Monthly Archives: March 2021

thiruviruththam – 72 – sUzhginRa kangul

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avathArikai (Introduction)

When the nAyaki had to sustain herself by looking at objects which were similar to the nAyakan, during the time of separation, the night time entered and started tormenting her. When she was thinking “Who will protect me from the torment of separation?” chandhiran (chandhra – moon) appeared. piLLai amudhanAr used to narrate a story here. One ascetic brAhmaNa was walking through a forest when a cow started following him. He was wondering as to who will protect him from the cow when a tiger happened to come there; it killed the cow and ate it up. It then came in front of the brAhmaNa, twitching its tail. The brAhmaNa thought “I could have at the least saved my life from the cow. Now it appears that there is no way that I could survive this”. The nAyaki’s situation is similar to this.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

sUzhginRa kangul surungAviruLin karundhiNimbaip
pOzhginRa thingaL am piLLaiyum pOzhga thuzhAy malarkkE
thAzhginRa nenjaththoru thamiyAttiyEn mAmaikkinRu
vAzhginRavAru idhuvO vandhu thOnRiRRu vAliyadhE

Word-by-Word Meanings

sUzhginRa – pervading everywhere
kangul – caused by the night
surungA – not contracted (huge)
karu – being black
iruL – darkness’
thiNimbai – strength
pOzhginRa – splitting
am – being beautiful
piLLai – favourable like a son
thingaLum – chandhiran too
pOzhga – let him split
(only for that)
vAliyadhu – strong
vandhu thOnRiRRu – it rose up (in the sky)
thuzhAy malarkkE – only for the divine garland of thuLasi (worn by sarvESvaran)
thAzhginRa – languishing
nenjaththu – having heart
oru thamiyAttiyEn – I, who am lonely, without anyone to assist; my
mAmaikku – natural complexion
inRu – during this time
vAzhginRa ARu – the way I live
idhuvO – is it like this?

Simple Translation

Let chandhiran, who rose up to split the black coloured darkness which occurred in the night and which pervaded everywhere, split me too. The beautiful and strong chandhiran, who appeared like a son, seems to have risen up only for splitting me. I am alone, with no support, longing for the divine thuLasi garland worn by sarvESvaran, with a languishing heart. Is this the way to live for my complexion?

vyAkyAnam

sUzhginRa – just as praLayam (deluge) pervades everywhere, this [darkness] pervaded everywhere, without leaving a place where one can take rest away from it.

kangul surungA iruLin – the darkness of the night, without any contraction. There are limits when it is expected to come with full denseness and when it is expected to come without being dense. This did not follow that principle. It was fully dense.

karum thiNimbai – having a black colour. Through the word thiNimbai, strength is indicated. It is as if the petals outside the flower of darkness have been removed and the strong diamond-like darkness inside is manifested.

pOzhginRa . . . – chandhiran who comes splitting and tearing apart such darkness. Since I do not have any right over anything outside of myself, let that chandhiran harm me too.

pOzhginRa – darkness and chandhiran are natural enemies. Thus, in the presence of chandhiran, darkness, aside from being torn apart, is being destroyed physically. The strength of darkness and the youthful state of chandhiran are indicated.

thingaL am piLLai – chandhiran who is like a beautiful child. Initially he appears as a favourable entity, but later turns out to harm us. He is favourable since he is driving out darkness, but is a harmful entity because he reminds the nAyaki of her loneliness. SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 1-71 “padhmakOSa palASAni dhrushtvA dhrishtir hi manyathE l sIthAyA nEthra kOSAbhyAm sadhruSAm ithi lakshmaNa ll” (Oh lakshmaNa! Since these petals of lotus flower are like the eyes of sIthA, when I look at them, I am reminded of her eyes and it hurts me) In other words, when one is in distress, differences are not noticed. Would it be proper for the tongue, which is supposed to eat only tasteful food, to eat poison? In other words, without realising the danger which is going to come from chandhiran, is it proper to call him as being beautiful? SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 43-24 says “paSya lakshmaNa …” (for the sake of this sIthA, I will catch that deer; protecting her is our duty), in other words dharSi saumithrI – look, lakshmaNa – they saw the situation at that point of time and did not think of what would happen later.

thuzhAy malarkkE . . .  – desiring to obtain the divine thuLasi garland which decorated his divine shoulder, and having a mind deeply engrossed with that.

thuzhAy malarkkE thAzhginRa – not thinking of the situation when it does not occur that way

oru thamiyAttiyEn – for her loneliness, even the loneliness of sithAppirAtti cannot equal. The nAyaki was distressed by both the dark night and chandhiran. The term oru (one) signifies that there is no simile for her condition.

mAmaikkinRu vAzhginRavARidhuvO – was it for this that we felt happy that chandhiran has come to remove the distress caused by the dark night?

vandhu thOnRiRRu vAliyadhE – she laments “Just as chandhiran came to get rid of the darkness of the night, isn’t there a sUriyan (sun) who would get rid of the chandhiran?”  She says that chandhiran himself would stay firmly and keep harming.

vAliyadhu – strong

The verses should be arranged this way to convey the sequential meaning: thingaL am piLLaiyum pOzhga – let that also come and harm; vandhu thOnRiRRu vAliyadhE – over and above that darkness, this chandhiran too appeared to harm; mAmaikkinRu vAzhginRavARidhuvO – is this the way for my complexion to survive?

