam)
en Anai – being eligible to be praised by me
en appan – being the benefactor who gives himself (as the prize for the pAsuram in his praise)
emperumAn – the apt lord
uLan Aga – sustaining himself (by these pAsurams in praise)
en nAvil – fulfilling the purpose of my tongue
in kavi – sweet pAsurams (to ISvara who accepts these pAsurams)
yAn – I (who is exclusive servitor of him)
oruvarkkum – to anyone else
kodukkilEn – unable to submit

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

When spoken, this good advice (which is focussed on eliminating your praising of others) is inimical (to your desire); in spite of that I will say (unable to bear your disastrous situation); (you) listen; the apt lord who is eligible to be praised by me, the benefactor who gives himself (as the prize for the pAsuram in his praise), who is present in thirumalA (thiruvEnkatam) where the beetles are making sweet humming sound, is sustaining himself (by these pAsurams in praise); I am unable to submit the sweet pAsurams coming out of tongue fulfilling its (tongue’s purpose) to anyone else (other than thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn).

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • sonnAl virOdham idhu – Three explanations:
    • Towards you who are interested in ulterior benefits , me telling “do not praise [others]” implies I am blocking the benefits you desire for; you will develop hatred towards me thinking “he is speaking contrary to our objectives”. Still, I am saying this [out of great compassion unable to bear your pathetic situation].
    • Alternatively – As said in “… yO’vasAdhassa uchyathAm” (Let the defects of those who recite bhagavAn‘s names during morning, noon, evening be revealed [implies, there is no defects for such person]), prahlAdha said to the asura children recite the divine names of bhagavAn either by saying “if we say the divine name, thunder will strike” [i.e., reciting the divine names even in a negative connotation] or by saying the divine names themselves [either way, one should recite the divine names]; similarly, even if you think this to be meaningless, I will tell you.
    • Another explanation – As said in SrIvishNu purANam 3.7.14 “svapurusham … karNamUlE …” (yama tells his servitor secretly in his ears “I am the master for all common people but not for the vaishNavas, leave those who are surrendered to devotees of bhagavAn”), like “some one who is desiring for the queen” should not be discussed in public [as both the speaker and the person who is being discussed will be in trouble]. AzhwAr feels disgusted to even say “it is very lowly to serve undeserving persons”; this being the case, you are so pathetic that I have to advice you; thus, if I say something now, it will be bad for me as well [as explained in the example].
  • Agilum solluvan – Still I am telling you. Why are you telling us even in this situation? AzhwAr says “I am not telling you since you have come with internal/external sense control, with samith (sticks that are used in yagyas) [as dedicated brahmachAris (students) would have]; but I am telling you looking at your pathetic situation; thus, I will not stop until you are relieved from this suffering.  Like you are not retracting from worldly desires, I will not retract from giving you good advice”.
  • kENminO – [listen] Don’t think that after listening to me you have to follow the instructions fully; just listening to me is sufficient; no need to follow. [Why is AzhwAr not telling them to put the advice in practice?] On hearing the good advice, since they are chEthanas (sentient beings), they will like it very much; for that which happens out of natural attachment, we need not specifically tell them to do; thus AzhwAr says “what is the point in forcing them to follow the instructions? just listen”. One would not close their ears when hearing the sound of the ocean; at least hear like that. By the plural in “kENmin“, AzhwAr implies that the pathetic situation is common for everyone and thus he is telling everyone. His pain [in seeing them suffer] is so much that, he is falling at the feet of everyone and requesting them to worship bhagavAn like falling at someone’s feet to make them drink sweet milk.
  • en nAvil … – If you are truly a chEthana (sentient – knowledgable person), as you are going in the wrong path, when you see someone who is going on the right path, should you not say “I should also go in the same path”? So, you have seen my conduct; why don’t you also follow the same conduct?
  • en nA – As said in mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam “yasyaithE thasya thadhdhanam” (to the one who owns a person, his property also belongs to the same owner), as I am a servitor of bhagavAn, my tongue which is a faculty for me, is a servitor of him too – such tongue. AzhwAr says “Is there any one who has used his tongue in a better manner than me?”; my tongue is as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.8.2vanjanE ennum eppOdhum en vAsagam” (my speech will always say “Oh mischeivous one!”).
  • in kaviISvara hears his pAsurams of praise, becomes pleased and cheerful, and AzhwAr in turn becomes cheerful. In whichever way SEshi (lord) becomes pleased, the SEshabhUtha (servitor) also becomes pleased. Whatever pleasure is acquired when SrIman nArAyaNan and SrI mahAlakshmi are united as a couple, the same pleasure is acquired when SEshi (bhagavAn – lord) and SEsha (AthmA – servitor) unite. The unique aspect of SEshabhUtha is to be pleased by the same thing that pleases the lord.
  • yAn – me who is considering myself as exclusively devoted to bhagavAn. With this thought only, previously “yasyaithE” was explained.
  • oruvarkkum kodukkilEn – This [phrase] is not in line with the previously explained athyantha pArathanthriyam [total dependence]. When one says “I will not give to any one else”, it implies “I will give to bhagavAn“; will it fit the true nature of AthmA to consider owning something, giving to others and accepting from others? If emperumAn himself has bestowed the ability to think, act and withdraw from actions, one can say “I have submitted mine”. The relationship of AthmA with bhagavAn is very deep that one can say “I have submitted mine”. Like during gOdhAnam (donating a cow) a father will pour water for the offering in the hands of his son, give his own cow to his son and accept that back from him [as if the cow was owned by the son]; [similarly,] AzhwAr explains this from ISvara‘s view point, where the AthmA presents something as if it’s one’s own property, emperumAn will accept it as if the AthmA has given everything.  As said in thiruvAimozhi 7.9.1 “ennAl thannai in thamizh pAdiya” (emperumAn sung about himself in beautiful pAsurams through me), emperumAn is of the nature that he made AzhwAr sing about him and then considered “AzhwAr sung about me”. Since worldly people praise other worldly people, AzhwAr is emphasising that he will not praise others.
  • thennA … – This is how he composed his pAsurams in praise of emperumAn. That is  – like the humming noise made by the beetles out of the joy of drinking honey fell in line with musical note, AzhwAr’s divine experience of bhagavAn which leads to the great joy was released as the pAsurams. thiryak [insects – beetles], mumukshus (liberation seekers) and bhagavAn himself – everyone is blissfully enjoying the music/pAsurams. If those who are close to bhagavAn sing these pAsurams, it is natural that emperumAn is also attached to them; he is said as “thennA ennum en ammAn” (my lord who is enjoying).
  • thiruvEnkataththu en Anai – Like SrI rAmAyaNam is glorified greater than vEdham, AzhwAr highlights the greatness of the target of his praises [thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn – archAvathAram] in comparison to the target of SrI vAlmIki bhagavAn’s praises [SrI rAma – vibhavAvathAram].
  • thiruvEnkataththu en Anai – AzhwAr is so great that he gets an elephant as prize for singing praises; thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn, the elephant acquired fame by AzhwAr’s praises [in his pAsurams]. AzhwAr enjoys as sagOthri [belonging to the same gOthra – here gOthra means hill/mountain] for the beetles [who are residents of thirumalA]. emperumAn is unlike others, who would give a different elephant for those who praise them [as prize]. emperumAn is a pleasure to watch [like an elephant which is always watched with great joy] and deserves to be praised at all times. emperumAn who is enjoyable for me like an elephant and is residing in thirumalA where beetles out of joy due to drinking honey make sound like those who perform elaborate vocal musical rendering.
  • en appan – My great benefactor who made me capable of advising others, while the people of this world are busy in glorifying others.
  • emperumAn – Even if he caused harm [instead of doing favour as explained previously], he has the apt relationship [of being my lord].
  • uLan AgavEemperumAn is said to sustain others by his arrival as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 59.3 “… ASayA yadhivA rAma: …” (sumanthra says – hoping that SrI rAma will return, I stayed with guha for many days) – when such emperumAn sustains himself by hearing my pAsurams, will I sing any one else? Like it is said in thaiththiriya upanishath “asannEva” (similar to achith) – when a samsAri AthmA (bound soul) does not reach bhagavAn, it is as good as achith (insentient), emperumAn considers himself to be non-existing when he is not with me – thus he arrived here [to accept me]. What will happen to him who descended here to make me sing his praises, if I go and praise some one else? That being the case, it is apt for you to be like me.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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शरणागति गद्य – चूर्णिका 5 – भाग 1

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श्री: श्रीमते शठकोपाय नमः श्रीमते रामानुजाय नमः श्रीमद्वरवरमुनये नम:

शरणागति गद्य

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अवतारिका (भूमिका)

5 चूर्णिका में श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी उन परमात्मा को स्थापित करते है, जिनकी शरणागति सभी को करनी चाहिए। श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी प्रभावी रूप से यह बताते है कि “नारायण” ही परमात्मा है। हम पहले देख चुके है कि “नारायण” शब्द दो खण्डों से निर्मित है, नारा: (विभिन्न प्रकार के चित और अचित तत्वों का संग्रह) और अयन  (निवास स्थान)। नारा: के विवरण को आगे के वाक्यांशों के लिए रखकर, इस भाग में वे परमात्मा के स्वरुप का विवरण करते है।

क्यूंकि यह चूर्णिका बहुत बड़ी है, हम इसके विवरण को पांच भागों में पूर्ण करेंगे – प्रथम भाग में हम श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी द्वारा भगवान के स्वरुप के विवरण तक के खंड को देखेंगे।

पहले सम्पूर्ण चूर्णिका को यहाँ देखते है :

