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thiruvAimozhi – 10.4.1 – sArvE thavaneRikku

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Fourth decad

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram, AzhwAr says “The divine feet of emperumAn who owns ubhaya vibhUthi (spiritual and material realm), who is easily approachable for his devotees,  can be attained through bhakthi yOgam”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

sArvE thava neRikkuth thAmOdharan thALgaL
kAr mEga vaNNan kamala nayanaththan
nIr vAnam maN eri kAlAy ninRa nEmiyAn
pEr vAnavargaL pidhaRRum perumaiyanE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kAr mEgam – dark like a black cloud
vaNNan – having form

(contrasting it)
kamalam – like a lotus
nayanaththan – having divine eyes

(not just the physical beauty)
nIr vAnam maN eri kAl Ay ninRa – being the antharAthmA of the whole universe which is highlighted by the pancha bhUthams (the five elements), having the whole universe as prakAra (attribute)
nEmiyAn – having thiruvAzhi (divine chakra) which is the tool for protection
pEr – divine names for such beauty, aptness and protection
vAnavargaL – residents of paramapadham
pidhaRRum – to recite in no particular order, due to overwhelming joy
perumaiyan – one who has greatness

(being the lord of both realms, in this manner)
dhAmodharan – known as dhAmodharan for being obedient towards the devotees (due to being bound by his mother after being caught in stealing butter as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.1maththuRu kadai veNNey kaLavinil uravidai AppuNdu eththiRam“)
thALgaL – divine feet
thava neRikku – bhakthi mArgam which is popularly highlighted in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.5 as “vaNakkudaith thavaneRi”
sArvE – will be the attainable goal.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn who is having a dark form like a black cloud, who is having lotus like divine eyes, is the antharAthmA of the whole universe which is highlighted by the five elements, having the whole universe as attribute; he is having divine chakra which is the tool for protection; he has greatness to be praised by the residents of paramapadham who recite his divine names in no particular order, due to overwhelming joy, which highlight such beauty, aptness and protection; the attainable goal for bhakthi mArgam which is popularly highlighted in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.5 as “vaNakkudaith thavaneRi”, is reaching the divine feet of the one who is known as dhAmodharan for being obedient towards the devotees.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

[This is based on the first explanation highlighted in the pravESam of this decad, where this decad is seen in the context of (sAdhya) bhakthi yOgam]

  • sArvE thava neRikkuth thAmOdharan thALgaL – “thavaneRikku – sArvE” – AzhwAr is saying that the divine feet of emperumAn, who is hailed in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.1 as “paththudai adiyavarkku eLiyavan” (he is easily approachable for devotees who have bhakthi) and in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.2 as “eLivarum iyalvinan” (having natural simplicity), are the goal. sArvu – prApyam (goal).
  • thava neRikku – There, AzhwAr said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.5vaNakkudaith thavaneRi” (bhakthi mArgam which includes worshipping etc) for bhakthi mArgam; he is reiterating it; would “thavaneRi” indicate bhakthi? bhakthi would have “nama:” (worshipping) as a limb as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 9.14namasyanthaScha mAm” (bowing down to me); when the devotee performs obeisances to emperumAn, emperumAn would think “he has put in great efforts” and would consider it as physical hardship – it is based on emperumAn’s opinion that bhakthi is explained as thava neRi. Alternatively – as said in muNdaka upanishath “yasya gyAnamayam thapa:” (this thapas which is in the form of abundant knowledge), since bhakthi is explained as the matured form of gyAna, bhakthi can be said as thapas.
  • dhAmOdharan thALgaL – AzhwAr is reiterating what was said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.1uralinOdu iNaindhirundhu Engiya eLivu” (the simplicity of staying together with the mortar tirelessly and crying out in fear). Having the divine name which reflects his being bound by mother yaSOdhA et al and acquiring the scar; only those who hold on to his divine feet will like him, after he was being bound by mother yaSOdhA et al.

When asked “Who is being very easily approachable?” AzhwAr says “The one who is having distinguished form and who is the owner of ubhaya vibhUthi!”

  • kAr mEga vaNNan – One who has a rejuvenating form which resembles a black cloud which is filled with water. The devotee need not put in any effort for bhakthi. emperumAn is having such an apt form, where he causes the ruchi (taste) in the devotee and subsequently when the bhakthi matures, he remains the goal. His form is said as in thiruvAimozhi 5.3.4kAdhal kadal puraiya viLaiviththa kAr amar mEni” (Our obedient krishNa, who is having cloud like divine form, caused ocean like devotion). Like a rainy season cloud, or a black cloud. AzhwAr is reiterating what is said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.10puyaRkaru niRaththanan” (having blackish hue like that of a black cloud).
  • kamala nayanaththan – His divine eyes will reveal his internal qualities. All his mercy is seen through his eyes. One who has divine eyes which highlight his vAthsalyam (motherly love).

Not only is his beauty attractive, even his supremacy makes one desire for him.

  • nIr vAnam … – AzhwAr is speaking about emperumAn’s svarUpa vailakshaNyam (distinguished nature) on top of his vigraha vailakshaNyam (distinguished physical beauty). AzhwAr is concluding what is said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.3yAvaiyum yAvarum thAnAm amaivudai nAraNan” (SrIman nArAyaNan who sustains all chEthanas (sentient beings) and achEthanas (insentient objects)). By explaining the five great elements starting with earth, AzhwAr is also considering the effects of such elements such as dhEva (celestials) et al; with this, AzhwAr is speaking about leelA vibhUthi (material realm).
  • nEmiyAn – AzhwAr is speaking about emperumAn’s presence in nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm) where he remains with divine chakra in his hand.
  • pEr vAnavargaL – [pEr vAnavargaL – great residents of paramapadham] AzhwAr is speaking about the great personalities in paramapadham instead of those dhEvas who are created here in samsAra; one who has the greatness of being praised by such nithyasUris. Alternatively, it can also be read as “vAnavargaL – pEr – pidhaRRum perumaiyan” (one whose name is praised by the residents of paramapadham). Those who have taste here, will also praise him; those who are already present in paramapadham, enjoying him fully, will also praise him. One who is having black cloud like form, who has lotus eyes, who is the one with chakra and is having water, ether, earth, fire and air as his prakAra, who is praised by the great residents of paramapadham; the divine feet of such dhAmOdhara are the goal of bhakthi mArgam; this is certain.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 61 (Names 601 to 610)

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<< Part 60

601) vrushabhAksha: (वृषभाक्षः)

bhagavAn maintains the cycle of fruits of karma through dharma. Thus, he is called ‘vrushabhAksha:’. The one who bestows (rains) fruits of karma is called ‘vrushabha:’. He is verily the dharma, and acts as the pivot to this wheel of samsAra. Thus, he is himself called ‘vrushabhAksha:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn, who is verily the form of dharma, acts as the pivot to this wheel of samsAra, he is called ‘vrushabhAksha:’.