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): Just as it has been said in periya thiruvandhAdhi 24 “iruLanna mAmEni” (divine form which resembles darkness), the dark night reminded AzhwAr of sarvESvaran’s divine form and tormented him. On top of that, chandhiran reminded him of sarvESvaran’s divine face and divine conch and tormented him even further.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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periya thirumozhi – 1.4.1 – EnamunAgi

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periya thirumozhi >> First centum >> Fourth decad

Highlights from avathArikai (Introduction)

No specific introduction.

pAsuram

EnamunAgi irunilam idandhu anRu iNaiyadi imaiyavar vaNangath
thAnavanAgam tharaNiyil puraLath thadanjilai kuniththa en thalaivan
thEnamar sOlaik kaRpagam payandha dheyva nal naRumalar koNarndhu
vAnavar vaNangum gangaiyin karaimEl vadhariyAchchirAmaththuLLAnE

Word-by-Word meanings

anRu – long ago (when earth was consumed by deluge)
imaiyavar – brahmA et al
iNai adi – divine feet which are beautiful together
vaNanga – to worship
mun – in the beginning of varAha kalpa (one day of brahmA)
EnamAgi – assuming the form of a wild-boar
iru nilam – vast earth
idandhu – dug it out
thAnavan – rAvaNa who was born in dhanu clan, his
Agam – body
tharaNiyil – on earth
puraLa – to roll
thadam – big
silai – bow
kuniththa – mercifully bent
en thalaivan – nArAyaNa, my lord
thEn amar – having abundance of honey
sOlai – spread out like an orchard
kaRpagam – kalpaka tree
payandha – created
dheyvam – divine
nal – distinguished
naRu – fragrant
malar – flowers
vAnavar – dhEvathAs
koNarndhu – brought (and submitted)
vaNangum – to worship
gangaiyin karai mEl – on the banks of gangA
vadhari AchchirAmaththu – in badharikASramam
uLLAn – is mercifully residing

Simple translation

Long ago, my lord, nArAyaNan, assuming the form of a wild-boar, dug out the vast earth from the ocean of deluge in the beginning of varAha kalpa, to have his divine feet worshipped by brahmA et al; he mercifully bent his big bow to make the body of rAvaNa who is a descendant of dhanu clan, roll on the earth. Such emperumAn is mercifully residing in badharikASramam which is on the banks of gangA, to be worshipped by dhEvathAs who bring along divine, distinguished, fragrant flowers which were created by kalpa tree which is spread out like an orchard and is having abundance of honey.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam (Commentary)

  • mun Enam Agi – In the beginning of varAha kalpa (one of the days of brahmA), went up to the wall of the oval shaped universe, and dug out the vast earth; having a strong form of mahAvarAha (great wild-boar) to dig out the earth.
  • anRu iNai adi imaiyavar vaNanga – At that time, to be surrendered by those brahmA et al who were hiding in emperumAn’s mane (hair on his head).  It is said in “sukavikata satA sankatai:” (the dhEvathAs who are present in the mane which is praised by poets).
  • thAnavan … – Here rAvaNa is called as dhAnava. It is said in periya thirumozhi 2.2.2 “thaiyalAL mEl kAdhal seydha thAnavan vaL arakkan” (rAvaNa, the demon who has the sword gifted by rudhra and who showed his inappropriate love towards pirAtti). Since he is a descendant of dhanu, he is known as dhAnavan. Or, he is known as dhAnava due to his demoniac qualities. To have the body of rAvaNa, which was nourished by boons etc, to be hit with the arrow and roll on the ground.
  • thadam silai … – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 99.12 “mahadh dhanu:” (the great bow), one who bent the bow which has great power.
  • en thalaivan – My lord who is the foremost in valour.
  • thEn amar … – Due to rAvaNa’s power, dhEvathAs will serve him with the flowers of kalpaka tree; on having his head severed, they will offer those flowers to the apt lord.  The kalpaka tree which is in the form of an orchard with abundance of honey, created divine, distinguished, fresh flowers. To be worshipped by dhEvathAs with such flowers, emperumAn arrived at SrI badharikASramam on the banks of gangA.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruviruththam – 71 – UzhigaLAy

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avathArikai (Introduction)

The nAyakan who had clandestinely united with the nAyaki and separated from her, sends a few persons to sell fruits to the place where the nAyaki resides. These fruits resemble the complexion of his divine form and would help her to lessen her distress in separation. Looking at those fruits, the nAyaki sustains herself. Her mother notices this and chides her. The nAyaki tells her friends about this excessive act of her mother’s.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