अखिलहेय प्रत्यनिक कल्याणैकथान स्वेतर समस्त वस्तु विलक्षण अनंत ज्ञानानंदैक स्वरुप ! स्वाभिमतानुरूप एकरूप अचिंत्य दिव्याद्भुत नित्य निरवद्य निरतिशय औज्ज्वल्य सौंदर्य सौगंध्य सौकुमार्य लावण्य यौवनाद्यनंत गुणनिधि दिव्यरूप ! स्वाभाविकानवधिकातिशय ज्ञानबलैश्वर्य वीर्यशक्तितेज: सौशील्य वात्सल्य मार्तधवार्जव सौहार्द साम्य कारुण्य माधुर्य गांभीर्य औधार्य चातुर्य स्थैर्य धैर्य शौर्य पराक्रम सत्यकाम सत्यसंकल्प कृतित्व कृतज्ञात्यसंख्येय कल्याणगुणागणौघ महार्णव ! स्वोचित विविध विचित्रानंदाश्चर्य नित्य निरवद्य निरतिशय सुगंध निरतिशयसुखस्पर्श निरतिशय औज्ज्वल्य किरीट मकुट चुडावतम्स मकरकुंडल ग्रैवेयक हार केयूर कटक श्रीवत्स कौस्तुभ मुक्ताधाम उदरबंधन पीताम्बर कांचीगुण नुपुराध्यपरिमिता दिव्य भूषण ! स्वानुरूपाचिंत्य शक्ति शंख चक्र गदा (असी) सारंगाध्यसंख्येय नित्य निरवद्य निरतिशय कल्याण दिव्यायुध ! स्वाभिमत नित्य निरवद्यानुरूप स्वरुप रूप गुण विभवैश्वर्य शीलाध्यनवधिकातिशय असंख्येय कल्याणगुणगण श्रीवल्लभ ! एवंभुत भूमि नीलानायक ! स्वच्छंदानुवर्ती स्वरुपस्थिति प्रवृत्ति भेद अशेष शेषतैकरतिरुप नित्य निरवद्य निरतिशय ज्ञानक्रियैश्वर्याध्यनंत कल्याण गुणगण शेष शेषासन गरुड़ प्रमुख नानाविधानंत परिजन परिचारिका परिचरित चरणयुगल ! परमयोगी वांगमनसा परिच्छेद्य स्वरुप स्वभाव स्वाभिमत विविध विचित्रानंत भोग्य भोगोपकरण भोगस्थान समृद्ध अनंताश्चर्य अनंत महाविभव अनंत परिमाण नित्य निरवद्य निरतिशय वैकुंठनाथ ! स्वसंकल्प अनुविधायी स्वरुपस्थिति प्रवृत्ति स्वशेषतैक स्वभाव प्रकृति पुरुष कलात्मक विविध विचित्रानंत भोग्य भोक्तरूवर्ग भोगोपकरण भोगस्थानरूप निखिल जगादुधय विभव लय लीला ! सत्यकाम ! सत्यसंकल्प ! परब्रह्मभूत ! पुरुषोत्तम ! महाविभुते ! श्रीमन ! नारायण ! श्रीवैकुंठनाथ ! अपारकारुण्य सौशील्य वात्सल्य औधार्य ऐश्वर्य सौंदर्य महोधधे ! अनालोचित विशेष अशेषलोक शरण्य ! प्रणतार्तिहर! आश्रित वात्सल्यैक जलधे ! अनवरत विदित निखिल भूत जात यातात्म्य ! अशेष चराचरभूत निखिल नियम निरत !अशेष चिदचिद्वस्तु शेषीभूत ! निखिल जगदाधार ! अखिल जगत स्वामिन् ! अस्मत स्वामिन् ! सत्यकाम ! सत्यसंकल्प ! सकलेतर विलक्षण ! अर्थिकल्पक ! आप्तसक ! श्रीमन् ! नारायण ! अशरण्यशरण्य ! अनन्य शरण: त्वत पादारविंद युगलं शरणं अहं प्रपद्ये I

शब्दार्थ:

अखिलहेय – वह सब जो दोषयुक्त है

प्रत्यनिक – बिलकुल विपरीत

कल्याणैकथान – केवल शुभ कल्याण गुणों से युक्त

स्वेतर – स्वयं के अलावा

समस्त – सभी

वस्तु – पदार्थ (प्राणी)

विलक्षण – श्रेष्ठ

अनंत – जिसका कोई अनंत न हो

ज्ञान – ज्ञान/ विद्या

आनंदैक – आनंद से पूर्ण

स्वरुप – मौलिक/ मूलभूत प्रकृति

स्वाभिमत – उपयुक्त

अनुरूप – आकर्षक बाह्य रूप

एकरूप – एक बाह्य रूप

अचिंत्य – जिसे विचार नहीं किया जा सकता

दिव्य – उत्कृष्ट

अद्भुत – चमत्कारिक

नित्य – स्थायी

निरवद्य – बिना दोष के/ त्रुटिहीन

निरतिशय – अतुलनीय

औज्ज्वल्य – अत्यंत उज्जवल

सौंदर्य – अंगों में सुंदरता

सौगंध्य – मधुर गंध

सौकुमार्य – कोमल

लावण्य – सम्पूर्ण सौंदर्य

यौवन – युवा

आदि – प्रारम्भ करके

अनंत – जिसका अंत न हो

गुण – विशिष्ट लक्षण

निधि – निधि

दिव्यरूप – उत्कृष्ट रूप

स्वाभाविक – प्राकृतिक

अनवधिक – असीम; बहुतेरे

अतिशय – अद्भुत

ज्ञान – ज्ञान/ विद्या

बल – शक्ति

ऐश्वर्य – नियंत्रित करने की क्षमता

वीर्य – कभी न शिथिल होने वाले

शक्ति – ऊर्जा/ ताकत

तेज – प्रभा/ कांति

सौशील्य – जो स्तरों (दूसरों की तुलना के संदर्भ से) में भेद का विचार नहीं करते; सभी को समान मानने वाले

वात्सल्य – माता के स्नेह- ममता सा (जिसप्रकार एक गोमाता अपने बछड़े के प्रति स्नेह प्रदर्शित करती है)

मार्ध्व – ह्रदय से कोमल

आर्जव – सच्चा, नेक, निष्कपट

सौहार्द – सत ह्रदय वाला

साम्य – समान

कारुण्य – दया

माधुर्य – सदय, कृपालु

गांभीर्य – गहरा, प्रगाढ़

औधार्य – उदार प्रकृति के

चातुर्य – चतुर

स्थैर्य – दृढ़

धैर्य – साहस

शौर्य – शत्रुओं को हराने वाले

पराक्रम – जो थके न

सत्यकाम – जिनमें आकर्षक, सुंदर गुण हो

सत्यसंकल्प – स्वयं की अभिलाषा अनुसार संरचना करने की क्षमता

कृतित्व – करते हुए

कृतज्ञात – कृतज्ञ

असंख्येय – अगणित

कल्याण – मंगलमय, शुभ

गुण – विशिष्ट लक्षण

गणौघ – संग्रह

महार्णव् – विशाल सागर

स्वोचित – स्वयं के लिए उचित

विविध – बहुत प्रकार से

विचित्र – एक विशेष प्ररूप में बहुत से प्रकार

अनंताश्चर्य – अद्भुत जिसका कोई अंत न हो

नित्य – सदा / नित्य

निरवद्य – त्रुटिहीन/ दोष विहीन

निरतिशय सुगंध – मधुर सुगंध उत्सर्जित करना

निरतिशय सुखस्पर्श – भगवान के विग्रह पर मोलायम/ कोमल

निरतिशय औज्ज्वल्य – कांति फैलाते हुए

किरीट –शीश का परिधि युक्त/ चक्र समान आभूषण

मकुट – किरीट पर मुकुट के समान पहना जाने वाला

चुडा – ललाट पर पहना जाने वाला

अवतम्स – कानों पर पहना जाने वाला

मकर – मत्स्य (मछली) के समान

कुंडल – कानों की बाली

ग्रैवेयक – गले का हार

हार – हार

केयूर – कन्धों पर पहना जाने वाला

कटक – बाहं पर धारण की जाने वाली चूड़ी/ भुजबंद

श्रीवत्स – तिल के समान

कौस्तुभ – मध्य/ केंद्र का मणि

मुक्ताधाम – मोती के आभूषण

उदरबंधन – कमर और उदार के मध्य पहना जाने वाला

पीताम्बर – पीले वस्त्र

कांचीगुण – कमर की कर्दानी

नुपुर – पायल

आदि – और ऐसे ही बहुत

अपरिमित – अगणित

दिव्यभूषण – दिव्य आभूषण

स्वानुरूप – अपने स्वरुप के अनुसार

अचिंत्य – सोच के परे

शक्ति – प्रबल

शंख – शंख

गदा – गदा

अशी – तलवार

सारंग – धनुष

आदि – इसी प्रकार के बहुत से शस्त्र

असंख्येय – अगणित

नित्य – स्थायी

निरवद्य – दोष रहित

निरतिशय – अद्भुत

कल्याण – मंगलमय

दिव्यायुध – दिव्य शस्त्र

स्वाभिमत – उनकी पसंद के अनुरूप

नित्य निरवद्य – स्थायी, दोष रहित

अनुरूप – उनके सौंदर्य के सदृश

स्वरुप – मूलभूत विशेषताएं

रूप – बाह्य रूप

गुण – विशेषता

विभव – संपत्ति

ऐश्वर्य – नियंत्रित/ निर्देशित करना

शील – श्रेष्ठ व्यक्ति, जो अवर व्यक्ति से भी बिना किसी भेदभाव के व्यवहार करते है

आदि – इसी प्रकार के बहुत से गुण

अनवधिक – कभी कम/ क्षीण न होने वाली

अधिशय – अद्भुत

असंख्येय – अगणित

कल्याण – मंगलमय

गुण गण – गुणों का भण्डार

श्री – महालक्ष्मीजी – श्रीजी

वल्लभ – स्नेही; प्रिया

एवं भूत – समान गुणों वाली

भूमि नीला नायक – श्रीभूदेवी और श्रीनीलादेवीजी के नाथ / स्वामी

क्यूंकि यह चूर्णिका बहुत ही बड़ी है, शेष चूर्णिका के शब्दशः अर्थों को हम अगले अंक में जानेंगे।