यतॊsक्षॊ वृषभॊ धर्मॊ वृषभाक्षः स उच्यतॆ |

602) vrushapriya: (वृषप्रियः)

In this way (as explained in these previous divine names), bhagavAn holds both pravruththi dharma (that which enhances experiences in samsAra) as well as nivruththi dharma (that which instigates liberation from this samsAra) close to his heart.

Thus, he is called ‘vrushapriya:’ – the one who likes dharmas.

Although pravruththi dharma contains acts that bind a soul in this samsAra, yet it is called ‘dharma’ only because bhagavAn holds it close to his heart. Similarly the nivruththi dharma is also ‘dharma’ or righteous.

Even the scriptural injunctions clearly indicate that both of these are likeable to bhagavAn.

It is shown thus in the brahma sUthras by bhagavan vEdhavyAsa: “Fruits are begotten from bhagavAn, for it is proven so”

dhramidAchArya has also reinforced this further by saying “Individual souls who desire of certain outcomes act accordingly and only please bhagavAn. That bhagavAn, who is pleased with such righteous actions, bestows the desired fruits upon the seekers. Even the scriptures hail thus”

Thus, the schools of thought that propound the bestowing of fruits by karma (action itself), its samskAra (its sacredness), its power, the apUrvas (entities said to be born out of scriptural actions, believed to bestow the fruits by other schools of thought), etc are clearly refuted (meaning, none of these insentient entities grant the fruits. It is only bhagavAn who is pleased with such actions in accordance with his commandments who bestows the fruits, according to this divine name).

Etymology: The pravarthaka and nivarthaka dharmas are very dear to bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘vrushapriya:’. This eight syllable manthra bestows all fruits upon the seekers.

धर्मौ प्रियौ तावस्यॆति प्रवर्तकनिवर्तकौ |
वृषप्रियः स विज्ञॆयॊ ह्यष्टार्णः फलदॊ मनुः ||

================================
अनिवर्ती निवृत्तात्मा संक्षॆप्ता क्षॆमकृच्छिवः ।
श्रीवत्सवक्षाः श्रीवासः श्रीपतिः श्रीमतांवरः ॥ ६४ ॥
================================

603) anivarthI (अनिवर्ती)

Of the two categories, bhagavAn binds the souls who are inclined towards pravruththi dharma in this samsAra by putting them on the path of repeated cycles of birth and death in the dhUmAdhi mArga (the route leading to lowly planets). Thus, he is called ‘anivarthI’ – the one who causes the souls not to return.

By grammatical rules, the ‘Nini:’ (णिनिः) adjunct is used in this divine name. The same rule applies to other divine names such as ‘kAmI’ कामी (659), etc.

That is how the souls desiring material pleasures are bound in this samsAra.

This is shown in the scriptures thus:

  • “When the soul traverses the path of dhUma (smoke), rAthri (darkness), dhakshiNAyanam (the six months of dakshiNAyana), etc (which is collectively called ‘dhUmAdhi mArgam’), then the practitioner of such dharmas shall attain the effulgence of the moon for a certain period of time and return to this world”
  • “Having travelled to different worlds and enjoyed the fruits of various karmas, the individual soul returns to this world in order to exhaust the remnant karmas”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn clearly binds the souls desiring material pleasures in this samsAra, thereby preventing them from returning, he is called ‘anivarthI’. This eight syllable manthra confers fear of samsAra among the chanters.

पितृयाणप्रवृत्तानां संसारादनिवर्तनात् |
अनिवर्ती समाख्यातॊ ह्यष्टार्णॊ भयदॊ मनुः ||

604) nivruththAthmA (निवृत्तात्मा) (also repeated in 231, 453, and 780)

Although bhagavAn himself establishes the pravruththi dharmas and promotes it, yet he holds those individual souls very close to his heart – who practice the nivruththi dharma (leading to mOksham).

Such souls practicing nivruththi dharma by disengaging from actions that lead to lowly fruits (and desire only for bhagavAn and nothing else) are so dear to him that he considers them as verily his souls!

Thus, he is called ‘nivruththAthmA’.

Etymology: He, who holds all such individuals who practice the nivruththi dharma as verily his souls, is called ‘nivruththAthmA’. This eight syllable manthra destroys all effects of bad karmas of the chanter.

सर्वॆ निवृत्तिधर्माणॊ यस्यात्मानः स तु स्मृतः |
निवृत्तात्मॆत्यष्टवर्णॊ दुष्कर्मफलमॊचकः ||

605) samkshEpthA (संक्षॆप्ता)

bhagavAn causes the natural knowledge of such individual souls who pursue lowly material benefits to shrink, thereby causing them to cycle in this wheel of samsAra. Thus, he is called ‘samkshEpthA’ – the one who causes to shrink.

This is hailed in the vishNu purANa thus: “…The Sakthi called ‘avidhyA’ or ignorance is the third type of Sakthi that bhagavAn possesses, with which the true knowledge of an individual soul is bound in this samsAra”.

Etymology: He – who possesses the quality of preventing the spreading of the otherwise naturally unbounded knowledge among the practitioners of pravruththi dharma – is called ‘samkshEpthA’. The chanting of this six lettered manthra causes one’s knowledge to be expanded.

स्वाभाविकासङ्कुचित-मॆधायाश्चाप्रस्रारणम् |
प्रवृत्तिधर्माणां कर्तुं शीलं यस्यास्ति सर्वदा |
स संक्षॆप्तॆति कथितः षडर्णॊ धीविकासदः ||

606) kshEmakruth (क्षॆमकृत्)

On the other hand, bhagavAn also prevents the shrinking of such knowledge in the mumukshus treading the path of nivruththi dharmas. He always safeguards such knowledge so that it is always expanded, thereby granting full knowledge upon the souls desiring liberation. Thus, he is called ‘kshEmakruth’ – the one who is beneficial.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn looks after the welfare of noble men (mumukshus) by causing their knowledge to expand fully, he is called ‘kshEmakruth’.