UzhigaLAy ulagEzhum uNdAn enRilam pazham kaNdu
Azhi kaLAm pazhavaNNam enRERku ahdhE koNdu annai
nAzhivaLO enRum gyAlam uNdAn vaNNam solliRu enRum
thOzhigaLO uraiyIr emmai ammanai sUzhginRavE

Word-by-Word Meanings

UzhigaLAy – being the controller of all the worlds ruled by time
Ezhu ulagum – (during deluge) all the seven worlds
uNdAn – ate (to keep them in his stomach and protect them)
enRilam – we did not say that
pazham kaNdu – looking at the fruit
kaLAppazha vaNNam – the colour of berry fruit
Azhi –like the colour of ocean
enRERku – to me who said so
ahdhE koNdu – presuming another meaning for that word
annai – (my) mother
ivaL – this girl
nAzh – is clever
enRum – saying so
gyAlam – earth
uNdAn – one who swallowed
vaNNam – complexion
solliRRu – said
enRum – saying so
thOzhigaLO – Oh my friends!
emmai – regarding me
ammanai – mother
sUzhginRa – saying it repeatedly
(remedy for this)
uraiyIr – please tell

Simple Translation

Oh friends! I had not revealed the name of my nAyakan explicitly by saying “He is the lord of all the worlds ruled by time and he protected the seven worlds in his stomach during deluge”. Instead, looking at the colour of berry fruits, I had said “The colour of ocean is the colour of this fruit”. My mother, who listened to my words, said “This girl is very clever! She is referring to the complexion of the one who swallowed all the worlds” Please tell me a remedy since my mother is accusing me repeatedly and hurting me.

vyAkyAnam

UzhigaLAy Ezhulagum uNDAn enRilam – Had I said “During deluge, he swallowed and protected the seven worlds”, I could be accused of talking about him (sarvESvaran). However, I had not said “He is the controller of all entities such as time etc; he is the great benefactor who swallowed all these entities during deluge”. Those who say that sarvESvaran does not have auspicious qualities will give a different meaning to the words sathyam, gyAnam etc which are mentioned in thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavallee “sathyam gyAnam anantham brahma” (the supreme entity is permanent, omniscient and unlimited). In the same way, the nAyaki too feels happy to praise the greatness of his auspicious qualities by saying indirectly about his complexion etc. She has a right to say this. Her mother too has a right to deny what the nAyaki had meant. The right for the nAyaki comes from the basis that she cannot remain quiet about someone who has carried out a beneficial act for her; one with intellect cannot keep quiet. Her mother, on the other hand, felt that the nAyaki’s thoughts would torment her later.  She thought that deep involvement with the qualities of a person would lead to worries later on.

pazham kaNdu – when one looks at an entity in this world, it is natural to identify it by its name. Whether it is ghatam (pot) or patam (cloth), it is called by its name. Is identifying a material by its name, an offence?

Azhi kaLAm pazhavaNNam enRERku – I merely said that the colour of the berry fruit is similar to the colour of the ocean. However, my mother presumed “She is talking about the one who has the complexion of ocean [sarvESvaran]”

ahdhE koNdu – Instead of accepting what I had said, she thought that there was an inner meaning to it.

annai – was she a mother right from the time of her birth? It appears that she had not grown up to the stage of a young girl (before becoming a mother). If there is a fault, it could be chided. But when there is no fault, is it proper to see as to who is controlling and who is being controlled?

nAzhivaLO enRum – we are seeing the fruits and speaking about them. Does she not understand what I am saying? Why is she taking a different meaning for it? Is she having a skill in talking meaninglessly? nAzh refers to skill.

What is the greatness of the nAyaki?

gyAlam uNdAn vaNNam solliRRu ennum – sarvESvaran had kept all the worlds during the time of deluge, inside his stomach to protect them. Reminiscing that quality, my daughter could not bear separation from that sarvESvaran.

thOzhigaLO uraiyIr – Oh friends! Don’t you stand with me in my happy moments and sad moments? You are not like my mother.

emmai ammanai sUzhginRavE – just like a snake in the house will torment even when it is not biting, whenever someone comes into the house or leaves the house, my mother is tormenting me.

sUzhginRa – my mother is exaggerating things three times. While I am seeing something and speaking about the same thing, my mother torments me saying that there is some other meaning to what I am saying. Only you have to offer me a remedy for this.

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): this pAsuram says that it is not possible to sustain oneself without looking at entities which are equivalent to sarvESvaran and that it is not possible to redeem someone who is having overflowing affection towards sarvESvaran.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 70 – vaLai vAy

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avathArikai (Introduction)

Due to the craving arising out of the desire of obtaining the garland of thuLasi which had been worn by SrIvaikuNanAthan [sarvESvaran], this pAsuram narrates the difficulty in spending time.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

vaLaivAyth thiruchchakkaraththu engaL vAnavanAr mudimEl
thaLaivAy narungaNNith thaNNandhuzhAykku vaNNam payalai
viLaivAn miga vandhu nAL thingaL ANdu Uzhi niRka emmai
uLaivAn pugundhu idhuvOr kangul Ayiram UzhigaLE