विस्तृत व्याख्यान

अखिलहेय– अयोग्यता/ दोष। सभी भिन्न प्राणियों में कुछ दोष निहित है। अचित के संदर्भ में, उसका निरंतर परिवर्तनिय स्वरुप ही उसकी अयोग्यता है। बद्धात्मा (संसार बंधन में बंधे) के संदर्भ में, दोष यह है कि देह धारण करने के पश्चाद वह अपने पूर्व पाप और पुण्यों के अनुसार सतत सुखों और दुखों का अनुभव करता है। मुक्तात्मा (संसार बंधन से मुक्ति प्राप्त कर श्रीवैकुंठ में पहुंचे जीव) के संदर्भ में दोष यह है कि मुक्त होने के पहले वे भी संसार में सुखों और दुखों को निरंतर अनुभव किया करते थे। नित्यात्मा (परमपद के नित्य निवासी जैसे अनंतजी, विष्वक्सेनजी, गरुड़जी, आदि) के संदर्भ में अयोग्यता यह है कि उनमें निहित सभी शुभ विशेषताएं उनकी स्वयं की नहीं, अपितु भगवान की निर्हेतुक कृपा द्वारा प्राप्त है, अर्थात वे स्वतंत्र नहीं है। सिर्फ परमात्मा के लिए ही कोई योग्यता/ दोष नहीं है, वे सभी में सक्षम है।

प्रत्यनिक – बिलकुल विपरीत; इसका आशय है कि भगवान उन सभी के विपरीत है, जो सभी दोषयुक्त है। अन्य शब्दों में, भगवान सभी दोषों/ अयोग्यताओं से मुक्त है।

कल्याणैकथान – सभी कल्याण गुणों को धारण करने वाले एकमात्र स्वामी। भगवान न केवल सभी दोषयुक्त के विपरीत है, अपितु सभी अच्छे के प्रतीक भी है।

स्वेतर समस्त वस्तु विलक्षण – सभी प्राणियों (चेतन और अचित) की तुलना में वे श्रेष्ठ/ सर्वोत्तम है। इसे इस बात के स्वाभाविक परिणाम के रूप में भी देखा जा सकता है कि वे सभी दिव्य गुणों के स्वामी है और सभी दोषपूर्ण से विहीन है।

अनंत – जिसका कोई अंत न हो। हम सभी प्राणी स्थान, समय और भौतिक व्यवस्था के द्वारा सिमित है; अर्थात हम केवल एक ही स्थान पर रहते है, एक विशिष्ट समय जैसे 100 वर्ष या 120 वर्ष तक जीवित रह सकते है परंतु सदा के लिए नहीं और हम एक ही देह को धारण करते है। परंतु भगवान इनमें से किसी से भी परिमित नहीं है। वे एक ही समय पर बहुत से स्थानों पर हो सकते है, नित्य है और एक से अधिक देह को धारण करते है। क्यूंकि हम सभी उन्हीं में निवास करते है, वे सर्वव्यापी है और सभी देहों में विद्यमान है। प्रलय के समय में भी, एक मात्र वे ही विद्यमान रहते है। इसलिए उन्हें अनंत कहा जाता है।

ज्ञान आनंदैक स्वरुप भगवान स्वयं प्रकाशित है, उन्हें अन्य किसी प्रकाश की आवश्यकता नहीं है। यह आत्मा के लिए भी सत्य है। इसे स्वयंप्रकाशत्व कहा जाता है। भगवान ज्ञान से परिपूर्ण है, उस ज्ञान से आनंद की उत्पत्ति होती है। इसलिए ज्ञान और आनंद उनके स्वरूप है। अब तक श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी, भगवान के स्वरुप की महिमा का वर्णन कर रहे है। अब वे उनके रूप (तिरुमेणी/ विगृह) का वर्णन करते है। पांच तत्वों (आकाश, वायु, अग्नि, जल और पृथ्वी) से बनी हमारी भौतिक देह के विपरीत, भगवान का विग्रह शक्ति और पांच उपनिषदों से बना है।

स्वाभिमत – उनके गुणों के अनुरूप/ उपयुक्त। उनका रूप उपरोक्त वर्णित उनके स्वरुप के गुणों से अधिक आभायमान है और उन्हें प्रिय है। इसलिए, उनके रूप के गुणों का वर्णन करने से पहले, वे उनके विग्रह/ शरीर (भगवान की तिरुमेणी) का वर्णन करते है। जैसा की महर्षि पराशर ने विष्णु पुराण (18 पुराणों में से एक) में उल्लेख किया, यह ऐसा विग्रह है जो वे स्वयं की इच्छानुरूप धारण करते है। उनका यह रूप उनका बहुत प्रिय है। जीवात्माओं को शुद्ध करने के उद्देश्य से, जब सभी अन्य उपाय विफल होते है, तब अंततः वे अपने विग्रह के दर्शन प्रदान कर उस जीवात्मा को अपने मार्ग पर लाते है।

अनुरूप – उनका दिव्य विग्रह बहुप्रकार से उनके स्वरुप के पूरक है (जैसा की हम पहले देख चुके है)। हमारे विषय में, हमारी आत्मा ज्ञान से ज्ञान और आनंद से पूर्ण है। यद्यपि हमारी देह, आत्मा के इस स्वरुप को आच्छादित कर देती है, परंतु भगवान के संदर्भ में उनके बाह्य रूप उनके स्वरुप के गुणों की शोभा और अधिक बढ़ाते है।

एकरूप – केवल एक रूप (बाह्य रूप)। हमारे जीवन में भी हमें एक ही शरीर प्राप्त होता है। तब फिर भगवान के एकरूप से क्या आशय है? जीवन चक्र में हमारा शरीर 6 विभिन्न प्रकार के परिवर्तनों से गुजरता है– निर्माण होता है, जन्म होता है, परिवर्तन होता है, बढता है, क्षीण होता है और फिर एक दिन वह समाप्त हो जाता है। इसे शठ विधा भाव कहा जाता है (6 विभिन्न प्रकार के रूप)। भगवान के संदर्भ में, उनकी विग्रह में ऐसे कोई परिवर्तन नहीं होते। उनका एक ही विग्रह है और वह सदा एक समान रहता है।

अचिंत्य – उनके रूप का स्मरण रखना हमारे मानस के सामर्थ्य के परे है। मंदिर में रहते हुए उनके दिव्य विग्रह के घंटों दर्शन करने के बाद, जब हम घर पहुँच कर उनकी पोषक, माला के फूलों के रंग अथवा उनके द्वारा पहने हुए विभिन्न प्रकार के आभूषणों का स्मरण करते है, तो हम उसे पुर्णतः स्मरण नहीं कर पाते।

दिव्य – यद्यपि हम कितने भी प्रयास करले, हम उनके समान किसी को भी खोज नहीं पाएंगे। उन्हें अप्राकृत संबोधन किया जाता है जबकि हमारी देह प्राकृत है जो 5 विभिन्न तत्वों से निर्मित है और भगवान का रूप इन सामान्य तत्वों से निर्मित नहीं है।

अद्भुत – निरंतर परिवर्तित होने वाला। कुछ शब्दों पहले हमने देखा भगवान एकरूप है (अपरिवर्त्य) और उनका रूप सदा एकसमान रहता है और परिवर्तित नहीं होता है। परंतु अब ऐसा कैसे है कि हम कह रहे है वे परिवर्तित होते है? यहाँ अद्भुत से आशय है – जैसे हम प्रतिदिन भगवान के एक ही विग्रह के मंदिर में दर्शन करते है, फिर भी हम सदा उनके रूप में कुछ नया अनुभव करते है। उनके आभूषण, उनकी पोषकें और मालाएं, श्रृंगार आदि सदा परिवर्तित होते है। इसप्रकार वे कभी पिछले दिन या पिछले सप्ताह के समान प्रतीत नहीं होते। प्रत्येक क्षण वे भिन्न प्रकट होते है और इन सभी रूपों में वे अद्भुत नज़र आते है।

नित्य निरवद्यअवद्य से आशय है दोष/ अशुद्धि। निरवद्य अर्थात जिसमें कोई दोष अथवा अशुद्धि न हो। नित्य निरवद्य अर्थात किसी भी समय में कभी भी जिसमें कोई दोष न हो अर्थात जो नित्य ही दोषरहित हो। वे कभी यह नहीं सोचते कि उनका रूप, विग्रह उनके लिए है। उनका रूप उनके सभी भक्तों के हितार्थ है। यह निरवद्य का एक और अन्य अर्थ है।

निरतिशय औज्ज्वल्यऔज्ज्वल्य से आशय है पूर्ण चमक/ कांति। उनकी चमक ऐसी है कि ब्रह्माण्ड के सबसे अधिक चमकते सितारे भी उनके विग्रह के तुलना में अन्धकारमय नज़र आते है। अब तक श्रीरामानुज स्वामीजी उनके बाह्य सुंदर रूप के विषय में चर्चा कर रहे थे। अब वे भगवान के रूप की विशेषताओं का वर्णन प्रारंभ करते है।

सौंदर्य – दिव्य देह के सभी अंगों का सौंदर्य। जब किसी देह को दूर से देखा जाता है तब वह पूर्ण रूप से सुंदर नज़र आ सकती है परंतु पास आने पर उनमें से कुछ अंग उतने सुंदर नहीं है और वे और भी अधिक श्रेष्ठ हो सकते थे, ऐसा अनुभव होता हैl भगवान के संदर्भ में, शरीर के अंग संपुर्णतः सुंदर प्रतीत होते है।

सौगंध्य – मनभावन मधुर गंध। और अन्य वस्तुओं को भी सुगंध प्रदान करने का सामर्थ्य।

सौकुमार्य – अत्यंत सुकोमल। उनका विग्रह इतना सुकोमल है कि यदि श्रीजी उनकी और देख ले, तो वह अंग लाल रंग का हो जाता है, वह इतना सुकोमल है।