असङ्कॊचज्ञानरूप-क्षॆमस्य करणात् सताम् |
क्षॆमकृच्चापि सर्वॆषाम् |

607) Siva: (शिवः) (also repeated in 27)

Thus, bhagavAn always confers all favourable fruits to all souls who desire material benefits as well as liberation. Thus, he is called ‘Siva:’.

The scriptures hail thus:

  • “bhagavAn is the cause for both binding in samsAra as well as liberation to mOksha”
  • “He rules over the world of pithrus”
  • “He is auspicious to the noble men and inauspicious to the corrupt”, et al.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the benefactor of auspiciousness (to all kinds of souls), he is called ‘Siva:’.

शिवस्य करणात् शिवः |

608) SrIvathsavakshA: (श्रीवत्सवक्षाः)

Thence, the forthcoming divine names show how bhagavAn achieves such bestowal of favourable outcomes upon all souls. He takes care of all souls because of his eternal relation with his divine consort SrI mahAlakshmi.

bhagavAn has a mark on his chest, which is called ‘SrIvathsa’ (श्रीवत्सः), which gives away his sole lordship over all worlds, as well as his eternal relation with SrI mahAlakshmi, and hence acts as a mark of utmost prosperity. Thus, he is called ‘SrIvathsavakshA:’.

Sri mahAlakshmi has verily this ‘SrIvathsa’ as Her seat on his chest.

The SrImath rAmAyaNam itself gives this divine name ‘SrIvathsavakshA:’ to bhagavAn.

Etymology: The sign of utmost prosperity showing the eternal relation of bhagavAn with SrI mahAlakshmi, ‘SrIvathsa’ by name – is seen on bhagavAn’s chest. Hence, he is called ‘SrIvathsavakshA:’.

लक्ष्मीवाल्लभ्यसौभाग्यचिह्नं श्रीवत्सनामकम् |
श्रीवत्सवक्षाः अस्यास्ति वक्षसीति स तु स्मृतः ||

609) SrIvAsa: (श्रीवासः)

The attribute of bhagavAn by which he is called ‘nithyaSrI:’ (नित्यश्रीः) is shown in this divine name ‘SrIvAsa:’. bhagavAn’s divine chest is verily the beautiful garden filled with all auspicious trees such as kalpavruksha and other nice floral plants for SrI mahAlakshmi, where she relaxes at all times.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn (his divine chest) is verily the pleasure garden for SrI mahAlakshmi, he is called ‘SrIvAsa:’.

श्रियॊ विहारस्थानत्वात् श्रीवास इति चॊच्यतॆ |

610) SrIpathi: (श्रीपतिः)

Just as SrImath rAmAyaNa celebrates the divine couple by saying “Befitting in all ways such as character, age and deeds, and also in the ways they protect their devotees, that SrI rAma is befitting of this vaidhEhi and she also rightly deserves that SrI rAma as her consort”, that bhagavAn is the most deserving consort of SrIdhEvi SrI mahAlakshmi.

The vEdhas also glorify this divine relation thus:

  • “Oh bhagavAn, SrIdhEvi and bhUdhEvi (and NeeLA dhEvi) are your divine consorts”
  • “…(SrI mahAlakshmi is) the mistress of all worlds, and the divine consort of vishNu”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is verily the divine consort of SrIdhEvi, he is called ‘SrIpathi:’.

स्वयं श्रियःपतित्वॆन वृत्तत्वात् श्रीपतिः स्मृतः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
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pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 49

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நாலூர் பிள்ளைக்கு அவர் தாம் நல்ல மகனார்க்கு அவர் தாம்

மேலோர்க்கு ஈந்தார் அவரே மிக்கு 

நாற்பத்தொன்பதாம் பாசுரம். ஈடு வ்யாக்யானம் எவ்வாறு தன் ஆசார்யரனான திருவாய்மொழிப் பிள்ளை அளவும் வந்தடைந்தது என்பதை விளக்குகிறார்.

சிறியாழ்வான் அப்பிள்ளை என்ற ஈயுண்ணி மாதவப் பெருமாள் நம்பிள்ளையிடம் இருந்து பெற்ற ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தை தன்னுடைய திருக்குமாரரான ஈயுண்ணி பத்மனாபப் பெருமாளுக்கு நன்றாகக் கற்றுக் கொடுத்தார். இவரும் பெருமாள் கோயில் என்று சொல்லப்படும் காஞ்சீபுரத்திலே வாழ்ந்த காலத்திலே, நாலூர் பிள்ளை இவர் திருவடிகளிலே பல கைங்கர்யங்களைச் செய்து, இவரின் அன்புக்கு இலக்காகி, இவரிடமிருந்து ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தைக் கற்றுக் கொண்டார். பின்பு, தன்னுடைய திருக்குமாரரான நாலூராச்சான் பிள்ளைக்குக் கற்றுக் கொடுத்தார். ஆழ்வார்திருநகரி திவ்யதேசத்தைத் திருத்திப் பொலிந்து நின்ற பிரான், நம்மாழ்வார் ஸந்நிதிகளைப் புனர் நிர்மாணம் செய்து பவிஷ்யதாசார்யரான எம்பெருமானாருக்கு ஒரு திருக்கோயிலும் நிர்மாணித்துப் பல கைங்கர்யங்களைச் செய்து வந்த திருவாய்மொழிப் பிள்ளை ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தைக் கற்றுக் கொள்ளும் ஆசையுடன் காஞ்சீபுரத்துக்கு வந்து சேர, தேவப்பெருமாள் தாமே ஆணையிட நாலூராச்சான் பிள்ளை திருவாய்மொழிப் பிள்ளைக்கும், திருவாய்மொழி ஆச்சானுக்கும், ஆயி ஜநந்யாசார்யருக்கும் திருநாராயணபுரத்தில் வைத்து ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தைக் கற்றுக் கொடுத்தார். இப்படித் திருவாய்மொழிப் பிள்ளை உபதேசமாகப் பெற்ற ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தையே பெரிய நிதியைப் போலே மணவாள மாமுனிகளுக்கு அளித்தார்.