Word-by-Word Meanings

vaLai – being bent
vAy – having mouth
thiruchchakaraththu – having the divine disc
engaL – being our swAmy
vAnavanAr – sarvESvaran, who is the controller of paramapadham, his
mudimEl  – donned atop his divine crown
thaLaivAy – having the opportunity
naRu – having fragrance
thaN – being cool
am – being beautiful
kaNNI – strung as a garland
thuzhAykku – for the divine thuLasi
(desired by me, but feeling sad since it is not available)
vaNNamcolour
payalai viLaivAn – to make it become pale (losing colour)
idhu – this
Or – one
kangul – night
nAL – as a day
thingaL – as a month
ANdu – as a year
Uzhi niRka – as a kalpam (life time of brahmA), apart from transforming
emmai – us
uLaivAN – to trouble
migavandhu – increasing repeatedly
pugundhu – entering
Ayiram – many
UzhigaL – increased as kalpams

Simple Translation

I desired the cool, beautiful thuLasi garland which is fragrant and has the nice opportunity of decorating the divine crown of our lord sarvESvaran, who has the divine discus which has curved mouth and who is the controller of paramapadham. As a result of this, in order for the complexion in my form to lose its colour and become pale, this one night appears to extend beyond one day, one month, one year and many kalpams, troubling me.

vyAkyAnam

vaLaivAy thiruchchakaraththu – divine disc which has a bent mouth. Alternatively, one who has vaLai – SrI pAnchajanyam (divine conch) and vAy – divine disc which has mouth. Reference is made to SrI rAmAyaNa SlOkam yudhdha kANdam “thamasa: paramOdhAthA Sanka chakra gadhAdhara:” (one who is beyond the darkness of ignorance, one who is supreme and who adorns the divne weapons of conch, disc, mace etc).

engaL vAnavanAr mudimEl – having the opportunity of donning the divine crown of SrIvaikuNtanAthan who is having divine weapons, divine garlands and who is the lord of thripAdhvibhUthi (nithyavibhUthi, the spiritual realm) which is three times larger than leelA vibhUthi (materialistic realm); the garland has been strung by nithyasUris such as AdhiSEshan, garudan et al.

naRungaNNith thaNNandhuzhAykku – the divine garland of divine thuLasi which is fresh.

vaNNam . . . – desiring that divine garland, and becoming pale since it has not been obtained; losing colour.

miga vandhu . . . – the night which came, first became a day; that day then became a month; that month became a year; that year became a kalpam. Thus a single night extended to several kalpams, in order to torment me.

miga vandhu – each part came, getting worse than the previous. Thus, several nights came this way. How one night turned out to be!

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): this pAsuram explains the benefit that AzhwAr desired similar to the benefit which sIthAppirAtti attained in SrI rAmAyaNam as mentioned in ayOdhyA kANdam 16-21 “pathi sammAnithA sIthA” (sIthAppirAtti who was given a happy message by her husband) and how it became extremely difficult to spend time on not attaining that benefit.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 69 – kArERRiruL

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Next, dusk came and started tormenting her. Since the time after dusk is the happy time of night, and since the nAyakan had not come there to be with her, the nAyaki feels distressed. Her friend tells her “This is  not dusk. Two bulls are raring to fight with each other”, making her feel bewildered about time and trying to console her.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kArERRiruL segilERRin sudarukku uLaindhu velvAn
pOrERRu edhirndhadhu punthalai mAlai bhuvaniyellAm
nIrERRaLandha nediya pirAn aruLAvidumE
vARERRiLa mulaiyAy varundhEl un vaLaiththiRamE

Word-by-Word Meanings

iruL darkness
kAr – black
ERu – bull
segil – reddish
ERRin – bull (refers to sUriyan (sUrya))
sudarukku – effulgence
uLaindhu – losing out
(hiding all along, now)
velvAn – to win (against that bull)
pOr – battle
ERRu – accepting that
pul – negligible
thalai – duration
mAlai – in the evening time (dusk)
edhirndhadhu – fought
bhuvaniyellAm – throughout the earth
nIr ERRu – accepting water (given as sign of giving alms, from mahAbali)
aLandha – one who seized
nediya – one who had unlimited friendliness
pirAn – sarvESvaran, the benefactor
aruLAvidumE – will he not shower his mercy?
vAr – with bodice
ERRu – being held
iLa mulaiyAy – Oh one who has youthful bosoms!
un vaLaiththiRam – regarding your bangles
varundhEl – do not grieve

Simple Translation

The bull of darkness had lost out to the bull of reddishly splendrous sUriyan. However, in order to win against that bull, it came during dusk, which lasts only briefly. Will sarvESvaran, who had accepted water, as a sign of receing alms from mahAbali, and measured all the worlds, not show his mercy on you at this time of dusk? Oh one has held her bosoms in a bodice! You need not grieve regarding your bangles.

vyAkyAnam

kArERRiruL – darkness looks like a black bull.