लावण्य – उनके रूप की सम्पूर्ण सुंदरता। इसकी तुलना सौंदर्य से करे, जिस गुण का वर्णन उपर किया गया है। यद्यपि सौंदर्य अंगों की सुंदरता के लिए प्रयोग किया गया है, लावण्य सम्पूर्ण रूप के सौंदर्य को दर्शाता है। हमारे नेत्र अपने जीवनकाल में उनके शरीर के प्रत्येक अंग को देखने और सराहने में समर्थ नहीं है; इसीलिए उनमें लावण्य का गुण भी विद्यमान है, जिसके द्वारा हमारे नेत्र उनके सम्पूर्ण रूप के सौंदर्य के दर्शन कर सके।

यौवन – उनकी युवा अवस्था को प्रदर्शित करता है। युगों युगांतर बीतने पर भी वे सदा ही इसी यौवन की अवस्था में ही रहते है। वे कभी वय नहीं होते।

आदि – उपरोक्त गुणों से प्रारम्भ होकर, ऐसे और बहुत से गुण है।

अनंत गुण निधि – ऐसी अनंत सद्गुणों के निधि।

दिव्य रूप – उनका रूप जो श्रीवैकुंठ में है, वह इस लीला विभूति (लौकिक जगत) में न रखने योग्य रूप में उपस्थित है।

अब तक हमने भगवान के स्वरुप, रूप और रूप के गुणों के विषय में देखा। अब चूर्णिका 5 के द्वितीय भाग में हम उनके स्वरुप के गुणों, उनकी दिव्य महिषियों, नित्यसुरियों, श्रीवैकुंठ, लीला विभूति आदि के विषय में चर्चा करेंगे, जो उनके नारायण संबोधन के “नारा” खंड को समझाती है।

हिंदी अनुवाद- अडियेन भगवती रामानुजदासी

आधार – http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/12/saranagathi-gadhyam-5-part-1/

संग्रहण – http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

प्रमेय (लक्ष्य) – http://koyil.org
प्रमाण (शास्त्र) – http://granthams.koyil.org
प्रमाता (आचार्य) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
श्रीवैष्णव शिक्षा/बालकों का पोर्टल – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruvAimozhi – 3.9 – sonnAl

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bhagavan-nammazhwar

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In ninth decad – emperumAn seeing AzhwAr along with his sensory organs crying out, says “While the whole world is praising others and becoming purposeless, I have made you to praise me” and highlights AzhwAr’s fortune; AzhwAr becomes satisfied and highlights the following aspects:

  1. emperumAn’s ultimate saulabhyam (easy approachability) which is cause for being praiseworthy
  2. the greatness of relationship with such emperumAn who is easily approachable
  3. his control over nithyasUris (eternally free souls of paramapadham)
  4. the praises that match his lordship
  5. his great generosity which makes him bestow what is desired [by others]
  6. his Sriya:pathithvam (lord of SrI mahAlakshmi) which is the cause for such generosity
  7. the completeness of his names and qualities which are the target of praises
  8. he being the ultimate result
  9. his ability to bestow the purushArtham (goals of individuals)
  10. his being the creator of the world

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr mercifully advises to worldly people “instead of praising such emperumAn, why are you losing your purpose of existence by praising worthless others?”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

samsAris (worldly people) made AzhwAr forget crying out for his loss [as explained in previous decad] and cry out for their loss. In the previous decad AzhwAr along with his sensory organs cried out [towards emperumAn] which will melt anyone who heard that; Like AzhwAr blissfully enjoyed bhagavAn as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.3.9parugik kaLiththEnE” (enjoyed drinking such experience) and then sought the association of nithyasUris as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.3.10adiyArgaL kuzhAngaL udan kUduvadhenRu kolO” (when will I join together with the groups of nithyasUris?), here too after crying out in sorrow, he looked at the samsAris thinking “who will share my agony at the loss of emperumAn?”; but, as they are not a company in the result [of serving emperumAn in paramapadham], they are also not a company in the loss of the same; AzhwAr only saw – as said in nAnmugan thiruvanthAdhi 6 “aRiyAr samaNar, ayarththAr bavuththar, siRiyAr sivappattAr” (jainas who don’t know the truth, baudhdhas who are bewildered, Saivas who waned away becoming very lowly), those (jainas) who talk irrelevant aspects, those who accept just accept knowledge based lineage instead of accepting a chEthana (sentient) [bhagavAn as the cause] which can remember what was previously thought/done,  those (Saivas) who consider a jIvAthmA like themselves to be ISvara (supreme lord), those who depend on other dhEvathAs, those others who make the aforementioned persons to be greatly intelligent due to praising mortal beings to fulfil their worldly desires; on seeing them, AzhwAr forgot his agony as said in “vALERu kANath thELERu mAyumApOlE” (a person comes out running having stung by scorpion crying in pain; but outside he sees some one who has his hands cut off fully – the first person then forgets his pain seeing the greater pain of the other person); since AzhwAr is of the nature that when he sees others suffering he will try to help them before taking care of his own suffering, he thought “let me help remove their suffering and will bring them along [in the path of mOksham]” and gave them the most apt advice and as they ignore that and remain the same way, while going on his way leaving them behind, he speaks about the difference between them and him [this is explained in detail in the coming sections].

  • emperumAn is having all auspicious qualities;
  • he is the divine lord of SrI mahAlakshmi;
  • since he is very beautiful, the praises will remain truthful and he will be worthy of such praises;
  • he is having subordinates who would hear such praises and glorify them as said in thiruvAimozhi 10.6.11 “kEttArAr vaNavargaL” (the residents of paramapadham will not be satisfied in hearing thiruvAimozhi once and will want to hear again and again) and thiruvAimozhi 9.4.9 “thoNdarkkamudhuNNach chol mAlaigaL” (these garlands made of words are nectar for the devotees);
  • he is most generous to be able to fulfil the desires of those who praise him as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.9.5  “vENdiRRellAm tharum kOdhil en vaLLal” (the faultless benevolent lord who will give anything that is prayed for);
  • he is being the owner of both spiritual realm and material realm, thus having the ability to give what was asked;
  • he is indicated by all words, whatever words one may use, as said in thiruvAimozhi 7.8.10 “valladhOr vaNNam sonnAl adhuvE unakkAm vaNNam” (whatever one says according to one’s capability, that will be acceptable by you);
  • he is present everywhere as said in thiruvAimozhi 2.8.9engum uLan kaNNan” (krishNa is present everywhere), so that one need not search with difficulty to find him after compiling some verses on him;
  • he is easily approachable; he is the one who can bestow all purushArthams (goals) such as bhOga (enjoyment), mOksha (liberation) etc;
  • even if he does not bestow them, he is sarvESvara who is fit to be simply glorified.

Instead of praising such emperumAn, the worldly people were praising,

  • those who have nothing praiseworthy in them;
  • singing praises as in calling a bald headed as “cool long haired”, calling a dirty-eyed person as lotus-eyed;
  • since the one who is praised does not have anything to offer, he would end up giving false promises;
  • those who are praised are so impermanent that, when one prepares many days and in the end prepares a poem in praise of a worldly person, when approached to read out his praises, that person who is praised himself may be dead – thus it’s a loss when the one who is praised is alive and is a loss when such person is dead – and hence is a loss in all manner;
  • not only is there no use in praising such persons, one needs to praise such worldly persons who have nothing good in them, yet to praise as having been born in high paternal and maternal heritage;
  • so, what is the result of that? there will be some defect for the person who is praised even during birth; hearing the praises [knowing well they are false praises], those who hear them will be reminded of the defects of the person who is being praised; in this way, one will reveal the defects of such defects and become unfavourable [in this current birth here], since unfit objects were glorified, one will subsequently go to naraka [after death] and will be condemned and outcast saying “he is the one who praised that unfit person”.

AzhwAr seeing such persons who are praising very lowly persons, advised them good words saying “While AthmA is a servitor of ISvara, it is not fitting to praise others with your faculty [sensory organs]”, the advice did not yield result as in the case of the advice of SrI vibhIshaNa et al to rAvaNa, thinking “We will also get the same result like these who don’t listen to good advice [if we continue to stay here]” and “While we are living in this world with this material body among these people, how fortunate we are to have the senses which are attached exclusively to bhagavAn?”, feeling blissful like escaping with the properties of self, while being caught in a place well known for robbery, meditating upon his difference [from those worldly people], concludes joyfully by speaking his own benefit.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thirumAlai – 26 – pOdhellAm pOdhu koNdu

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namperumal

avathArikai (Introduction)

periya perumAL divines to AzhwAr “even if you did not have karma, gyAna, bhakthi yOgams which are prescribed for brAhmaNa, kshathriya and vaiSya men, you could still carry out worshipping and praising of me, as prescribed for all chEthanas”. AzhwAr responds “I did not have these also”.

Let us look at the pAsuram and its meanings.

