Daily Archives: July 10, 2015

thiruvezhukURRirukkai – 11

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srImathE satakOpAya nama:
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srImath varavaramunayE nama:

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1-2-3-4-5-6-7-] 6-5 – 4-3-2-1  (ends)

aRu vagaich chamayamum aRivaru nilaiyinai
aimpAl Odhiyai Agaththu iruththinai

aRamudhal nAngavaiyAy mUrththi mUnRAi
iruvagaip payanAi onRAi virindhu ninRanai

Word by word meaning

aRu vagai chamayamum – Six type of other philosophies
aRivu aru – cannot know/understand
nilaiyinai – You; such is your nature;
aimpAl Odhiyai – pirAtti whose hair is identification of five ways of hair;
Agaththu iruththinai – have placed her in your divine chest.
—-
aRam mudhal nAngu avai Ay – You are the one who grants the four goals – aRam (dharma), poruL (things/wealth), inbam (pleasure), vIdu (srIvaikuNtam)
mUrthy mUnRu Ay – as antharyAmi for the three mUrthys
iru vagai payan Ay – You are the one who creates happiness and sadness (based on karmAs)
onRu Ai virindhu ninRanai – just the self (in the beginning), and then expanded as the whole world.

Simple translation

These phrases talk about the aishwaryam (parathvam) of emperumAn.

It is impossible for those denying the emperumAn, that is those who believe in other six philosophies to reach/know emperumAn.

You have placed srIdhEvi pirAtti in your divine chest, where she stays at all times, to do purushakAram (recommendation).

You are the grantor of the four goals of beings; you are the antharyAmi of the three mUrthys; You are the one who controls the happiness and sadness of beings according to their karmas; You who was the only One existing during praLayam (annihilation), expanded into many, and gave names and shapes to things, and You are responsible for their being as the antharyAmi.

So it is not possible for me to lose you because of any lack of greatness/aishwaryam on Your part, says thirumangai AzhwAr.

vyAkyAnam

aRuvagaich chamayamum aRivaru nilaiyinai – It is not possible to know You by those who do not accept you, that is, chArvAkar, bouththar, samaNar, naiyAyika’vaishEshikar (thArkkikar), sAnkyar, pAshupadhar;   by this, Azhwar implies the meaning, “When you are beyond reach for those who do not accept you, you are beyond reach even for me who accepts you!”

aimpAl Odhiyai Agaththu iruththinai – You hold periya pirAtti in your divine chest; periya pirAtti having the five identifications of a good hair – being curled, shining, fragrant, dense, and soft.

Agaththu iruththinai – thiruvadi (hanuman) was corrected by pirAtti, “pApAnAm vA shuBhAnAm vA vaDhArhANAm plavangama | kAryam karuNamAryENa  na kashchith nAparADhyathi ||“ [rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 116-44] (hey vAnara! whether one has done sins or good deeds, even if they are to be killed, even in their matters a just person should show kindness. There is no one (in this world) who has not done any mistakes!); such pirAtti is kept in Your divine chest such that she is always available for purushakAram (recommendation);

pApAnAm_vaWhen saying “mangaiyar iruvarum varuda”   in a previous phrase, it referred to both srIdhEvi and bhUdhevi as doing purushakAram, but here it mentions the importance of srIdhEvi who is always present in the divine chest of emperumAn; so this is not insignificant. Or, it can be taken as this referring to srIdhEvi here to imply that emperumAn gets His aishwarya, (parathva), soulabhyam, beauty etc., due to pirAtti only. This idea is used in the upcoming phrases.

To begin with it talks about His aishwaryam.

aRam mudhal nAngavaiyAy – You are the four goals (purushArtham) – that are, aRam (dharma/charity), poruL (things/wealth), inbam (pleasure/happiness) and vIdu (srI vaikuNtam); “chathurNAm purushArththAnAm dhAthA dhEva: chathurBhuja:” [nArAyaNan who has got four arms, is the one who grants the four purushArthas].