segilERRin sudarukku uLaindhu – surrendered to the rays of reddish bull, called as sUriyan, after losing to it. That dark bull told itself “Should we lose like this such that we would perish? We should also win once” and waged a fight with the reddish bull, donning the garland (or evening) [In thamizh language, both garland and evening are referred to by the same word, mAlai].

pun thalai mAlaisandhyA (dusk) time which lasts only briefly; dusk which has minute buds of embers of darkness. Is it possible to ascribe buds to evening? Just as it has been mentioned in the saying nakanibhasunjathiyAnthamOvallaya: where darkness is compared to a creeper, it is acceptable to say that darkness has buds.

bhuvani . . . – shouldn’t one, who knows sarvESvaran’s qualities, remain patiently? Is he not one who kept his divine foot, which are like the flowers for nithyasUris, on everyone’s head, without any reason, treating indhra as the cause for doing that way? Will he, who is the benefactor for all, leave you behind? Would one, who comes and helps entities who are engulfed by thamas (ignorance) and complain to him [reference is to indhra et al], remain idly when thamas (darkness) spreads in the world (during dusk)? Would one, who comes seeking alms to reclaim land which others claim as their own [mahAbali] leave you, who are his wealth, and that too when he does not have to seek alms? Would one, who does not let go of anything on this earth which is full of forests and highlands, let you to suffer? Would one, who hastened when the earth was in trouble, remain patiently when a lady is in trouble?

vArERRu iLa mulaiyAy – would he, who keeps his divine feet on forests and highlands, not keep them on your bosoms?

aruLAvidumE – would one, who transforms himself to help those who have the quality of sathvam (goodness) occasionally, not help you who is full of Sudhdha sathvam (pure goodness)?

bhuvani . . . – he is the great benefactor who feels that he has not done anything even after keeping his divine feet on the heads of everyone, when he measured the earth consequent to accepting water as a sign of taking alms.

aruLAvidumE – even if his affection for you is lost, would even his mercy, which is a corollary of his true nature, not be showered on you?

vArERRu iLamulaiyAy – oh one who has bosoms which have to be held by a bodice! Would he allow you to bear your bosoms which are to be borne either by the bodice or by him?

iLa mulaiyAy – though you have not reached adulthood, your bosoms are such that they have to be sustained by bodice. Just as children cry out for food during times of hunger, your bosoms are heaving, crying out for worldly pleasures.

varundhEl un vaLaiththiRamE – you do not have to grieve for the bangles slipping out of your hands. If you wish, you could grieve for entities on his hands slipping out. Just as it has been said in thiruppallANdu 2 “appAnchasanniyamum pallANdu” (long live that conch, pAnchajanyam), praise his conch [our bangles are representative of the conch since they are made of conch].

In the previous pAsuram, how AzhwAr sustained himself through the knowledge of sarvESvaran’s auspicious qualities and through sarvESvaran entering his mind, was mentioned. In this pAsuram he says that even that is not required; mere knowledge that he is the protector and we are the entities to be protected is sufficient. varundhEl un vaLaiththiRamE – this is similar to the saying in bhagavath gIthA 18-66 SlOkam “mA Sucha:” (do not grieve). Through the words aham thvA, the true nature of both (sarvESvaran and AzhwAr) has been explained and only after that has mA Sucha: been said.

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thiruviruththam – 68 – malarndhE ozhindhila

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avathArikai (Introduction)

The nAyakan, who had united and later separated from the nAyaki, told her before leaving “I will come when the konRai flowers blossom (konRai is a tree belonging to the legume family, with elongated clusters of yellow flowers)” The konRai flowers started blossoming with the arrival of that season. Since the nAyakan had not returned, the nAyaki felt distressed. Her friend sees the flowers, knows that the season has arrived, but still tells her “They are only in the process of blossoming but have not blossomed yet. He will certainly return at the correct time; do not worry”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

malarndhE ozhindhila mAlaiyum mAlaippon vAsigaiyum
pulandhOy thazhaippandhal thaNduRa nARRip poru kadal sUzh
nilandhAviya emperumAn thanadhu vaigundham annAy
kalandhAr varavedhirkoNdu van konRaigaL kArththanavE

Word-by-Word Meanings

poru – agitating
kadal – ocean
sUzh – surrounded by
nilam – bhUmi (earth)
thAviya – one who measured
emperumAn thanadhu – sarvESvaran’s
vaigundham annAy – one who is (enjoyable) like SrIvaikuNtam!
van – being cruel
konRaigaL – konRai trees
kalandhAr – sarvESvaran who united (with you)
varavu – arrival
edhir koNdu – expecting
kArththana – are forming buds
mAlaiyum – as garlands (string)
mAlai – made as garland
pon vAsigaiyum – golden strings
pulam – on the earth
thOy – falling
thazhai – well grown
pandhal – as a bower
thaNdu – in the branches
uRa – fitting
nARRi – making it to hang
malarndhEyozhindhila – have not blossomed fully