போதெல்லாம் போது கொண்டு  உன் பொன்னடி புனைய மாட்டேன்
தீதிலா மொழிகள் கொண்டு  உன் திருக்குணம் செப்ப மாட்டேன்
காதலால் நெஞ்சம் அன்பு  கலந்திலேன் அது தன்னாலே
ஏதிலேன் அரங்கர்க்கு எல்லே எஞ்செய்வான் தோன்றினேனே.

pOdhellAm pOdhu koNdu un ponnadi punaiya mAttEn
thIdhila mozhigaL koNdu un thirukkuNam seppa mAttEn
kAdhalAl nenjam anbu kalandhilEn adhu thannAlE
EdhilEn arangaRku ellE enseyvAn thOnRinEnE

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Word-by-word Meanings

pOdhu ellAm – at all times
pOdhu koNdu – with flowers
un ponnadi – at your beautiful divine feet
punaiya mAttEn – am without strength to offer
thIdhu ilA – without faults
mozhigaL koNdu – with words
un thirukkuNam – your auspicious qualities
seppa mAttEn – am unable to recite
kadhAlAl anbu – the affection which comes out of love
nenjam – in my heart
kalandhilEn – have not made
adhu thannAlE – due to that
arangaRku – you, SrI ranganAthan
EdhilEn – did not enjoy through any part of the body
ellE – Oh!
en seyvAn – for what
thOnRinEnE – was I born?

vyAkhyAnam (commentary)

pOdhellAm pOdhu koNdu un ponnadi punaiya mAttEn – It is proper to decorate your gold-like divine feet, with beautiful, fresh flowers, at all times. It is not that I was not eager in doing that. I did not have even the strength for doing that, says AzhwAr. While engaging in matters other than you, I had both the eagerness and the strength, but not in matters relating to you, is the opinion expressed here. vishNu dharmam 1.13 says “yau thath pUja karau karau” (only those are hands which worship hari). With the hands which were meant to worship you, I was worshipping inappropriate things which would cause harm to me both in this samsAram and in SrivaikuNtam. Among the two instances of usage of the word pOdhu, the first one refers to time and the second, to flower. pOdhellAm punaiya mAttEn – the opinion here is not that he is not able to worship all the time and could worship only at some of the times. He is not able to worship at any time at all, is the meaning here. vishNu dharmam, haryashtakam 70.84 says “sakruthuchcharitham yEna haririthyaksharadhvayam I badhdha: parikarasthEna mOkshAya gamanam prathi II” (through whomsoever the two syllable word hari has been pronounced, all the deeds which are to be done for going to mOksham have been done by him). Again, “sakruth smruthO’pi  gOvindhO nruNAm janma Sathai: krutham I pAparASim dhahathyASu thUlarASimivAnala: II” (gOvindhan, even if thought of once, will remove the swarm of sins committed in hundreds of births, just as fire destroys a huge heap of cotton). SrI rAma says in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18.33 “sakrudhEva prapannAya thavAsmIthi  cha yAchathE I abhayam sarvabhUthEbhyO dhadhAmyEthath vratham mama  II“ (I offer protection from all other creations to one who surrenders to me and one who prays to me after saying that he is my servitor. This is my oath). Thus in all the above-mentioned quotes, emperumAn’s greatness is such that if a person were connected to him even once in his lifetime, emperumAn ensures that the person attains the path [to reach him]. AzhwAr laments that he was unable to worship him even once. emperumAn tells him “even if you have not been able to worship me with your body, but indulged instead in worldly matters, you could have praised me with your faculty of speech, at least”. . . . .

thIdhilA mozhigaL koNdu un thirukkuNam seppa mAttEn – even if my words are faultless and beautiful, I am not able to talk about your auspicious qualities. vishNu dharmam 1.13 says “sA jihvA yA harIm sthauthi …” (that is tongue which praises hari); unlike this, my tongue, which was meant to praise you,  does not roll when it comes to talking about you. However, when it comes to talking about lowly matters with lowly qualities, it is able to talk like an implement “vAchchi” which cuts across a palm leaf. emperumAn then says “even if your body and tongue are involved in worldly matters, at least with your heart [mind], you could show affection towards me” . . . .

kAdhalAl nenjam anbu kalandhilEn – in one particular matter, my heart has not exhibited affection borne out of love. As bhagavath gIthA 2.62 says “sangAth sanjAyathE kAma: kAmAth krOdhO’pi jAyathE” (desire results out of involvement in worldly matters. Anger results out of desire), if desire results out of involvement with worldly pursuits, it is possible to divert it towards your matter. Earlier, when I had shown affection towards women, it was with the ulterior motive of stealing their possessions. I did not have affection to truly love them. It is apt to think of the following authentic sources as proof of the above: 1) ALavandhAr says in sthOthra rathnam 62 “smaraparavaSO vanchanapara: “ (I am lecherous and cheat the women who  respond to my lust); 2) vishNu purANam 3.7.30 says “paramasuhrudhi bAndhavE kaLathrE sutha thanayA pithrumAthru bhruthruthyavarkkE  I SadamathrupyAthi yO’rththathrushNAm thamadhamachEshtamavEhi nAsya bhaktham  II“ (the person with depraved intelligence who runs after the possessions of close friend, relative, wife, children, parents, servants –know that such a mean person is not a devotee of emperumAn).

adhu thannAlE EdhilEn – while I should be involved with at least one among the three channels of manam, vAkku, mey (mind, speech and body) to attain the benefit that great people attain by geting involved with, I do not have even that. Hence I have nothing. arangarku EdhilEn – as said in bhagavath gIthA 5.29 “suhrutham sarvabhUthAnAm” (exhibiting good thoughts towards all beings) and as said in sthOthra rathnam 18 “vaSi vadhAnyO guNavAn ruju: Suchi: mrudhur dhayALur madhura: sthiras sama: I kruthi kruthagyas thvamaSi svabhAvathas samastha kalyANaguNAmruthOdhadhi II “ (one who is under the charge of his followers; gifting himself to his followers; being harmonious[with his mind, speech and action]; having purity [to shower on followers without any reason]; unable to bear separation from followers; unable to tolerate (their) sorrow; being sweet; being steadfast (in his followers’ goals); being equal (to all those who take refuge under him); carrying out followers’ deeds as his own; magnifying even the smallest good deed of his followers; you are by nature, the repository, as an ocean of nectar, of all auspicious qualities), you have the honesty of being in harmony through your mind, speech and action in matters concerning your followers. I am without anything towards such an entity as you, who has come to SrIrangam so that people can see you for themselves instead of merely hearing about you through SAsthras.

ellE – oh, how terrible! I have not lost you because you are not near me; I have not lost you because you are not appropriate; I have not lost you because you are having a habit of finding faults with me; I lost you only because of my sin. This entity called AthmA became wasted instead of being a part of the kausthubamaNi (a pendant worn by emperumAn on his chest) that you like so much. I have gone too far away from you, who is referred to by thirumangai AzhwAr in his periya thirumozhi 3.7.6 “arangaththuRaiyum inthuNaivan” (sweet companion who dwells in SrIrangam). Have I lost out because you are like a medicine, which is good for the body but bitter to taste? No, just as milk itself doubles up as medicine, you are the sweet person who also grants mOksham; yet I lost you.

en seyvAn thOnRinEnE – vishNu thathvam says “vichithrA dhEha sampaththi” (this wondrous body has been gifted to worship emperumAn) – instead of putting to use the limbs that emperumAn gifted in worshipping him, I had wasted them; why was I born? My birth, instead of benefitting anyone, has become the cause for many bad deeds for others as well as for myself, says the AzhwAr.

Let us now move on to the 27th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dasan

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rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 55

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

In the previous pAsuram amudhanAr  said that vEdham felt proud upon seeing the nature of emperumAnAr; amudhanAr is now drawn  towards the generosity of emperumAnAr who voluntarily made vEdhas to be present well in this world and without any enemies, and says that the clan that has surrendered to such emperumAnAr’s divine feet is the one that could rule his clan.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

In the previous pAsuram amudhanAr said that vEdham felt proud upon seeing the nature of emperumAnAr and was proudly walking in the world with the thought that there is no bother from anyone; in this pAsuram – emperumAnAr who voluntarily made vEdhas to be in this world and without any enemies, such generosity of emperumAnAr who celebrates AzhvArs, the AzhvArs for whom periya perumAL is the lord who is present in SrIrangam which is beautiful to see and is surrounded by divine gardens – the clan of those who are involved in such nature of emperumAnAr and have surrendered to him, are the ones who have got the lordship of ruling us – says amudhanAr.

kaNdavar sindhai kavarum kadi pozhil then arangan
thoNdar kulAvum irAmAnusanai thogai iRandha
pANdaru vEdhangaL pAr mEl nilavidap pArththaruLum
koNdalai mEvith thozhum kudiyAm engaL kOkkulamE          55

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srirangamPlace that steals our heart

Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

thogai iRandha – As said in ‘ananthAvai vEdhA:’  (vEdhas are boundless), not having any limit and is boundless,
paN thaRu vEdhangaL – such vEdhas that show us the  high/medium/low svaras (notes);
koNdalai – (emperumAnAr who is) very generous (like the rainy cloud),
pArththaruLum – out of his kindness, saw to it that
pAr mEl nilavida – such vEdhas are present well in the world;
kadi – (that which is) having fragrant
pozhil – divine gardens
kavarum – which would steal
kaNdavar sindhai – the heart of those who see it,
then arangan thoNdar  – those who live in such kOyil (SrIrangam), who are servants of periya perumAL,
kulAvum – who celebrate after losing to such nature
irAmAnusanai –  of emperumAnAr,
mEvi – who are drawn into such nature of him,
thozhum kudi – such clan of people, who have ignored material aspects,
engal kOkkulamAm  – they are the clan who can rule us, us who think that their connection only is desirable.

 

engal kO kudi -> ko -> king : they are the kings for us.

kaNdavar sindhai kavarum -> can be adjective for periya perumAL (who attracts those who see Him)

kadi -> fragrance.

Does it make sense to read it as paNdaru vEdhangaL (instead of paN tharu) to mean vEdham that is being present from old times? No. It is possible only if it is read as paNdai aru vEdham, and not when paNdaru vEdham.  paNdai implies what was present during old/early times; paNdu implies the old/early times itself. paNdai nAnmaRai -> implies vEdhas that were present from old times; examples are, paNdai nAnmaRai, paNdaik kulam, paNdaiyOm allOm, versus, paNdu nURRuvar, paNdum inRum, paNdoru nAL Alin ilai vaLarndhu, etc., where one can see the difference of meanings between paNdu versus paNdai.

vyAkyAnam

thogai iRandha – When trying to count the content of vEdhas, since it is said as ‘ananthAvai vEdhA:’, (vEdhas are boundless), it is not possible to completely count it. thogai – sankyai – number/count. In this way without bound by a number/count, it is boundless;

paN tharu vEdhangaLpaN -> musical notes of high/medium/low pitches (sounds); there are also many in number  based on SAkhA, and notes based on those SAkhA – such vEdhas which show us these aspects; vEdhas which can show us those variation of notes in reciting; as said in ‘samastha gyAthavya arthAmScha vEdhayatheethi vEdha:’  (whatever should be learned, vEdhas show us that); shows us fully and clearly about how to do worship, and about the brahmam who is to be worshipped; and so it is having the name as vEdham.