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.4 – sArvE

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Full series >> Tenth Centum

<< Previous decad

Audio

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the fourth decad, AzhwAr manifests unnecessary doubt of separation from ISvara even while he was together with him; for such AzhwAr, due to his overwhelming love towards emperumAn, emperumAn gave union which is devoid of any separation and brought clarity in AzhwAr’s mind; becoming satisfied, he determined “he will remain easily approachable for those who are devoted to him” and to express his acquiring such bhakthi, AzhwAr highlights the following aspects about emperumAn:

  1. his obedience along with supremacy and enjoyability
  2. he being the lord of SrI mahAlakshmi, which is the root cause for that
  3. his completeness in being enjoyable
  4. his firmness in protecting his devotees
  5. he being easily approachable for those who have no refuge
  6. his great simplicity
  7. he having enjoyable form
  8. his eternally enjoyable protection
  9. he revealing truth in its real form
  10. he being the goal for everyone

Meditating upon these aspects, he becomes pleased thinking about the bhakthi he acquired towards such sarvESvaran which remains as the tool for enjoyment and becomes part of the goal.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

[First section – this decad is explained in context of (sAdhya) bhakthi yOgam [bhakthi as devotional service]]

Previously – while emperumAn did not have any thought of leaving AzhwAr , AzhwAr became worried due to unnecessary doubt about such separation, and became anguished; emperumAn pacified such AzhwAr saying “I will never separate from you”; AzhwAr sustained himself and became pleased.

In the first decad (thiruvAimozhi 1.1) , AzhwAr fully explained about thathvam (true entities, mainly ISvara thathvam); now, that thathvam will remain the goal as well. The nature of that goal and the result of such attainment of the goal, which is kainkaryam were contemplated by AzhwAr in thiruvAimozhi 10.2.8padam udai aravil paLLi payinRavan” (one who is reclining on hooded serpent mattress) and in thiruvAimozhi 10.2.9kadaiththalai sIykkap peRRAl” (If we get to sweep his temple entrance) respectively. As that goal was not attained immediately and due to the memory of previous lengthy separation, AzhwAr became anguished; emperumAn considered that incidental sorrow and pacified AzhwAr and AzhwAr became pacified in thiruvAimozhi 10.3vEymaRu thOLiNai“.

Thus, in the first decad (thiruvAimozhi 1.1), AzhwAr explained everything that is to be known about thathvam; as that ISvara himself is the goal, he explained the means to attain him, i.e. bhakthi yOgam in thiruvAimozhi 1.2vIdumin muRRavum“; he further explained emperumAn as being easily approachable for such devoted persons, highlighting his saulabhyam (easy approachability) in thiruvAimozhi 1.3paththudai adiyavar“. In this manner, explaining the way bhakthi [yOgam] which was explained in vIdumin muRRam and paththudai adiyavar, leading to AzhwAr’s goal (emperumAn), recollecting the qualities [of emperumAn] which increased such bhakthi, AzhwAr concludes with prapaththi (surrender) which was explained as the means for his own goal in the first decad [“aruLinan” in first pAsuram, where, by emperumAn’s mercy, AzhwAr surrendered unto him], here. [We can recollect emperumAnAr explaining vIdumin muRRavum in the context of prapaththi in the earlier times and subsequent to writing SrI bhAshyam, he would explain this decad in the context of bhakthi, to hide the confidential matter from others. So, while the bhakthi explained by AzhwAr in vIdumin muRRavum and paththudai adiyavar is sAdhya bhakthi (bhakthi as devotional service) and not as sAdhana bhakthi (means), it can be understood here that bhakthi generally leads to prapaththi and after prapaththi, one will continue performing bhakthi as service. This is explained in great detail in thiruvAimozhi 1.2]

Though AzhwAr has both bhakthi and prapaththi, he considers prapaththi as the only means for the attainment of his goal. Is there any indication of prapaththi in the first decad? He said “aruLinan” in first pAsuram. Now, AzhwAr’s bhakthi is not the same as bhakthi yOgam which is ordained in vEdhAntham; if we consider it to be bhakthi yOgam, then that will contradict with apaSudhrAdhikaraNa nyAyam [SUdhras (persons of 4th varNam) cannot engage in sAdhana bhakthi] [This principle is explained in detail in thiruvAimozhi 1.2]; can we not attribute bhakthi yOgam to him based on his greatness [though he is ineligible for the same]? If we try to do that, it will contradict his own words. His words are along the lines [the concept of prapaththi] as said in “aruLinan” [he granted mercifully]. As said in ALavandhAr’s Athma sidhdhi “ubhaya parikarmitha svAnthasya aikAnthikAthyanthika bhakthiyOgaika labhya:” (bhagavAn is attainable through bhakthi yOgam which is acquired by the heart which was purified by karma and gyAna yOgam), bhakthi is acquired by the one whose heart is purified by karma and gyAna; for AzhwAr, in the place of such gyAna and karma, bhagavAn’s mercy is present and he further acquired parabhakthi [full knowledge] etc [paragyAnam (visualisation) and paramabhakthi (final stage before reaching bhagavAn)]. Further, bhAshyakArar (emperumAnAr) who followed AzhwAr’s footsteps and aimed for AzhwAr’s goal, performed prapaththi and subsequently prayed for bhakthi etc [in SaraNAgathi gadhyam]. Though bhagavAn is the means, if the AthmA has ruchi (taste), that will lead to the attainment of the goal; otherwise, this would not be considered as purushArtham (goal desired by the AthmA); bhagavAn will be the prApaka (means) only for the one who has clearly determined the goal and has unflinching desire for the goal; this is why, AzhwAr’s bhakthi and prapaththi are indeterminable. Thus, AzhwAr explains how the bhakthi which was instructed by him in vIdumin muRRavum and paththudai adiyavar for others, has become the means for the goal, and concludes here by saying how it led to the attainment of the goal. When asked “Can it not be said to have led to the attainment only after the actual attainment [that is reaching paramapadham]?” for now, it is sufficient to be able to visualise that vision; this is similar to how an upAsaka (bhakthi yOga practioner) will enjoy bhagavAn with his qualities here itself as bhagavAn’s qualities are to be enjoyed ultimately. Hence, even during the pursuit stage, there is nothing wrong in meditating upon the enjoyability of the qualities. But “didn’t AzhwAr meditate upon the attainment all along?” Previously, he enjoyed different qualities in different decads; there is a practice of summarising what was highlighted in the beginning; that summarisation is happening here.