Simple Translation

Oh one who gives joy like SrIvaikuNtam which belongs to sarvESvaran, who had measured this earth surrounded by agitating oceans! The cruel konRai trees are waiting with buds, for the arrival of sarvESvaran who had united with you. They are not seen with blossomed flowers on their branches which come down like strings of garlands or garlands with golden strings, to the ground from the bower on which they have spread.

vyAkyAnam

malarndhE ozhindhila – the friend tells nAyaki “This is not the season when he said he would return” The nAyaki tells her “How do you say so even after seeing that the flowers have blossomed?” The friend says “You could only see them trying to blossom; they have not blossomed fully”

mAlai . . . – only if they come down in strings as garlands or as golden strings through those garlands, could one say that they have blossomed. They should come down to the earth in such a way that those who see them would have their sensory organs stolen by them.

poru kadal – [friend’s words] aren’t you matching his indestructible nithyavibhUthi (spiritual realm)? Will he allow you to get destroyed? He has one vibhUthi (leelA vibhUthi) which keeps getting formed and destroyed repeatedly and one vibhUthi (nithya vibhUthi) which is indestructible.  Measuring this earth which is surrounded by ocean, he is the lord who brought all the worlds under him.

thanadhu vaigundham annAy – is it possible for you not to have svarUpa gyAnam (knowledge about your true nature)? Aren’t you matching his nithyavibhUthi? Only if he gives up that nithyavibhIUthi, would he give you up too. Will he allow you to get distressed?

kalandhAr – even if he does not know your true nature, will he not know his true nature? Would he, who had united with you and knows your importance, let go of you? Know well that his identity is that he is kalandhAr (one who united with you).

varavedhir koNdu – even plants which do not know any distinction between correct and incorrect, were ready to blossom as mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam SlOkam “akAlapalinO vrukshA” (thought it was not the season, trees blossomed flowers). Thus, when these flowers are waiting for the arrival of nAyakan to blossom, why are you upset?

van konRaigaL – the konRai trees were anxiously waiting, deciding to blossom only when he comes and not otherwise

kArththana – they formed buds. When the embryo is formed, it would change colour. This indicates that. It could also be taken to refer to rainy season.

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): this pAsuram states how those who were nearby comforted AzhwAr, saying that due to his knowledge of sarvESvaran’s auspicious qualities and due to the fact that sarvESvaran had entered his mind, sarvESvaran will not remain without coming during the time which is apt for enjoyment.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 67 – kAviyum neelamum

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avathArikai (Introduction)

In this pAsuram too, the nAyakan keeps talking about the beauty of her eyes.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kAviyum neelamum vElum kayalum palapalavenRu
Aviyin thanmai aLavalla pArippu asuraichcheRRa
mAviyam puL valla mAdhavan gOvindhan vEngadam sEr
thUviyam pEdai annAL kaNgaLAya thuNai malarE

Word-by-Word Meanings

asurai – demons
seRRa – one who annihilated
mA – having greatness
viyam – having amazing activities
puL – garuda
valla – capable of conducting (as his vehicle)
mAdhavan – Sriya:pathi (consort of SrI mahAlakshmi)
gOvindhan – sarvESvaran, who tends to cows, his
vEngadam – in his divine abode of thiruvEngadam
sEr – living permanently
am – beautiful
thUvi – having wings
pEdai annALnAyaki who is like a female swan
kaNgaLAya – called as eyes
thuNai – together
malar – like flowers (these)
pArippu – spread
kAviyum – red lily
neelamum – blue lily
vElum – spear
kayalum – fish
palapala – and various other entities
venRu – emerging victorious
Aviyin – AthmA’s
thanmai – svabhAvam (true nature)
aLavalla – cannot be contained (it will go beyond)

Simple Translation

This nAyaki is like a female swan which is permanently residing in thiruvEngadam. This is the abode of sarvESvaran, who conducts garuda who annihilates demons. He has great eminence and has amazing activities, who has SrI mahAlakshmi constantly on his chest and who tends to cows. Such nAyaki’s eyes are like flowers which match each other well. Their expansive nature wins over many entities such as red lily, blue lily, spear, fish etc and are beyond the nature of AthmA.

vyAkyAnam

kAviyum . . . – If one were to look for an entity which matches her eyes, one has to refer to SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1-18 “vishNunA sadhruSA: vIryE sOmavath priya dharSana: kAla agni sadhruSA: krOdha kshamayA prithvI samA:” (matching SrI mahAvishNu in valour, chandhiran (chandhra – moon) in attracting others, agni in anger, bhUmi (earth) in patience); as mentioned in this SlOkam, in each attribute, one has to compare with several entities and even then, one will have a doubt whether these would be an exact match for that attribute. In this SlOkam, in the verse vishNunA sadhrusO vIryE he compared parathvam (supreme) only to the quality of valour. Here, it is not so. By its [eye’s] reddish colour it was superior to red lily, by its dark colour it was superior to blue lily, by its sharpness it was superior to a spear and by its innocence it was superior to fish; thus it was superior to several entities.

Aviyin thanmai aLavalla pArippu – is destroying entities such as flowers etc, which will in any case get destroyed in course of time, a sign of victory? The eyes are capable of destroying even AthmA which is indestructible.