(Note: In thamizh ‘paN thaRu’ can be combined to a word as ‘paNdaru’ (and this is what is present in the original text of the pAsuram). So,

paNdaru vEdhangaL – is it not possible to take this to mean as vEdhas being present at earlier times, and with aru as being hard to learn about it? (No), because paNdu is to mean the old time only (kAlam) and not to mean what was present during old times (kAleenam); paNdai is the one that means what was present during old times (kAleenam);

examples of kAleenam (paNdai) (‘present during’ old times) – paNdai nAnmaRai, paNdaik kulam, paNdaiyOm allOm.

examples of kAlam (old time) – paNdu nURRuvar, paNdu oru nAL.

So even when pronounced as paNdu in this pAsuram, it could imply the old time only, and not as something ‘present’ during old times; so the correct way to understand is to say ‘paN thaRu’ – is what jeeyar also divined in his explanation (above).

Such vEdhas that are in the four forms of rig, yajur, Sama, and atharvaNa, and the vEdhAnthas (upanishaths) in which sages like parASara, pArASarya, prAchEthas were immersed in;

pAr mEl – in this big world

nilavidap pArththaruLumemperumAnAr winning the jaina, baudhdha, etc., philosophies that were not accepting vEdhas, and made vEdhas to be established from ‘AsEthu to himAchalam’;  nilavu -> being present/in vogue; isn’t emperumAnAr the vEdha mArga prathishtApanAchAryar? (who laid the path and established the vEdhas everywhere).

koNdalai – who is like bountiful cloud that voluntarily pours without partiality to sea or land;

kaNdavar sindhai kavarumAs said in ‘bhUkeekaNta dhvayasa sarasa snighdha neerOpakaNdAm AvirmOdha sthimitha SakunAnUdhitha brahma gOshAm mArggE mArggE padhikanivgai ruchyamAnAm apavarggAm pAteeschanthAm narabhipureem SrImatheem ranganAtha:’ (~ Considering the two worlds, the kAvEri river is like the virajA river of SrIvaikuNtam, running with great enthusiasm whose sound reminds us the sAma gAnam done in SrIvaikuNtam, in the path ways where the buildings are decorated, and in SrIrangam the paths and gardens are like described as present in SrIvaikuNtam, and thus gives us a feel that we are present in SrIvaikuNtam, and which attracts us and makes us wish to see it again and again – (such SrIrangam), and thus it steals the mind of those who see it, and when they do not see it makes them feel “Oh! when would we again see it?” – such SrIrangam;

kadi pozhil then arangan  – surrounded by the fragrant gardens; having maNdapas, gOpura vimAnams, entrances, multiple enclosures/pathways inside the temple, and with many gardens all strongly present, and with dhvajasthambam, and decorations with flags waving (all showing it as a city);  and so it is beautiful to see; He living in such attractive place and being named based on that – thiruvarangach chelvan emperumAn; kadi -> fragrance;

kaNdavar sindhai kavarum kadi this fragrance itself attracts people;

Or, kaNdavar sindhai kavarum – then arangan : as adjective to periya perumAL;

As said in ‘sarva gandha:’, due to the fragrance of Him which the gardens touch, they get such fragrance, and so are named ‘kadi pozhil’ the identity of those gardens being their fragrance;

thoNdar kulAvum The ten AzhvArs who get immersed in the experience of then arangan, as they said in ‘kaNdEn thiruvarangamEyAn thisai’ (poigai AzhwAr), and ‘ini aRindhEn then arangaththu endhai’ (bhUthaththAzhwAr), and, ‘thEnAr thiruvarangam’ (pEyAzhwAr), and, ‘paNdarangamEyadhuvum’, and ‘thitkodi madhiL sUzh thiruvarangaththAy’ (nammAzhwAr), and, ‘arangaththu aravaNaiyil paLLi koLLumkadal viLangu karu mEni ammAn thannaik kaNNARak kaNdu’ (kulaSEkarAzhwAr), and ‘aNi arangaththE kidandhAy’ (periyAzhwAr), and ‘arangaththammA’ (thoNdaradippodi AzhwAr), and ‘aNdar kOn aNi arangan en amudhinaik kaNda kaNgaL maRRonRinaik kANAvE’ (thiruppANAzhwAr), and ‘nin adi iNai adaindhEn aNi pozhil thiruvarangaththu ammAnE ‘ (thirumangai AzhwAr), the devotees celebrate such AzhvArs as said in ‘anRu eriththa thiruvaLaikkaith than thiruvuLLaththE iRuththum’ , that is, the devotees who always follow such AzhvArs at all times;

kulAvu – celebration;

mEvith thozhum kudithe people of the clan immersed in the qualities/nature of emperumAnAr and who are not interested in other matters, and have surrendered –

irAmAnusanai – to emperumAnAr;

Am engaL kOkkudiyE – people of such clan are the ones who can take us as servants, we who consider only such people as desirable;

amudhanAr’s attitude is that such clan of people are the lords not only for him but also for all the ones connected to him and those connected to those connections;

Or, those who have surrendered to emperumAnAr are our lord who can take us servants, regardless of the clan in which they were born;

jeeyar too gave the same meaning as he said ‘thvath dhAsa gaNanA charamAvadhauya: thath dhAsathaikarasathAvirathA mamAsthu [yathirAja vimSathi]’.

abhiyukthar also divined – ‘sArangyOyadhigaSchithasthi bhuvanE nAthassayUthasyana:’.

amudhanAr divines like how AzhvAr said – ‘kulam thAngu sAdhigaL nAlilum keezh izhindhu eththanai, nalam thAn ilAdha chaNALa chaNdALargaLAgilum, valanthAngu chakkaraththaNNal maNivaNNarkku ALenRu uL, kalandhAr adiyAr tham adiyAr em adigaLE  [thiruvAimozhi 3.7.9]‘.

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

kaNdavar .. then arangan – Those who saw kaNNapuraththu ammAn, would give their mind/thought; whereas, then arangan would steal the mind/thought of those who see Him.

thogai … koNdal  – as emperumAnAr understood the meanings of whole span of vEdhas he was able to author Sri bAshyam and such granthams.

pArththu aruLum’ indicates that it is not hard for emperumAnAr to see the complete meanings of vEdham; earlier in this prabandham, he ‘saw’ such that the six philosophies were scared; here he ‘saw’ to it that the vEdhas are able to live well in the world;

emperumAnAr did all these not for any benefits for himself; like how the cloud would pour regardless of whether it is sea or land, emperumAnAr’s giving the meanings without expecting anything back, is described as ‘koNdal’ (rainy cloud).

– – – – –

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आर्ति प्रबंधं – १

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आर्ति प्रबंधं

<< अवतारिका (उपक्षेप)

emperumanar

वाळि एतिरासन वाळि एतिरासन
वाळि एतिरासानेन वाळ्तुवार वाळियेन
वाळ्तुवार वाळि एन वाळ्तुवार ताळिनैयिल
ताळ्तुवार विण्णोर तलै

शब्दार्थ

विण्णोर – नित्यसूरीया (श्रीमन नारायण के नित्य निवास परमपद में उनके नित्य सेवक)
तलै – कोई जनों को अपने स्वामी मानते हैं।
ताळ्तुवार – (जो) शरणागति करते हैं
ताळिनैयिल – दो चरण कमलों में
वाळियेन वाळ्तुवार – जो भक्तों कि मंगळासासनं करते हैं।
वाळियेन वाळ्तुवार – जो भक्तों कि मंगळासासनं करते हैं।
वाळ्तुवार – जो यह गा कर श्री रामानुज कि मँगळम करते हैं
वाळि एतिरासन – जय श्री रामानुज !!!
वाळि एतिरासन – जय श्री रामानुज !!!
वाळि एतिरासन – जय श्री रामानुज !!!
एन – इस प्रकार तीन बार

सरल अनुवाद

नित्यसूरीया कुछ जनों को अपने स्वामी मानते हैं। श्री रामानुज की मंगळासासनं करने वाले भक्तों कि मंगळासासनं करने वाले भक्तों कि मंगळासासनं करने वालो के चरण में शरणागति करने वाले जान हैं वे।

विवरण

वैदिक ग्रंथो के अनुसार अपने जीवन जीने वाले परम वैदिक कहलाते हैं। “पल्लाण्डु पल्लाण्डु पल्लायिरत्थांडु” (तिरुपल्लाण्डु १ ), “पोलिग पोलिग पोलिग” (तिरुवाय्मोळि 5.२.१ ), जैसे मंगळम गाना इनका स्वभाव हैं। प्रारुपिकतया वे तीन बार गाते हैं। इसी प्रकार मणवाळ मामुनि अपने ग्रंथ को प्रारंभ करते हैं। एक भक्तों कि गण हैं (गण १) जो “वाळि एतिरासन वाळि एतिरासन वाळि एतिरासन” , से श्री रामानुज कि मँगळम गाते हैं। एक दुसरे गण हैं (गण २ ) जो श्री रामानुज के प्रति मँगळम गाते हुए गण (गण १ ) को देख, उत्साह में उनकी मँगळम “श्री रामानुज की मँगळम गाने वाले इन भक्तों कि जय”, से करते हैं। इस घटना को तीसरी गण (गण ३ )ने दर्शन किया। श्री रामानुज कि मंगळम गाने वाले (गण १) जनों कि मंगळम गाने वाले (गण २ ) इस गण को देख, उत्साह में ये (गण ३ ), “वाळियेन वाळ्तुवार वाळी” से मंगळम गाने लगे। “वाळियेन वाळ्तुवार वाळी” गाते इस गण को देख, एक गण (गण ४) उनके चरणकमलों में शरणागति किये। सारे ब्रह्मांड में इनके चरण कमलों से उचित अन्य कुछ नहीं हैं। शायद उन्कि दाहिनी और बायें पाँव के मध्य हि तुल्ना की जा सकति हैं। नित्यसूरीया इस गण को अपने स्वामी मान्ते हैं और यह गण नित्यसूरियों से भी बढ़ कर हैं। मणवाळ मामुनि, इस ग्रंथ की शुरुआत “वाळी” से करते हैं।