[Based on piLLAn’s explanation]

Alternatively – piLLAn once explained it as follows. parAnguSa nAyaki said “Don’t go to tend the cows”; he responded “OK; I am not going”; “He is not easy to attain; is it not confirmed that he can only be attained by bhakthi?”

[Based on ALavandhAr’s explanation – this decad is explained in context of prapaththi]

Further, in the first decad, he explained the goal; for that goal, in vEdhAntham, two aspects viz bhakthi and prapaththi are ordained as means; among those two, the bhakthi [yOgam] explained there can only be pursued by thraivarNika (brAmaNa, kshathriya and vaiSya); prapaththi, is sarvAdhikAram (can be pursued by all). In these, prapaththi, which is sarvAdhikAram and accepted as the means by him was mercifully explained in vIdumin muRRavum.  bhakthi which can be pursued by thraivarNikas was mercifully explained in paththudai adiyavar. Thus, AzhwAr explains how bhakthi and prapaththi which were explained in the two decads are leading to the goal in this decad sArvE thavaneRi and the next decad kaNNan kazhaliNai respectively. Among these, in this decad, AzhwAr mercifully explaining how prapaththi leads to the goal is explained. In “sArvE thavaneRikkuth thAmOdharan thaLgaL“, the word “thavam” (thapas) indicates prapaththi. prapaththi is explained as the greatest thapas in thaiththirIya upanishath “thasmAn nyAsam EshAm thapasAm athirikthamAhu:” (Hence, among the penances, surrender is the greatest). The principle explained in SrI bhagavath gIthA 18.66sarva dharmAn parithyajya mAmEkam SaraNam vraja I aham thvA sarva pApebhyO mOkshayishyAmi mA Sucha: II” (leave aside all the righteous paths (as means of attaining mOksham) with their traces and hold on only to me as the means; I will liberate you from all your sins. Do not grieve) is mercifully explained by AzhwAr in the 9th pAsuram of this decad “paNdE paraman paNiththa paNi vagaiyE – kaNdEn – kamala malarp pAdham, kANdalumE viNdE ozhindha vinaiyAyina ellAm” (I have seen bhagavAn’s lotus like divine feet through his confidential instructions given and my puNya and pApa fully went away from me) and 2nd pAsuram “irumai vinai kadindhu ingu ennai ALginRAn” (eliminating my puNya and pApa, he accepts my service everyday in this world itself).

thirumAlai ANdAn would explain as heard from ALavandhAr that vIdumin muRRavum is explaining prapaththi. udaiyavar too would mercifully explain the same way. But after mercifully composing SrI bhAshyam, he thought “we cannot reveal the confidential means [prapaththi]” and mercifully explained vIdumin muRRavum in the context of [sAdhya] bhakthi [bhakthi as devotional service].

Thus, the nature of the goal which is explained in the first decad (thiruvAimozhi 1.1) and the resulting kainkaryam after reaching the goal, was mercifully explained in thiruvAimozhi 10.2.8padam udai aravil paLLi payinRavan” (one who is reclining on hooded serpent mattress) and in thiruvAimozhi 10.2.9kadaiththalai sIykkap peRRAl” (If we get to sweep his temple entrance); AzhwAr removed the weeds in such kainkaryam by saying in thiruvAimozhi 10.3.9 “idar kedundhORum nAngaL viyakka inbuRudhum” (If your sorrows are eliminated, we will be abundantly joyful) indicating the meaning of “nama:” in the second part of dhvaya mahA manthram, concluded the meanings of first decad in kedumidar and vEymaRu thOLiNai; and in sArvE thava neRi (this decad) and kaNNan kazhal iNai (next decad) AzhwAr is mercifully explaining the principle of bhakthi and prapaththi culminating into the goal, which was explained in vIdumin muRRavum and paththudai adiyavar – this is explained by thirumAlai ANdAn as mercifully explained by ALavandhAr.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 60 (Names 591 to 600)

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591) SAnthi: (शान्तिः)

Among such firmly placed devotees, bhagavAn causes them to forget all their false identities with lower deeds and soothes them by fixing their minds in himself. Thus, he is called ‘SAnthi:’.

Etymology: Since all other engagements of the devotees of bhagavAn who have firmly fixed their minds in him are purged in their deep state of meditation called ‘samAdhi’, he is called ‘SAnthi:’. This six lettered manthra is capable of conferring highest devotion towards bhagavAn unto the chanters.

सर्वाधिकाराः शाम्यन्ति समाधौ परमॆ यतः |
अतः शान्तिरिति प्रॊक्तः ऋत्वर्णॊ भक्तिदॊ मनुः ||

592) parAyaNam (परायणम्)

Not just that; bhagavAn further enhances true devotion towards himself – which confers the supreme abode – amongst such souls who have stabilized their minds thus (as shown in the previous divine names). Thus, he is called ‘parAyaNam’ – the one who shows the way to the supreme abode.

bhagavAn himself declares this in the bhagavath gIthA thus:

  • “He who gives up the ills of wrong perception of self, strength, ego, desire, anger and greed, and meditates without even a trace of selflessness and with a completely calmed mind, is fit to enjoy the supreme brahman. Such a seeker has a happy mind, and neither desires for any pleasure nor worries for any sorrows. He treats all beings alike, and eventually attains the supreme devotion towards me, which will uplift him”
  • “Oh arjuna, I am not accessible otherwise to such persons who are not equipped with such pure devotion unto me. Such souls (who do not possess such pure devotion) can neither know me, nor see me; they cannot attain me either”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn himself instigates the highest devotion towards himself, which eventually becomes the tool to attain him, he is called ‘parAyaNam’.

यस्मात्तु परमाभक्तिः चरमा प्रापिका मता |
तस्मात् परायणमिति स्मृतॊ ह्यष्टार्ण उत्तमः ||

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शुभाङ्गः शान्तिदः स्रष्टा कुमुदः कुवलॆशयः ।
गॊहितॊ गॊपतिर्गॊप्ता वृषभाक्षॊ वृषप्रियः ॥ ६३ ॥
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593) SubhAnga: (शुभाङ्गः) (also repeated in 788)

For such a focused devotion / bhakthi, since bhagavAn himself bestows the eight limbs of yOga right from ‘yama’ up till ‘samAdhi’, he is called ‘SubhAnga:’ – the one who bestows the auspicious limbs of yOga.