“dhEvEndhras thriBhuvanam arththamEkapinga:
sarvardhDhim thriBhuvanagAm cha kArththavIrya: |
vaidhEha: paramapadham prasAdhya vishNum
samprAptha: sakala pala pradhO hi vishNu: ||”   [vishNu dharmam 43-47]

[ By worshiping vishNu, dhevEndhra got three worlds, kubEran the wealth, kArththa vIryan the fame that spread to the three worlds, and janaka mahArAjan the paramapadham; such is vishNu bhagavAn who grants what one wishes.] – so since he is the one who can give the four goals, He himself is those goals, so says AzhwAr.

mUrthy mUnRAi – Three mUrthys, that are: brahmA, rudhra, and indhra; emperumAn is the antharyAmi in them; Or, if considering the three – brahmA, vishNu, rudhra, then it talks about how emperumAn stands between the two and does the protection himself, and does the creation and destruction as antharyAmi in brahmA and rudhra.

srushti sthithi anthakaraNIm brahma vishNu shivAthmikAm |
sa samjyAm yAthi BhagavAn Eka Eva janArthdhana: ||” [vishNu purANam 1-2-66]

[creation, protection, and destruction are the three activities for which janArthdhanan takes the three names (and forms) of brahmA, vishNu, and shiva], so said srI parasara rishi.

iruvagaip payanAi – happiness, sadness are the two types of states due to karmas – he is the one who controls them.

onRAi virindhu ninRanai – during praLayam (annihilation), all the things would be without any name or form and stick together with emperumAn, so he is said as ‘sadhEva” [chAndhokya upanishad 6-2-1], that is, He is the only one existing; then during creation, he decides “bahu syAm” [chAndhokya Upanishad 6-2-3] (I shall become many/multiply), and expands to many things that get name and form.

Or, instead of creation, and praLaya (annihilation) times, it can also mean that during all times, all the things are parts of Him, so we can say “sentient and non-sentient things are parts of the body of emperumAn; such emperumAn is the one truth” – he is such.

And it can be considered as follows. Even though He is having these things as his body, He is not affected by the blemishes of those things.

Starting from ‘aRamudhal” till current phrase, His aishwaryam (parathvam) has been mentioned. From this, AzhwAr has implied, “It is not possible for me to lose (You) because of any lack of aishwaryam on Your part”

Note: With this the phrases that follow a numbering pattern ends. In the next pAsuram of this prabandham, thirumangai AzhwAr surrenders to thirukkudandhai emperumAn.

– – – –

Translation by raghuram srInivAsa dAsan

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thiruvezhukURRirukkai – 10

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srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:

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1-2-3 ] 4 – 5 – 6-7

neRi muRai nAl vagai varuNamum Ayinai

methagum aimperum pUthamum nIyE

aRupadham muralum kUndhal kAraNam
Ezhvidai adangach cheRRanai

7bullskaNNan fighting the seven bulls to get nappinnai pirAtti

Word by word meaning

nAl vagai varuNamum Ayinai – You control all four varNas (category of births)
neRi muRai – who conduct themselves according to sAsthra

mE thagum ai perum pUthamum nIyE – You are the antharyAmi of all the five elements (bhUthams) into which AthmAs can enter into and get set into them.

aRupadham muralum kUndhal kAraNam – For nappinnai pirAtti to whose hair the bees (six legs) come buzzing (for enjoying the honey),
Ezh vidai – the seven bulls
adanga cheRRanai – (which you) crushed them together

Simple meaning

After talking in the previous phrase about yOga nidhrA (aRi thuyil – meditation) for protecting, it now talks about how He protects us, lets us be.

He created the four varNas and required them to follow the ways set for them, for worshiping Him.  He does not like to be worshiped in other ways by the respective people of the varNas. The varNas can be said as He himself.

He let the AthmAs set into the body that is made of the five elements, and lets us think that we are human, dhEva, etc.  He is the antharyAmi in these elements. Thus He protects us as He lets us be, and helps worship Him.