अडियेन प्रीती रामानुज दासि

आधार :  http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2016/06/arththi-prabandham-1/

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.8.11 – pulambu sIr

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Third Centum >> Eighth decad

Previous pAsuram

azhwar-pagal-paththu

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In  the end – AzhwAr says “Any one who learned and memorized just the pAsurams in this decad, as desired in this decad, will reach the divine abode of parampadham where there is no hurdle in the endlessly joyful experience”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr explains attaining of paramapadham as the result for this decad.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

pulambu sIr bUmi aLandha perumAnai
nalam koL sIr nan kurugUrch chatakOpan sol
valam koNda AyiraththuL ivaiyum Or paththu
ilangu vAn yAvarum ERuvar sonnAlE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

pulambu sIr – having qualities that are praised (by everyone)
bUmi – world
aLandha – measured
perumAnai – sarvaESvara
nalam koL – having auspiciousness (of attachment towards experiencing bhagavAn)
sIr – having qualities such as gyAna (knowledge) etc
nal – wonderful
kurugUr – leader of AzhwArthirungari
SatakOpan – nammAzhwAr
sol – mercifully spoken by
valam koNda AyiraththuL – among the thousand pAsurams which have the strength of conveying the meanings
Or – unparalleled
ivai paththum – this decad
sonnAl – if recited
yAvarum – everyone
ilangu vAn – in radiant paramapadham
ERuvar – will ascend

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

sarvESvara (supreme lord) who is having qualities that are praised (by everyone) measured the world; nammAzhwAr who is having auspicious qualities such as gyAna etc and is the leader of the wonderful AzhwArthirungari, mercifully spoke the thousand pAsurams which have the strength of conveying the meanings on such emperumAn; if this unparalleled decad among those thousand pAsurams is recited, everyone (who recites them) will ascend to the radiant paramapadham.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • pulambu sIr – His qualities are such that they are glorified by everyone like done by AzhwAr.
  • bUmi aLandha perumAn – AzhwAr praised the sarvaswAmy (supreme lord of all) [not some ordinary person] who measured the world [by stretching his foot] and eliminated its anya SEshathvam (being ruled by some one other than bhagavAn) and svasvAthanthryam (independence) through his pAsurams.
  • nalam koL sIrAzhwAr who has the SrIvaishNavaSrI (wealth of being a SrIvaishNava) due to craving greatly for bhagavAn. That is, his sensory organs craving like chEthana (sentient), that too each sense craving for the activity of all other senses, himself craving for all of those activities. The words of nammAzhwAr who is the leader of the wonderful AzhwArthirunagari, who is having the goodness of desiring for experience of bhagavAn and who is with qualities such as gyAna etc.
  • valam koNda … – [valam is explained as surrounding/circumambulating and balam (strength)] Circumambulating and consuming bhagavAn who is revealed in these pAsurams [i.e., clearly explaining about bhagavAn]. Also explained as having the ability (strength) to explain the meanings clearly.
  • ilangu vAn … – When this unparalleled decad is recited, irrespective of the nature and qualities of the individual, one will attain paramapadham which has the distinguishing aspect of experience of bhagavAn without any break. As said in chAndhOgya upanishath “sa EkadhA bhavathi …” (that liberated person will assume one form, three forms, many forms and serve emperumAn), they will enter paramapadham where they will assume many forms and the sensory organs in each of those [divine] forms can enjoy emperumAn fully.

AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

In the next article we will enjoy the next decad.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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आर्ति प्रबंधं – अवतारिका (उपक्षेप)

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आर्ति प्रबंध

<< तनियन (आवाहन)
emperumanar_melkote

उनके भक्त उन तक पहुँचे, यह श्री:पति श्रीमन नारायण निश्चित करते हैं। यह सफल होने केलिए वे अपने भक्तों में अपने तक पहुँचने कि इच्छा जागृत करते हैं। यह इच्छा क्रमशः परभक्ति, परज्ञान , परम भक्ति के रूप में खिल्ती हैं। नम्माळ्वार में श्रीमन नारायण ने ऐसी सुसंस्कृत भक्ति कि रचना की और उनके प्राकृतिक शरीर के साथ स्वीकार की। नम्माळ्वार स्वयं इसके बारे में, “मयर्वर मदिनलम अरुळिनन” (तिरुवाय्मोळि १.१.१) और “अवावट्रु वीडु पेट्र” (तिरुवाय्मोळि १०.१०.११ ) में कहते हैं। नम्माळ्वार के संबंध मात्र कारण से, हम सभी क्रमागत इच्छा (कामना) को परभक्ति ,परज्ञान, परमभक्ति के रूप में अनुभव करते हैं। इसी कारण नम्माळ्वार के प्रति श्रीमन नारायण द्वारा प्रदत्त (अनुगृहीत) इस भक्ति के लिए हमारे पूर्वज तरसते हैं। इस विषय में , ये वचन , “भगवान भक्तिमपि प्रयच्छमे” अथवा “परभक्तियुत्थम माम् कुरुष्व” . ऐसे अनेक पूर्वज हैं, जो इस भक्ति केलिए तरस कर, इस भौतिकवादी संसार को पारकर , श्रीमन नारायण के नित्य निवास जो श्री वैकुंठ, परमपद हैं, वहां पहुँचे।

उन पूर्वजों को श्रीमन नारायण के निर्हेतुक कृपा कटाक्ष से यह संसार पार परमपद प्राप्त हुआ । इस दल के प्रतिनिधि हैं परांकुश (नम्माळ्वार) , परकाल सूरी (तिरुमंगै आळ्वार)। परमपद में श्री रामानुज ऐसे विशिष्ट संघठन में हैं। सिर्फ़ यह ही नहीं, वास्तव में श्री रामानुज का श्रेय अनंत हैं। वे परमपद प्राप्ति की इच्छा करने वालों कि एकमात्र आश्रय हैं। वे अपने अर्चा (मूर्ती) रूप में दिव्यदेशों के अलावा गृहों में भी प्रकाशित हैं। परमपद पहुँचने में अपनी अयोग्यता एवं अवगुण को एहसास कर, तिरुवाय्मोळिपिळ्ळै , ऐसे श्री रामानुज की शरण लेते हैं । अंत में श्री रामानुज की कृपा तिरुवैमोळिपिळ्ळै को परमपद ले गयी । मणवाळमामुनि भी अपने आचार्य तिरुवाय्मोळिपिळ्ळै के पदचिह्नों का अनुसरण करते हैं। वे भी अपने आचार्य के जैसे ही श्री रामानुज के प्रति अत्यंत मोहित हुए । नम्माळ्वार हैं, “कृष्ण तृष्ण तत्व” अर्थात “वह तत्त्व जो कृष्ण के प्रति प्रेम को दर्शाता है” | वैसे श्री रामानुज के प्रति प्रेम को मणवाळ मामुनि कहा जा सकता हैं। इस कारण “यतीन्द्र प्रवण” उन्का व्यक्तित्व हैं।

“पालेपोल सीरिल पळुतोळिन्देन” (पेरिय तिरुवन्दादि ५८ ) और “नैय्युम मनं उन गुणंगळै उन्नी” (रामानुस नूट्रन्दादि १०२) के विवरण के जैसे मणवाळ मामुनि ने ख़ुद को एम्बेरुमानार (श्री रामानुज ) के दिव्य गुणों में डुबो दिया । श्री रामानुज के आश्चर्य पूर्वक कल्याण गुणों में मग्न होना मणवाळ मामुनि के स्वभाव में था । एम्बेरुमानार के कल्याण गुणों के प्रति निरंतर अनुभव के कारण वे एम्बेरुमानार के प्रति मोहित हुए और उनके चरण कमलों तक पहुँचना चाहते थे । तुरंत एम्बेरुमानार के चरण कमल न पहुँच पाने के कारण उनका शरीर सफ़ेद एवं पांडु (निर्बल) हुआ । वे एम्बेरुमानार को पहुँचने के लिए तरसे और उनसे अलग रहना सह न पाये। अंत में एम्बेरुमानार के कृपा के कारण उनके प्रति मणवाळ मामुनि को परम भक्ति प्राप्त हुई। एम्बेरुमानार की अत्यंत कृपा जिसके कारण मणवाळ मामुनि को एम्बेरुमानार के प्रति भक्ति खिली और उनके चरण कमल तक पहुँचाया, उसकी मामुनि कीर्तिगान करते हैं। चरम पर्व निष्ठा (एक भक्त को अपनी एक मात्र आश्रय समझना) में स्तिथ लोगों के लिए , उदाहरण के रूप में मणवाळ मामुनि “आर्ति प्रबंध” नामक इस ग्रंथ में उनको आशीर्वाद करने वाले श्री रामानुज कि कृपा के गुणगान करते हैं।