He only takes care of attainment and safeguarding of the needs of his devotees in reaching him.

Etymology: He who bestows the auspicious eight limbs of yOga such as yama, niyama etc in order to instigate devotion towards himself (as seen in previous divine names) is called ‘SubhAnga:’. This seven lettered manthra bestows the power to meditate unto its chanters.

स्वभक्त्युद्भव-कल्याण-यमाद्यष्टाङ्गसम्भवः |
यः स्यात् शुभाङ्गः स प्रॊक्तः सप्तार्णॊ ध्यानदायकः ||

594) SAnthidha: (शान्तिदः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn bestows eternal peace unto those souls who have developed such pure devotion towards him, by keeping them united with him at all times in his supreme abode, and thus relieving them from the sorrows of the cycles of birth and death.

Thus, he is called ‘SAnthidha:’ – the one who bestows peace.

The SvEthAsvathara upanishath hails thus: “Knowing that auspicious entity SrIman nArAyaNa, who solely pervades all of the worlds, he (the individual soul) attains eternal peace”

bhagavAn also declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “With my grace, you shall attain the supreme abode, which is both eternal and peaceful”

The vEdhas also hail thus: “Having realized that supreme soul bhagavAn, who is the sole master of all worlds and the bestower of desires, the individual soul attains eternal peace”

Etymology: Since bhagavAn bestows the highly blissful and eternal peace unto those souls who have thus (as shown in the previous divine names) developed pure devotion towards him, which comes from their eternal association with bhagavAn in SrIvaikuNtam, he is called ‘SAnthidha:’.

एवं निष्पन्नभक्तिभ्यः शान्तिं सायुज्यसंज्ञिकाम् |
महानन्दां ददातीति शान्तिदः परिकीर्तितः ||

595) srashtA (स्रष्टा) (also repeated in 990)

Even while liberating the ‘mumukshu’s (souls desiring liberation) thus (as shown in the previous divine name), bhagavAn continues to make the other souls (who desire to be in this samsAra) to be born in this samsAra according to their previous karma. Thus, he is called ‘srashtA’ – the creator.

The root ‘sruj’ सृज् (to create) gets the ‘am’ (अम्) adjunct as per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He who makes the souls who are not interested in liberation to be born in this samsAra according to their karma is called ‘srashtA’.

कर्मवैचित्र्यतः सृज्यान् स्रष्टा स्यात् सृजतीति यः |

596) kumudha: (कुमुदः) (also repeated in 813)

The letter ‘ku’ (कु) refers to the prakruthi maNdalam (this leelA vibhUthi), which is the land of enjoyment of both higher as well as lower sensations (as per karma) like sight, sound, touching, etc for all souls who desire to continue in this samsAra. Since bhagavAn satisfies such souls in this leelA vibhUthi by giving them such enjoyments, and thus enjoys himself, he is called ‘kumudha:’.

As per the grammatical rules, the ‘ka:’ (कः) adjunct is used in this divine name.

The SvEthAsvathara upanishath hails thus:

  • “The servile individual soul gets tied up (in this samsAra) in order to enjoy (the fruits of karma)”
  • “The supreme soul and the individual soul are both eternal, and are respectively the most knowledgeable and the ignorant. They are also respectively the master and servant by nature”, etc.

Etymology: He, who himself always enjoys by making the individual souls (who are not interested in mOksham) enjoy the fruits of their actions in this prakruthi maNdalam (ku), is called ‘kumudha:’.

कौ प्राकृतॆ मण्डलॆsस्मिन् स्वभॊक्तॄनपि भॊजयन् |
मॊदतॆ यः सर्वकालं कुमुदः स तु गीयतॆ ||

597) kuvalESaya: (कुवलॆशयः)

In this divine name, the letter ‘ku’ (कु) means ‘condemned’. The root ‘valanthE’ (वलन्तॆ) means to keep coming around in a certain enclosure, which is this ‘samsAra’. Thus, the word ‘kuvala:’ (कुवलः) refers to a condemned individual soul who does not take interest in liberation and keeps cycling in this wheel of samsAra. Such fallen souls consider themselves as the masters of their own body, senses, etc. Thus, they are contextually called as ‘kuvalESA:’ (कुवलॆशाः).

Since bhagavAn is the one who governs even such fallen souls and eventually attains them, he is called ‘kuvalESaya:’. The word ‘yAthi’ (याति) refers to attainment of such souls.

Etymology: The individual souls whose boundaries are condemned (whose boundary is this samsAra) are called ‘kuvalA:’. Since they consider themselves as the masters of their body, senses, etc, (and are driven by material pursuits), they are called ‘kuvalESA:’. He who governs even such fallen souls and eventually attains them is called ‘kuvalESaya:’.

वलं यॆषां कुत्सितं तॆ कुवलाः जीवसंज्ञिताः |
दॆहॆन्द्रियादॆरीशास्तॆ कुवलॆशा इति स्मृताः |
यस्तान् नियच्छन् यात्यॆष कुवलॆशय उच्यतॆ ||

598) gOhitha: (गॊहितः)

The word ‘gO’ (गॊ) in this divine name refers to ‘prakruthi’. It is the place (field) where bhagavAn sows the seed of samsAra. Since he maintains the welfare of this prakruthi, he is called ‘gOhitha:’.

The SvEthAsvathara upanishath hails thus: “He who establishes all these various births in this samsAra, and in whom all these entities merge at the time of deluge, that sole master of all entities must be meditated upon”

It is said thus in other scriptures:

  • “The word ‘gau:’ (गौः) refers to the primordial nature (प्रकृतिः), which has no beginning or no end to it. It is the cause (material cause) for all these creations, and it is the place where all these entities are nurtured”
  • “All of these worlds are established by him, and all the end results are also established by him”, etc.

Etymology: He who establishes (makes manifest) the primordial nature or prakruthi, which is the field of cultivation for the seed of samsAra, (and thus looks after its welfare) is called ‘gOhitha:’.

संसारबीजक्षॆत्रस्य प्रकृतॆः स्थापकश्च यः स गॊहितः |

599) gOpathi: (गॊपतिः) (also repeated in 497)

bhagavAn is also the master of swarga, which is the land of superior enjoyments (in comparison to our own world). Thus, he is called ‘gOpathi:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘gOpathi:’ owing to his mastership over the swarga lOka as well.

