srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImadh varavaramunayE nama:
Highlights from thirukkurugaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
No specific introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
In the sixth decad – for those who wonder “Is there any way for the most lowly person with very inferior tools to approach emperumAn who is avAptha samasthakAman (one who has all desires fulfilled), nirapEksha (one who has no expectations), paripUrNa (fully complete)?”, AzhwAr explains that though emperumAn is fully complete, he being very simple due to his sriya:pathithvam (being the husband of srI mahAlakshmi) and those who worship do not have the ability to fully satisfy emperumAn, and emperumAn too does not have any specific need that will be fulfilled by such offerings, as explained by bhagavAn himself in the middle portion of bhagavath gIthA, approaching him is very easy to do.
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
In the sixth decad – for those who wonder “Though he is simple with auspicious qualities, since he has no unfulfilled desires due to being the husband of srI mahAlaklshmi, what to do with our limited tools if it is difficult to worship him to match his complete nature?”, AzhwAr explains that emperumAn‘s completeness is that which accepts the worshipper turning towards him alone as the single quality to acknowledge/accept him. To explain the simple nature of worshipping emperumAn, AzhwAr highlights that:
- there is no specific expectation in the offerings
- there is no specific expectation in the qualification of the worshipper
- emperumAn does not notice the defects of the worshipper
- emperumAn in spite of being great, acknowledges the worshipper only seeing the eternal relationship between them
- emperumAn has special attachment towards those who purely serve for the pleasure of emperumAn
- emperumAn is greatly enjoyable by such devotees who are fully committed to emperumAn only
- being surrendered to emperumAn who removes the unfavourable aspects is how the devotees pass their time
- emperumAn removing the unfavourable aspects and fulfilling the favourable aspects just for an anjali (joined palms) by the devotee
- emperumAn removing the unfavourable aspects is purely by his sankalpam (vow) and not any great effort from him
- emperumAn will remove the unfavourable aspects at once
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
See nampiLLai‘s introduction.
Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction
In the first padhigam, AzhwAr enjoyed emperumAn being sarvasmAthparan (superior to everyone else). In the second padhigam, he asked everyone to worship such supreme lord. Subsequently (in the third padhigam), his easy approachability which is required for worshipping him is explained. Then (in fourth padhigam), AzhwAr explained his aparAdha sahathvam (tolerating mistakes) which is the cause for his easy approachability. Subsequently (in fifth padhigam), his simplicity and easy-going nature are explained. When asked “what is the use of all of these if he is very difficult to worship?”, AzhwAr says that he is svArAdhan (very easy to worship).
In the previous padhigam, AzhwAr said “I am unqualified” and emperumAn convinced AzhwAr to be with him and then thinks that AzhwAr was accepted by him for some purpose, but since then nothing has happened. Now, if one thinks that the insignificant jIvAthmA with his inferior tools cannot worship sarvEsvaran (supreme lord) matching his greatness, that is not true. Though bhagavAn, due to his being the master of srI mahAlakshmi, has no unfulfilled desires and does not become any more complete by the offerings given by the samsAri jIvAthmA who is bound in this material world), how can one worship him? When the jIvAthmA performs a small kainkaryam to fulfil his own nature of servitude, bhagavAn considers that itself as a great favour. Since bhagavAn already has everything and does not need to be satisfied any further by the jIvAthmA‘s offerings, since he is waiting to acknowledge the jIvAthmA irrespective of whatever is offered by him and since he is ready to freely interact with the jIvAthmA due to his being the master of srI mahAlakshmi, approaching bhagavAn is a lot easier unlike approaching other dhEvathAs. As one engages in bhagavath vishayam, all the obstacles will be removed. Approaching emperumAn would also be enjoyable; jIvAthmA need not seek out for additional materials to satisfy emperumAn. Since it is relating to approaching bhagavAn, there is no question of prathyavAya (limitations/mistakes); there is no restriction based on materials, time and the qualification of the worshipper. Thus AzhwAr says bhagavAn is easily worshippable.
nampiLLai beautifully explains sthOthra rathnam slOkam 28:
thvadhangrimudhhdhisya kadhApi kEnachith yathAthathA vApi sakruth kruthOnjali |
thadhaiva mushNAthi asubhAni asEshatha: subhAni pushNAthi na jAthu hIyathE ||
- thvadhangrimudhdhisya – towards your lotus feet – specifically saying your lotus feet excluding all other dhEvathAs, servitor is always focussed on lotus feet
- kadhApi – no restriction on time
- kEnachith – no restriction on the qualification of the worshipper
- yathAthathA – no restriction on the method
- vApi – in any means unlike karmas where all rules are to be followed
- sakruth – just once (no need to repeat)
- krutha: – that which was done (doing itself is enough to attain the results, no need for perfection)
- anjali: – simple joining of palms – distinguished from great penances etc., which are done with lots of cost and
- thadhaiva – at once – unlike those karmas which produce result at a different time, place etc.
- mushNAthi – (obstacles) leaving casually without his knowing about it
- asubhAni – all sins – unlike each sin being removed by individual karmas
- asEshatha: – including taste/impressions – unlike the karmas which only remove the sins and not the taste for repeating the sin
- subhAni – all auspiciousness – unlike each karma bringing about specific individual auspicious aspects
- pushNAthi – nurtures – all those sins are replaced with auspiciousness
- na jAthu hIyathE – never diminishes – unlike karmas which get exhausted after giving the result
nampiLLai then explains bhagavath gIthA slOkamn 9.26:
pathram pushpam palam thOyam yO mE bhakthyA prayachchathi |
thadhaham bhakthi upahruthamasnAmi prayathAthmana: ||
- pathram … – He does not discriminate based on the offerings which were made (leaf, flower, fruit, water) but only the love in the heart towards him
- asnAmi – he accepts them as if they are the ones he is greatly longing for; it is also explained as – just like the devotee submits them while trembling with great love, emperumAn too accepts them while trembling with great love.
mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 87.13 “anyath pUrNAdhapAm kumbhAdhithyAdhi” (bhagavAn vishNu does not expect anything more than a pot of water for washing hands/feet and a kind enquiry).
nampiLLai also quotes mOksha dharmam slOkam 171.63:
yA: kriyAssamprayukthA: syurEkAntha gathabudhdhibhi: |
thAssarvA:sirasA dhEva: prathigruhNAthi vai svayam ||
- yA: kriyAs samprayukthAssyu: – all actions of theirs are most acceptable, just like interactions with one’s beloved
- EkAntha gathabudhdhi: – one who is fully focussed on emperumAn
- thAssarvA: – everything among them
- sirasA prathigruhNAthi – whatever was kicked by such devotee with his feet, emperumAn accepts them at his head
- dhEva: – most worshippable (emperumAn)
- svayam – himself. Though one may be very rich, one will not appoint some one to fan/wipe the sweat of his wife. Similarly, emperumAn will accept everything personally from his devotees.
Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.
- pAsuram 1
- pAsuram 2
- pAsuram 3
- pAsuram 4
- pAsuram 5
- pAsuram 6
- pAsuram 7
- pAsuram 8
- pAsuram 9
- pAsuram 10
- pAsuram 11
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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