The above is common to every being, and thirumangai Azhwar mentions a special and specific case next – as how He crushed the bulls that prevented Him from getting nappinnai pirAtti who is beautiful, that bees would buzz around her hair that is having honey, flowers;

Azhwar wishes that emperumAn would remove the hindrances that prevent Him from getting Azhwar too.

vyAkyAnam

After talking in the previous phrase about yOga nidhrA (aRi thuyil) for protecting, it now talks about how He protects us.

neRi muRai nAl vagai varuNamum Ayinai – You are the four varNas (brAhmaNa, kshathriya, vaishya, and shUdhra) who conduct themselves within the respective limits set by the sAsthras. Says that these four varNas are under your control. Since you gave these four varNas to the AthmAs, and since you are the target of the conduct/worship of these varNas according to their ways, it can be said that ‘You are the four varNas’, is the opinion.

aham hi sarva yagyAnAm bhOkthA cha praBhurEva cha’ [gIthA – 9-24] (I am the one who enjoys all the yagyas (that are performed for me); I am the benefactor who gives benefits for them), and

varNAshrama AchArvathA purushENa para: pumAn | vishNur ArADhayathE panthA nAnyas thaththOshakAraka: ||” [vishNu purANam 3-8-9] (vishNu is worshiped only by those men who live according to the dharma of their varNAshramam; He does not get happiness when done in other ways), and

“chAthur varNyam mayA srushtam” [gItha 4-13] (all the four varNas are created by me)

– these are the meanings of what sAsthras have provided, isn’t it?

——

mEthagum aimperum pUthamum nIyE – The elements of the body into which AthmAs enter and get set – earth, water, fire, air, space – all these grand elements are You only. That is, they are controlled by You.

mEthagu – enter and settled well into; that is, as said in ‘yAdhAnum Or Akkaiyil pukku angu AppuNdum” [thiruviruththam 95] – the AthmAs enter the bodies of dhEvas, humans, etc., and they get set into them to the extent of making them think “dhEvOham manushyOham” (I am a dhEva, I am a human), and they become eligible to follow the karmAs according to those bodies they entered into.

Saying “nAlvagai varuNamum Ayinai; aim perum pUthamum nIyE” , Azhwar shows the meaning, “for my body and its ways, the existence, being, and activities (saththA, sthithi, pravruththi) are under your control, so is there anyone to protect me other than You?”

—–

In yOga nidhrA, emperumAn thought of the protection of beings, and the previous phrase talked about the common aspects of creation, existence, etc. Now it talks about a special case of Him protecting nappinnai pirAtti.

aRupadha muralum kUndhal – bees, which have six legs, are buzzing around and settling into the hair of nappinnai pirAtti, for the sumptuous honey ; for the reason of getting such a nappinnai..

Ezh vidai adangach cheRRanai – without missing any of the sever bulls you crushed their necks and killed; the bulls which were preventing you from hugging such a pirAtti;

By this, “Like how you removed the hindrances for getting nappinnai pirAtti, please grace me and remove the hindrances that prevent You from getting me” is the idea that thirumangai AzhwAr shows in this phrase.

– – – – – – –

Translation by raghuram srInivAsa dAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 1.4 – anjiRaiya

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srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImadh varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> First Centum

Previous Decad

ahzwar-message-to-paramapadanathanparAnkusa nAyaki (nammAzhwAr in feminine mood) sends messenger to paramapadhanAthan

Highlights from thirukkurugaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

After enjoying emperumAn through divine vision, AzhwAr developed the desire to experience and enjoy physically in front of him but that did not happen. Being distressed, AzhwAr meditates on emperumAn‘s qualities such as sarvAparaAdhasahathvam (forgiving all mistakes) etc., and consoling himself that emperumAn would never give up on him, he expresses his desire to emperumAn through a dhUtha (messenger). Here AzhwAr assumes a feminine mood and expresses his desires to emperumAn .