Aviyin thanmai aLavalla – not stopping merely with the entity of AthmA, going towards the entity which is the sustaining force for it – in other words, her limbs are capable of bewildering even sarvESvaran.

asurai . . . – one who is capable of conducting garuda who destroys the demons along with their clan, who is  great and is equivalent to emperumAn himself, having amazing activities.

mAdhavan – more than the greatness of being the conductor of garuda, sarvESvaran has the greatness of being the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi.

gOvindhan – due to that union with SrI mahAlakshmi, he is simple to attain; that simplicity made him come down to thirumalai and be easily approachable to his followers, making that easy approachability as a sign of supremacy. The nAyaki is like thUviyampEdai  – the female swan which has beautiful wings, which will live only in that thiruvEngadam, belonging to gOvindhan and not in any other place. Alternatively, thUviyampEdai could refer to SrI mahAlakshmi, and in this case, nAyaki is similar to SrI mahAlakshmi. What is the necessity to speak about garudavAhanan, lakshminAthan et al? He wanted to talk about sarvESvaran’s easy approachability, spoke about supremacy which is the basis for the quality of easy approachability and finally he came into the  boundary of simplicity.

kaNgaLAya thuNai malarE – being referred to as eyes, they became two flowers which matched each other.

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): AzhwAr is enjoying the pAsuram of SrivaishNavAs who say that as per AzhwAr there is no limit to those who enjoy the simplicity of one who stands in thirumalai [sarvESvaran].

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 66 – uNNAdhu uRangAdhu

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avathArikai (Introduction)

This pAsuram also reveals the words spoken by the nAyakan who is engaged with the beauty of the nAyaki’s eyes.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

uNNAdhu uRangAdhu uNarvuRum eththanai yOgiyarkkum
eNNAy miLirum iyalvinavAm eri nIr vaLi vAn
maNNAgiya emperumAn thanadhu vaigundhamannAL
kANNAy aruvinaiyEn uyirAyina kAvigaLE

Word-by-Word Meanings

eri – for fire
nIr – for water
vaLi – for air
vAn – for sky
maN – for earth
Agiya – as indwelling soul
emperumAn thanadhu – for emperumAn who is my benefactor, his wealth
vaigundham annAL – she, who is like SrIvaikuNtam (having enjoyability)
kaNNAy – being called as eyes
aru – cruel
vinaiyEn – I, having sins
uyirAyina – life-giving airs
kAvigaL – red water lily
uNNadhu – foregoing food
uRangAdhu – foregoing sleep
uNarvu – knowledge (about true nature of AthmA)
uRum – those who have attained
eththanai yOgiyarkkum – for even the distinguished people who carry out meditation
eNNAy – to think about
miLirum – being radiant
iyalvinavAm – they have that nature

Simple Translation

She is like SrIvaikuNtam, which is the abode of sarvESvaran who remains as the indwelling soul of the five elements, fire, water, air, sky and earth.Her two eyes are like red water lily and are the life sustaining airs for me.  Her eyes, which are radiant, are such that even great yOgis, who keep constantly meditating on sarvESvaran, foregoing their food and sleep, would keep thinking of.

vyAkyAnam

uNNadhu . . . – unable to sustain themselves through the pleasures available in this world, with the intellect that this world and its materials are to be renounced, being firm in their minds that only the AthmA which is the goal to be attained is apt, considering that even that entity AthmA is not independent but a conduit for obtaining knowledge about sarvESvaran – even for such yOgis

eNNAy miLirum iyalvinavAm – if such people, as described above, were to become the target of these eyes, even they will discard the supreme entity who they can attain as their nature, and consider these eyes as eminent.

eri . . . – the causal factors of the five elements are representative of the effect factors too [whatever is enjoyed through these five entities]. sarvESvaran has all these as his wealth.

emperumAn – sarvESvaran’s vibhUthis (spiritual and materialistic realms) are the benefits for one. Apart from his auspicious qualities, his vibhUthis are also apt for him.

thanadhu vaigundham annAL – unlike the materialistic realm which is created and destroyed repeatedly, she is like his nithyavibhUthi (SrivaikuNtam) which is never destroyed and which is his natural abode as well as confidential to him.

kaNNay . . . – when such a lady came near me, her eyes, which are the most important limb in her form, which are like the entity AthmA which does not change or does not get destroyed, and which, unlike the AthmA, remain independent and cause harm, indeed harmed me.

aruvinaiyEn – I have carried out such sinful activities that the entity which should protect me, is harming me.

uyirAyina kAvigaLE – when they are with her, they remain as her eyes; when she comes near me, they are like my life.

uyirAyina kAvigaLE – it appeared as if life took a form to harm me.