स्वर्गभूमॆः पतित्वात् गॊपतिः स्मृतः |

600) gOpthA (गॊप्ता) (also repeated in 498)

bhagavAn further protects this cycle of the fruits of karma (namely birth and death) for all individual souls (who are not interested in mOksham). Thus, he is called ‘gOpthA’.

Etymology: He is called ‘gOpthA’, who looks after maintaining the cycle of fruits of karma.

गॊप्ता स यः कर्मफलचक्रस्य परिपालकः |

Thus ends the sixth centum (shashta Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hAritha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnka miSra (kUraththAzhwan) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The sixth centum is completed.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 48

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சீரார் வடக்குத் திருவீதிப் பிள்ளை எழுது

ஏரார் தமிழ் வேதத்து ஈடு தனை தாரும் என

வாங்கி முன் நம்பிள்ளை ஈயுண்ணி மாதவர்க்குத்

தாம் கொடுத்தார் பின் அதனைத் தான்

நாற்பத்தெட்டாம் பாசுரம். இப்படி வ்யாக்யானங்களைக் காட்டி அருளிய பின்பு, இரண்டு பாசுரங்களில் நம்பிள்ளையின் உயர்ந்த ஸ்ரீஸூக்திகளான ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தின் சரித்ரத்தை அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

ஆசார்யன் க்ருபையாலே கிடைத்த ஞான பூர்த்தியாகிய பெருமையைப் பெற்றிருந்த வடக்குத் திருவீதிப் பிள்ளை ஏடுபடுத்திய தமிழ் வேதமான திருவாய்மொழியின் பொருளை விரிவாக விளக்கக்கூடிய பெருமையைப் பெற்றதான ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தை இவரிடமிருந்து நம்பிள்ளை “இதை இப்பொழுது வெளியிடுவதற்குச் சரியான காலமில்லை. இது பிற்காலத்திலே ஒரு மஹநீயர் மூலமாக நன்றாக ப்ரசாரம் ஆகி புகழின் உச்சியை அடையும். ஆகையால் இப்பொழுது இதை என்னிடம் தாரும்” என்று சொல்லி முற்காலத்திலே வாங்கி, பின்பு தம்முடைய அன்புக்கு இலக்கான ப்ரிய சிஷ்யரான ஈயுண்ணி மாதவப் பெருமாளிடத்திலே கொடுத்தருளினார். ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தை ஓராண் வழி க்ரமத்திலே அந்தரங்கமாக உபதேசித்து வருமாறு அவர்க்கு ஆணையிட்டார். 

பிற்காலத்திலே மணவாள மாமுனிகள் ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தைத் தன் ஆசார்யரான திருவாய்மொழிப் பிள்ளையிடம் கற்றறிந்து அதை உலகறியும்படிச் செய்து, திருவரங்கம் பெரிய கோயிலிலே நம்பெருமாளின் திருவாணைக்கு இணங்கி நம்பெருமாள் தானும் தன் பரிவாரங்களுடன் ஒரு வருட காலம் காலக்ஷேபமாக மாமுனிகள் திருவாயிலிருந்து இதை காலக்ஷேபமாகக் கேட்டு அனுபவிக்கும்படி, அங்கே உபந்யஸித்தார். நம்பெருமாளும் தானே மாமுனிகளை ஆசார்யனாக ஏற்று, மாமுனிகளுக்கு “ஸ்ரீசைலேச தயாபாத்ரம்” தனியனையும் ஸமர்ப்பித்து இத்தனியனை திவ்யப்ரபந்த ஸேவாகால க்ரமத்தில் முதலிலும் முடிவிலும் ஸேவிக்க நியமித்தான் என்பதும் ஜகத்ப்ரஸித்தமான சரித்ரம்.

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 59 (Names 581 to 590)

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581) thrisAmA (त्रिसामा)

The three types of sAmas namely bruhath (बृहत्), rathanthara (रथन्तरः) and vAmadhEvya (वामदॆव्यः) sing the glories of bhagavAn, he is called ‘thrisAmA’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘thrisAmA’ since he is glorified by the three sAmas such as bruhath and others.

प्रॊक्तस्त्रिसामा यस्मात् सः बृहदादि त्रिसामकः |

582) sAmaga: (सामगः)

With utmost delight in enjoying himself, since bhagavAn himself sings those sAmas (shown in the previous divine name), he is called ‘sAmaga:’. As per the grammatical rules, the root ‘gA’ गा (to sing) gets the ‘tak’ (टक्) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘ga:’ (गः) to mean ‘the one who sings’.

With such delighting experience only does bhagavAn make the individual souls sing the sAma at his supreme abode SrIvaikuNtam. This is shown in the thaiththirIya upanishath thus: “Thence they keep singing this sAma thus… hA vu hA vu hA vu…”

Etymology: He who sings the sAmas with utmost delight by enjoying himself is called ‘sAmaga:’.

स्वयं स्वानुभवप्रीत्या गायतीति च सामगः |

583) sAma: (सामः)

Also, bhagavAn wards off all the sins of the ones who sing his glories with such sAmas. Thus, he is called ‘sAma:’.

The root ‘shO’ (षॊ) gets the meaning of ‘ending’ and gets the ‘manin’ (मनिन्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: The one who destroys the blemishes of those who sing his glories (with the sAmagAna) is called ‘sAma:’.

स्वगायकानां कालुष्यं स्यति यः साम कथ्यतॆ |

584) nirvANam (निर्वाणम्)

Even in this way, since bhagavAn becomes the cause of attainment of the supreme abode unto those who are ridden of their sins (and thus all karma), he is called ‘nirvANam’.

This follows the rule of pAnini’s aphorism that reads “निर्वाणॊsवातॆ” (ashtAdhyAyi), to mean ‘the one who has left (this samsAra) forever’.

Etymology: The one who is the cause of attainment of the supreme abode for those who are ridden of all sins is called ‘nirvANam’.

निर्वाणं स्यात् परगतॆः निमित्तं निर्गतैनसाम् |

585) bhEshajam (भॆषजम्)

Thus, bhagavAn himself acts as the supreme medicine for the dreaded disease called ‘samsAra’.

The bhishma sthavarAja hails thus: “With his grace, the rishis, sidhdhas, great serpent gods, dhEvas, dhEvarishis et al know him to be the medicine for all sorrows”

Etymology: He who is the best medicine for the dreaded disease of ‘samsAra’ is called ‘bhEshajam’.