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

emperumAn, desiring to cultivate AzhwAr‘s devotion fully to have the ability to enjoy him, delays fulfilling AzhwAr’s desires, just like a doctor would make a patient fast to develop hunger. Unable to handle that, AzhwAr becomes very distressed due to his ananyArha sEshathvam (being fully dependent on emperumAn only), having developed the taste for the experience of emperumAn‘s divine consorts. Due to AzhwAr being at par with emperumAn‘s divine consorts, since he was desirous of enjoying emperumAn only (being enjoyed by emperumAn only) and being unable to sustain oneself during separation from emperumAn, AzhwAr reveals her pains of separation in the mood of a beloved of emperumAn.

parAnkusa nAyaki (AzhwAr considering herself as a girl), while playing in her garden with her friends, due to divine intervention, gets separated from her friends, meets emperumAn and enjoys his union and becomes separated from emperumAn too which leads to great suffering. She starts thinking “emperumAn left me and is not returning to me due to some defects in my side and if I indicate his quality of aparAdha sahathvam, he will return to me”. Just like srI rAma and sIthA were sending birds as messengers to express their sufferings in separation of each other without comprehending that birds cannot really communicate their feelings, parAnkusa nAyaki too sends some birds as messengers to emperumAn.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In this 4th decade – AzhwAr starts enjoying emperumAn who is easily approachable, beautiful and the master – through mind, words and deeds. But since he did not respond immediately, AzhwAr becomes distressed.

AzhwAr sees many qualities in emperumAn such as

  • emperumAn’s greatness in accepting/protecting everyone after removing his/her previously committed offenses.
  • his puNdarIkAkshathvam (lotus eyed nature) which can purify everyone
  • his nature of stealing everyone’s heart and making everyone fully dependent on him
  • the divine beauty which helps him steal everyone’s heart
  • friendly attitude towards protecting every one in all the worlds
  • having the entourage to quickly protect everyone
  • his limitless mercy which will destroy the defects of those who surrender unto him
  • the unlimited vAthsalyam (motherly forbearance) – considering the defects (of those who surrender) as enjoyable aspects
  • his eternal relationship with everyone which is the cause for the vAthsalyam
  • Being close to every one

Considering all of these qualities of emperumAn, AzhwAr thinks emperumAn delays the experience due to not knowing AzhwAr‘s intentions/state and tries to send a messenger. Here AzhwAr assumes a feminine mood (parAnkusa nAyaki) and sends a messenger to Iswara who is the nAyaka (husband/master).

AzhwAr‘s nature is ananyArha sEsham (being dependent on emperumAn only), ananya rakshyam (being protected by emperumAn only) and ananya bhOgyam (being enjoyed by emperumAn only) – just like a wife who is totally dependent on her husband. Based on Iswara‘s svAmithva (being the master), Athmathva (being the controlling soul), sEshithva (being the lord/primary), pumsathva (being the man), the chEthana has dhAsathva (being the servant), dhEhathva (being the controlled body), sEshathva (being subservient/secondary) and sthrIthva (being the woman) qualities. Due to the beloved girl having discord arising out of love with her man is matching in the case of AzhwAr with Iswara, there is nothing wrong in AzhwAr assuming a feminine mood to express his feelings. Since this is the mood of a beloved girl in separation, this is treated as kaikkiLai (a thamizh poetic style to reveal one-sided love).

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

Similar to nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

In the previous decads, AzhwAr became delighted after enjoying emperumAn‘s parathvam (supremacy), bhajanIyathai (being worshippable) and saulabhyam (easily approachable) as himself. In this decad, AzhwAr transforms into a  beloved girl and speaks in desperation instead of delight. As explained in “ayam apara: kArakaniyama:” – this action (decad) is in a different norm and is most enjoyable.

Once, a (dry) scholar came to thiruvAimozhi lecture series (of nampiLLai) after hearing that “most detached and stable-minded persons pursue this thiruvAimozhi – it should be revealing great philosophy”. But when this decad was started, he said this looks like “romantic blabbering” and left the lecture. Since he was an unfortunate person, he did not understand that this is bhagavath kAmam (divine dealings of AthmA with bhagavan) as explained in bruhadhAraNyaka upanishath 4.5 “…nidhidhyAsithavya:” (to be constantly meditated upon).