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): Thus, for the SrIvaishNavas who are enjoying the SrIvaishNavaSrI  (wealth of service to sarvESvaran) of AzhwAr, this gives their position of dhEvum maRRaRiyEn (we do not know of any other deity). They cherish him because of connection with sarvESvaran. This states how his SrIvaishNavaSrI is so complete that they do not cherish sarvESvaran but cherish him. Those who are engaging with charamAvathi (ultimate position) will not engage with prathamAvathi (primary position) [in other words, AchAryan takes precedence over sarvESvaran, which is the underlying principle of SrIvaishNavam]

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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periya thirumozhi – 1.4 – EnamunAgi

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periya thirumozhi >> First Centum

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There are two divine abodes here – SrI badhari and badharIkASramam; among those, bhagavAn’s presence here is similar to that of a nursing mother who consumes medicine to cure the disease of her toddler. emperumAn, as nara rishi, being the well-wisher, performs thapasya (penance) here to reform the chEthanas (bound souls), remains without any shortcoming in him, where our lack of approaching him is the only fault; hence let us go and surrender unto him – says thirumangai AzhwAr to his divine heart. Are there any pAsurams where he instructs his divine heart? Yes, previously he said “vadhari vaNangudhum” (let us worship SrI badhari) in every pAsuram of previous decad and also said in third pAsuram of previous decad “aRidhiyAgil nenjam” (Oh heart! If you are knowledgeable) and in this decad too in fourth pAsuram “thuNivini unakkuch cholluvan manamE” (Oh heart! I am giving you a firm advice) – in this manner, throughout these pAsurams, there are instructions to his divine heart. This is the abode of nArAyaNa (rishi) who bestowed the thirumanthram which he meditated upon and recited previously after highlighting that he received the same.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruviruththam – 65 – kaRRuppiNai

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avathArikai (Introduction)

The nAyakan, caught in the glance of nAyaki, narrates how her eyes harmed him.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kaRRuppiNai malarkkaNNin kulam venRu OrOkarumam
uRRuppayinRu seviyodusAvi ulagamellAm
muRRum vizhungi umizhndha pirAnAr thiruvadikkIzh
uRRumuRAdhum miLirndha kaNNAy emmai uNginRavE

Word-by-Word Meanings

kanRu – being youthful
piNai – doe’s [female deer’s]
malarndha – blossomed
kaNNin – eyes’
kulam – gathering
venRu – being victorious
OrO karumam – one task
uRRu – determining
payinRu – attempting (to do that)
seviyodu – with ears
usAvi – discussing (that task)
ulagamellAm – all the worlds
muRRum – completely
vizhungi – swallowing (during the time of deluge)
umizhndhu – spitting out (during the time of creation)
pirAnAr – benefactor, sarvESvaran’s
thiruvadikkIzh – under his divine feet
uRRum – fitting (with me)
uRAdhum – not fitting
miLirndha – looking radiantly
kaNNAy – having the name ‘eyes’
emmai – us
uNginRa – (two entities) are harming me

Simple Translation

The eyes of the nAyaki, emerging victorious over the eyes of a rangale of deer [a herd of deer], determining to carry out a job and attempting to carry it out, engaged in a discussion with her ears. Despite being present under the divine feet of sarvESvaran who benefitted the worlds by swallowing them (during the time of deluge) and by spitting them out (during the time of creation), the two entities of the nAyaki, called as eyes, are engaging and disengaging with me, harming me in the bargain.

vyAkyAnam

kaRRuppiNaimalar – deer which is young; the eyes of such a young deer.

malarkkaN – eyes which are like flowers, viz. well opened eyes.

kulam venRu – being victorious over the eyes of all young deer.

OrO karumam . . . – thinking of a specific task only, and discussing with ears on that specific task. Instead of engaging with several tasks at the same time, without attachment with any of those, thinking intently about one task alone; just as it has been mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 10-9bOdhayantha: parasparam” (discussing with each other), glancing at only the nAyakan. When he looks at her, she will change her glance and appear to look elsewhere, just as it has been mentioned in thirukkuRaL 1094 “yAnOkkungAlai nilan nOkkum nOkkAkAl thAn nOkki mella nagum” (when I look at her, she will avoid my look and look at the ground below; when I am not looking at her, she will look at me and smile gently).

ulagamellAm . . . – despite being under the divine feet of the protector of all the worlds. The eyes will cause harm in spite of being under his boundary.

uRRum uRAdhum miLirndha – the eyes will look at him, questioningly. If he looks at her with ecstasy, they [the eyes] will change their glance to some other direction and shine lustrously.

kaNNay emmai uNginRavE – A harmful object, allegedly called as eyes, will harm me.

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): This is the situation of SrivaishNavas who are looking at AzhwAr’s situation. The verse kaRRuppiNaimalarkkaNNin kulam venRu refers to innocence regarding what is to be done. OrO karumam uRRup payinRu refers to prapaththi (SaraNAgathi, the act of surrendering to sarvESvaran). Is this not related to knowledge? How is there a connection with the previously stated innocence? Even though prapaththi is manifestation of knowledge, there is a lack of focus in it, due to innocence. The act of prapaththi arises out of one’s true nature as a jIvAthmA and is not to be considered as an effort taken by the jIvAthmA to attain the means.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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