“पत्ति एल्लाम तंगियदेन्न” (रामानुस नूटट्रन्दादि १०८), में उल्लेखित परम भक्ति मणवाळ मामुनि ने श्री रामानुज के चरण कमलों के प्रति बढ़ाया। “परम भक्ति” वह स्तिथि हैं , जब चाहने वाला वस्तु की ना मिलने पर अस्तित्व असंभव बन जाता हैं। यही स्तिथि मणवाळ मामुनि की श्री रामानुज के चरण कमल की प्राप्ति न होने पर हैं। इस अवस्था में वे श्री रामानुज के चरण कमल प्राप्त होने की अतृप्य इच्छा प्रकट करते हैं। श्री रामानुज के चरण कमलों के छाव में होने कि अगाध इच्छा प्रकट करने कि कारण, इस ग्रंथ को आर्ति यानि इच्छा या प्रेम कहा जाता हैं। उनके चरण कमल पहुँचने कि इच्छा एक तो संसार के प्रति द्वेष, या श्रीमन नारायण के कल्याण गुणों के प्रति प्रेम (यहाँ श्री रामानुज के कल्याण गुण ) हो सकती हैं। “संसार सागर” के प्रति द्वेष को तिरुवाय्मोळि में “मुन्नीर ज्ञालं” दशक में नम्माळ्वार ने विचार किये हैं। उसी तिरुवाय्मोळि में, श्रीमन नारायण के प्रति प्रेम को “अरुक्कुम विनै” दशक में विचार किये हैं। इसी प्रकार आगे प्रस्तूत तनियन “वम्बविळ तार” और “तेन पयिलुम तारान” संसार के प्रति द्वेष एवं श्री रामानुज के चरण कमल के प्रति प्रेम कि विवरण करते हैं। मणवाळ मामुनि के “आर्ति” के यही दो कारण होते हुए, अत्यंत पासुरों में झलकती हुई, श्री रामानुज के चरण कमलों के प्रति प्रेम, मूल प्रेरणा स्थापित होती है।
मणवाळ मामुनि और श्री रामानुज समकालीन नहीं थे। श्री कूरत्ताळ्वान जैसे महान आचार्यो को प्राप्त अनुभव तथा कैंकर्य, मणवाळ मामुनि को, चाहने पर भी न मिली। किन्तु इस बात पर संतुष्ट हुए कि श्री रामानुज के निवास श्री रंगम में वे भी रह पाए , और (तिरुवाय्मोळि ३.१.१) “ वळुविला अडिमै”, यानि नित्य कैंकर्य कि प्रार्थना किये।
इसी कारण (आर्ति प्रबंध ११ ) “वडुग नम्बि तन निलयै एन तनक्कु तंदु एतिरासा एन्नाळुम उन्तनक्के आट्कोळ उगन्दु”, वचन से वे श्री रामानुज से वडुग नम्बि कि मानसिक अवस्था कि प्रार्थना करते हैं। श्री रामायण में लक्ष्मण कहते हैं ,“अहं सर्वंमं करिष्यामि”(हे राम! तुम्हारी सारी सेवा मैं करूंगा। ) श्री रामानुज की तुलना श्री लक्ष्मण से की जाती हैं। भरताळ्वान श्री राम को अपना सारा मानते हैं और वैसे ही शत्रुग्नाळ्वान भरत को। शत्रुघ्न पर श्री राम कि कल्याण गुण या सौन्दर्यता कि प्रभाव नहीं थीं। “राम भक्ति” नामक दुश्मन को शत्रुघ्न ने जीत लिया था, क्योंकि राम भक्ति, भरत के प्रति कैंकर्य कि हानि होगी। श्री रामायण में शत्रुघ्न को “शत्रुघ्नो नित्य शत्रुघ्न:” बताया गया हैं। जैसे श्री रामानुज श्री लक्ष्मण के पद में मानें जाते हैं, वैसे मणवाळ मामुनि शत्रुघ्न के पद में माने जाते हैं।

नम्माळ्वार, श्री रामानुज और मणवाळ मामुनि के बीच गहरी संबंध हैं। “मुगिल वण्णन अडियै अडैन्दु उइन्दवन” (तिरुवाय्मोळि 7. २. ११ ) के अनुसार, बादल रंगीन परमात्मा के चरण कमल जा पहुंचे। श्रीमन नारायण के कृपा से उनके चरण कमल प्राप्त हुए नम्माळ्वार के चरण कमलों में श्री रामानुज आश्रय लिए। श्री रामानुज से अन्य आश्रित रक्षक को न जान्ने वाले मणवाळ मामुनि, श्री रामानुज के चरण कमलों में शरणागति किये तथा उनके प्रति कैंकर्य किए। यह हैं आळ्वार (नम्माळ्वार ), एम्बेरुमानार (श्री रामानुज ) जीयर (श्री मणवाळ मामुनि) के मध्य गहरी संबंध।

नम्माळ्वार और श्री रामानुज के विशिष्ट वर्ग में माने जाने वाले मणवाळ मामुनि, इन महानों की श्रेय, अपनि “यतिराज विम्सती”, “उपदेस रत्नमाला” एवं “तिरुवाइमोळी नूट्रन्दादि” नामक ग्रंथो में विवरित किये। इन ग्रंथों में, वे इन पूर्वजों और उन्के सर्वश्रेष्ठ ग्रंथों के प्रति अपनी अतृप्य प्रेम प्रकट करते है। “परांकुश पाद भक्तं” (यतिराज विमसति १ ), “षटकोपन तेमलर्थाटके इनिय पादुकमाम एन्दै इरामानुसन” (आर्ति प्रबंध १० ), जैसे वचन यह परिपुष्ट करती हैं। इस सोच को प्रचलित करते , उनके इस आखरी ग्रंथ (आर्ति प्रबंध ) से वे सीमांत पूर्ति करते हैं , “चरम पर्व” चरम याने , आख़री, इससे बडकर कुछ नहीं। मणवाळ मामुनि यह निश्चित स्थापित करते हैं कि सर्वश्रेष्ठ लक्ष्य, प्राप्य श्रीमन नारायण के भक्तों के चरण कमल ही हैं। इस संसार में अपने चरम काल में, मणवाळ मामुनि इस दर्शन शास्त्र को अपनि चरम ग्रंथ में प्रकट किये। मणवाळ मामुनि अपने यतिराज विम्शति को “रामानुजं यतिपतिं प्रणमामि मूर्ध्ना”(श्लोक १ ) वाख्य से प्रारंभ करते हैं और “तस्माद अनन्य शरणौ भवतीति मत्वा” (श्लोक २०)से समाप्त करते हैं। इससे वे प्रापकं(पथ ) की प्रस्ताव करते हैं , जो साक्षात श्री रामानुज कि चरण कमल हैं। “आर्ति प्रबंध” को “वाळि एतिरासन” (१)से प्रारंभ कर, “इन्दवरंगथ्थु इनिदुरुनी” (६० ) से समाप्त करते हैं। इसमें प्रस्ताव हैं प्राप्य (उद्देश्य या लक्ष्य ) कि: श्री रामानुज के चरण कमल में कैंकर्य करना। अतः यतिराज विम्शति है , “प्रापक परं”, अर्थात पथ या मार्ग का विवरण और आर्ति प्रबंध हैं “प्राप्य परं,” अर्थात लक्ष्य या उद्देश्य की विवरण। इस संयोजन में दो वाख्य वाले द्वय मंत्र कि अनुसंधान करना उचित हैं। द्वय महामंत्र का दूसरा पद, दिव्य दम्पति के प्रति कैंकर्य करने कि आर्ति कि प्रस्तावना करती हैं। “आर्ती प्रबंध” यह सूचित करति हैं कि प्राप्य और कैंकर्य दोनों के ही पात्र श्री रामानुज के चरण कमल ही हैं। श्रीमन नारायण के भक्तों की सेवा, “तधीय कैंकर्य” ही सर्वश्रेष्ठ लक्ष्य हैं। मणवाळ मामुनि कि यह ज्ञान उनके पासुरों में प्रकट होता हैं। “तधीय कैंकर्य” हि आर्ति प्रबंध कि अन्तर्निहित धारा हैं और इसको श्री मणवाळ मामुनि अनेक नाप छंद में प्रकट करते हैं।

आर्ति प्रबंध के पहले पासुर में मणवाळ मामुनि श्री रामानुज की मंगळासासनं करते हैं। श्री रामायण में इसकि एक सुन्दर दृष्टान्त हैं। दंडकारण्य वन में रावण और अन्य राक्षसों से पीड़ित अनेक ऋषि थे जो “एहि पश्य शरीराणि”,( हे राम ,ये हमारी क्षत शरीरों को देखो) बोल अपनी निर्बलता प्रकट करने केलिए आये। पर श्री राम की अत्यंत दिव्य सौंदर्यता में, अपने कष्ट भूल गए, और श्री राम की मंगळासासन (दुष्ट दृष्टि निकाल, रक्षा करने वाली), “मँगलानी प्रयुग्जान” , वचन से करने लगे। वैसे हि पेरिय उडयार (जटायु ) भी, रावण से युद्ध के पश्चात, अपने अंतिम दशा में श्री राम को देख कर, “आयुष्मान” कहा। उसी तरह मणवाळ मामुनि भी श्री रामानुज के चरण कमलों में आश्रय लेते समय, श्री रामानुज कि अप्राकृत शरीर (पञ्च तत्वों से न बना हुआ ) मंगळासासनं किये।
ऎसे मंगळासासनं करने वाले को परमपद में, नित्यसूरिया (श्री वैकुंठ में श्रीमन नारायण के संग नित्य वास करने वाले )बहुत मानते हैं। “अन्बाल मयल कोंडु वाळ्तुम इरामानुसन” (रामानुस नूट्रन्दादि ६ ) में जैसे तिरुवरंगत्तु अमुदनार ने गाया हैं, वैसे स्वयं श्री रामानुज ने भि मंगळासासनं किया हैं। परमपद प्राप्त हुए ,भक्तों की मंगळासासनं करने वालों कि नित्यसूरियों कि स्वागत कि विवरण , नम्माळ्वार अपने “सूळ विसुमबनिमुगिल” १०.९ तिरुवाय्मोळि में गाते हैं। ऐसा जन और उनके वंशज भी नित्यसूरियों के मंगळासासनं के पात्र बन जाते हैं। पहले पासुरम का यहि सारार्थ हैं। “पल्लाण्डु पल्लाण्डु “( तिरुपल्लाण्डु १ ) और “अप्पाञ्च्जन्नियमुम पल्लानंढे” (तिरुपल्लाण्डु २ ) पासुरों से पेरियाळ्वार श्रीमन नारायण के संग, उन्के शंक, धनुष जैसे उन्के भक्तों कि भी मंगळासासनं किए। श्री रामायण में इसी प्रकार , “जयतिभलो रामो लक्ष्मणश्च महाभल: राजाजयति सुग्रीवो राघवेणापिपालिता:” श्लोक से श्री राम, श्री लक्ष्मण तथा श्री सुग्रीव की मंगळासासनं की गयी हैं।

अडियेन प्रीती रामानुज दासी

आधार : http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2016/06/arththi-prabandham-introduction/

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