AzhwAr delightfully said that he wanted to enjoy the lotus feet of thrivikraman (in the end of previous decad). But he realized that thrivikrama avathAram was in a different era and he can no more physically enjoy that and immediately assumes feminine mood and her delight becomes desperation in this decad.

Though AzhwAr clearly understands that emperumAn will protect him, the reason for his desperation here is – since food during indigestion is not good, learned doctor will make the patient fast to cultivate hunger so that the food can be consumed satisfactorily, emperumAn being “maruththuvanAi ninRa mAmaNivaNNan” (emperumAn who is the real doctor – periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5.3.6), delays the experience by disappearing for a little while from AzhwAr’s vision so that he can mature and fully experience the anubhavams which are to follow in the rest of thiruvAimozhi.

Subsequently, AzhwAr becomes disturbed. One who was blessed with “mayarvaRa madhinalam” (blemishless knowledge) becomes disturbed. emperumAn‘s greatness is such that, even the knowledge blessed by him will not be useful in separation.  Even sIthA pirAtti who said in srI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 9.30 “thath thasya sadhrusam bhavEth” (his coming over to lankA and rescuing me (without any of my efforts) is the suitable action for srI rAma’s greatness), attempted to kill herself moments earlier (before meeting hanumAn) – that is because of the unbearable pain in separation from such great emperumAn – sIthA pirAtti who knows everything herself acted like that in pain of separation. Both srI rAma and sIthA pirAtti also requested birds to convey their feelings to each other [Note: Our pUrvAchAryas often quote from srI rAmAyaNam and other sAsthrams to prove the validity of AzhwArs’ actions/expressions to vaidhikas who accepted vaidhika sAsthram faithfully in those days].

nampiLLai establishes that AzhwAr is like pirAtti (divine consort of emperumAn) – this can be seen in the last para of vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar’s introduction. Just like emperumAn‘s feet are at times said as lotus (due to the close similarity), here AzhwAr too is spoken as pirAtti herself. This is called “muRRuvamai” (fully matching example) in thamizh grammar. bhagavAn’s beauty/manliness is such that even other men would give up their (bodily) manliness and be attracted towards him.

nampiLLai explains the principle of parAnkusa nAyaki meeting emperumAn in the garden (as explained in nanjIyar’s introduction). He further explains it here. parAnkusa nAyaki looks around to send a messenger to emperumAn to reveal her feelings. She understands that her friends are in even-more non-consolable state. So, she observes the birds (considered as AchArya who would link the jIvAthmA with paramAthmA) which have wings (gyAnam and anushtAnam) and sends them as messengers to emperumAn. bhattar often said that just like the monkey clan became glorified after srI rAma’s birth, the birds became glorified after the birth of AzhwArs.

Here, samslEsham (union) for AzhwAr is – emperumAn blessing him “mayarvaRa mathinalam” (blemishless knowledge) at a particular time when he did not show any hatred towards emperumAn. vislEsham (separation) for AzhwAr is – having realised fully, not reaching emperumAn immediately. The reason for sending messenger is – emperumAn did not see his greatness and instead accepted me seeing my insignificance. But on coming near me, he saw the defects in me and gave up on me considering such defects. AzhwAr wanted to inform/remind emperumAn that he [emperumAn] has a quality called “aparAdha sahathvam”. AzhwAr (in feminine mood) sends a messenger to remind him about that quality so that he will come and accept AzhwAr again.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvezhukURRirukkai – 9

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srI:
srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:

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1-2-3-4-5-6-7-6-5-4-3 ] 2-1 – 1-2-3

nin Iradi onRiya manaththAl
oru madhi mugaththu mangaiyar iruvarum malar(a/e)na
am kaiyin muppozhudhum varuda
aRi thuyil amarndhanai

thirumagaL_maNmagaL_kUsi_pidikkum_melladi_aRi_thuyil

Word by word meaning

oru madhi mugaththu mangaiyar iruvarum – the two pirAttis, srIdhEvi and bHUdhEvi (thirumadanthai, maNmadanthai) with unparalleled divine face like the moon,
onRiya manaththAl – (with their) mind immersed in
nin Ir adi – your two divine feet
muppozhudhum – (they) always
varuda – press/caress (your divine feet)
malar ena am kaiyin – using their beautiful hands that can be said as flowers
aRi thuyil amarndhanai – while you are immersed in meditating sleep (yOga nidhrA).

Simple meaning
thirumangai Azhwar next says that it would be possible for him to enjoy the beauty of emperumAn because of the purushakAram (recommendation) of pirAttis (divine consorts) who because of their beauty are able to make emperumAn listen to their words.
The phrase describes the beauty of the hands of srIdhEvi and bhUdhEvi who at all times carefully caress the lotus feet of emperumAn; emperumAn being in the state of deep thinking, for figuring out how to help the worlds, especially His adiyArs (devotees);
Azhwar concludes that it would not be possible for emperumAn to not help him enjoy emperumAn when there are pirAttis who would make sure of that, with their beauty, age, and service to emperumAn.

vyAkyAnam

nin Iradi . . .thirumangai AzhwAr shows that for getting the benefit of enjoying his beauty, there is also support of able mediation (purushakAra balam).

nin Iradi onRiya manaththAl – with their mind focused on dhEvarIr’s divine feet; by this it shows their ananya bhOgyathvam (not enjoying anything other than emperumAn);

oru madhi mugaththu – unlike the moon seen in this world, their faces are like a complete moon without any blemish, and their faces are pleasant and show how they are drinking the beauty that is emperumAn.

mangaiyar iruvarum – Like said by “thulyasheelavayO vruththAm” [rAmAyaNam – sundhara kANdam 16-5] [she possesses equivalent character, age, and actions (as emperumAn)], and by “yuvathishcha kumAriNI” [she is near the end of young girlhood and near the beginning of womanhood ], they with their suitable age can make emperumAn their bhaktha and a mad lover (like said in “pAr vaNNa mada mangai paththar piththar pani malar mEl pAvaikku” [thirunedunthANdakam 18] ) – such are the two pirAttis – srIdhEvi and bhUdhEvi (thirumadanthai and maNmadanthai).

malar ana am kaiyin – with beautiful hands, as if they touch with flowers; phrase is recited differently too as ‘malar ena am kaiyin’ ; if we try to compare with flowers, their hands are even softer and more beautiful than the flowers; since their hands are soft, colorful and fragrant, it is not possible to provide a comparison for them, is the concept here. //  Like said by: “chandhra kAnthAnanam rAmam athIva priyadharshanam” [rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 3-29] [sweet like the moon, appearing sweeter than the moon, that is rAman]

muppozhudhum varuda – During all the three times – future, current, and past (edhir, nigazh, kazhivu), they caress emperumAn’s divine feet with so much hesitation (to avoid disturbing the delicate and beautiful lotus feet) as said in “vadivu iNai illA malar magaL maRRai nila magaL pidikkum mel adi” [thiruvAimozhi 9-2-10].

aRi thuyil amarndhanai – As You keep thinking while lying down, “how to save the whole world, especially how to save his devotees?”,  you are in such a state that you would not get up even if arrows are thrown at You!

nin Iradi … mangaiyar iruvarum … adi varuda” – by this it implies thirumangai AzhwAr saying, “It is not possible for adiyEn to not get the benefit (You) due to any lack of mediators/recommendation (purushakAram) (since both pirAttis are there).”

aRi thuyil amarndhanai” – “It is not possible for adiyEn to not get the benefit (You) because of any lack in Your part of thinking of saving your devotee (since you are always thinking about saving everyone)”.

– – – – – – – –

Translation by raghuram srInivAsa dAsan

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