असाध्य भवरॊगस्य भॆषजं यत्सदौषधम् |

586) bhishak (भिषक्)

bhagavAn is the one who knows very well regarding the best treatment for eliminating this disease of samsAra from its root. Thus, he is called ‘bhishak’ – the divine physician.

Etymology: The one who knows the diagnosis and remedy for our disease of samsAra is called ‘bhishak’.

भवरॊगनिदानज्ञॊ यॊsसौ भिषगुदीरितः |

587) sanyAsakruth (संन्यासकृत्)

How does bhagavAn treat this disease of samsAra? By growing the sAththvik ‘sanyAsam’ (detachment from wordly pleasures) in his devotees, he destroys rajas and thamas in them. Thus, he is called ‘sanyAsakruth’ – the one who inculcates detachment.

What exactly is ‘sanyAsa’? It is nothing but giving up responsibility of one’s own self to the master (bhagavAn). That itself is the treatment to this disease of samsAra.

The vEdhas say “…those who surely know the true purport expounded by the vEdhanthas practice ‘sanyAsa’, and thus attain the state of pure saththva (at the supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam)”

Etymology: With the sAththvika thyAga (detachment), he who destroys the qualities of rajas and thamas in his devotees is called ‘sanyAsakruth’.

त्यागॆन सात्त्विकॆनाशु रजसस्तमसः पदम् |
यः कृन्तति स संन्यासकृत् नवार्णॊ मनुः स्मृतः ||

588) Sama: (शमः)

In order to grow such saththvika nature (as seen in the previous divine name), bhagavAn also shows the ways to pacify the pangs of desire, fear and anger in his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘Sama:’ – the pacified / pacifier.

This is shown in the bhagavath gIthA also, thus: “arjuna, my devotees know me as the enjoyer of all offerings made in yajnas, and as the supreme master of all worlds. They also know me as the most benevolent towards all souls. Knowing me thus, they attain utmost tranquility”

Etymology: He who is not agitated is called ‘Sama:’.

अनुद्रिक्तः शमः प्रॊक्तः |

589) SAntha: (शान्तः)

bhagavAn not only pacifies his devotees, but is also pacified himself. Although he is filled with an abundance of auspicious qualities that could otherwise trigger excitement in others, he is as calm as a deep ocean free from waves. With such unfathomable calmness, he also inspires those who see him thus.

For the same reason, pathanjali maharishi hailed bhagavAn’s calmness thus in his yOga suhtras: “One forgoes hostility in his presence”

Even the scholar of recent times – bhAravi – also says thus in his work ‘kirAtArjuneeya’:

“Just with the effulgent vision of vEdha vyAsa, all animals around him attained peace and gave up their natural animosity.”

Etymology: He is called ‘SAntha:’, who possesses a composed mind without undulations.

शान्तॊsविकृतमानसः |

590) nishtA (निष्ठा)

Thus, the wandering minds of the excited souls find solace in the auspicious shelter of bhagavAn’s divine body. Hence, he is called ‘nishtA’ – the auspicious refuge for the minds.

The ‘ang’ (अङ्) adjunct is used in this divine name as per the grammatical rules.

Etymology: He – in whom (in whose divine body) the minds of all elevated souls in yOga are firmly placed – is called ‘nishtA’.

निष्ठीयतॆ च यॊगॊत्थैः यत्र निष्ठा स कथ्यतॆ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 47

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நஞ்சீயர் செய்த வியாக்கியைகள் நாலிரண்டுக்கு

எஞ்சாமை யாவைக்கும் இல்லையே தம் சீரால்

வைய குருவின் தம்பி மன்னு மணவாள முனி

செய்யுமவை தாமும் சில 

நாற்பத்தேழாம் பாசுரம். நஞ்ஜீயர் முதலான சில ஆசார்யர்கள் அருளிய வ்யாக்யானங்களை அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

பட்டரின் சிஷ்யரான வேதாந்தியான நஞ்சீயர் சில ப்ரபந்தங்களுக்கு வ்யாக்யானங்கள் அருளியிருந்தாலும், பெரியவாச்சான் பிள்ளையைப் போல் அனைத்து ப்ரபந்தங்களுக்கும் அருளவில்லை (அப்படி அருளியிருந்தால் நன்றாக இருந்திருக்குமே!). பிள்ளை லோகாசார்யரின் திருத்தம்பியாரான, உயர்ந்த திருக்கல்யாண குணங்களை உடைய அழகிய மணவாளப் பெருமாள் நாயனாரும் அருளிச்செயல்களிலும் ஏனைய சாஸ்த்ரங்களிலும் கொண்டிருந்த ஆழ்ந்த ஞானத்தால் சில ப்ரபந்தங்களுக்கு அற்புதமான வ்யாக்யானங்கள் அருளியுள்ளார். பொருந்திய பெருமையைக் கொண்ட வாதி கேஸரி அழகிய மணவாள ஜீயரும் சில வ்யாக்யானங்கள் அருளியுள்ளார்.

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.3.11 – senganivAy

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, AzhwAr becomes amazed thinking “Among these thousand pAsurams, in comparison to other decads, what a decad this is, in which I, in the mood of a pirAtti, stopped emperumAn from going to tend the cows”

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

sengani vAy engaL Ayar dhEvu aththiruvadi thiruvadi mEl porunal
sangaNi thuRaivan vaN then kurugUr vaN satakOpan sol AyiraththuL
mangaiyar Aychchiyar Ayndha mAlai avanodum pirivadhaRkirangith thaiyal
angavan pasu nirai mEyppOzhippAn uraiththana ivaiyum paththavaRRin sArvE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

sem – reddish
kani – like fruit
vAy – one who is having divine lips
engaL – enjoyable for us
Ayar dhEvu – similarly, being enjoyable for the herd-people
aththiruvadi thiruvadi mEl – on the divine feet of (their) lord
porunal – in divine thAmirabharaNi river
sangaNi – where conches reach
thuRaivan – one who is having the ghat
vaN – wealth
then kurugUr – being the controller of AzhwArthirunagari which has beauty
vaN satakOpan sol – mercifully spoken by the very generous nammAzhwAr
AyiraththuL – among the thousand pAsurams
mangaiyar – youthful
Aychchiyar – cowherd girls
Ayndha mAlai – garland composed by
avanodum – from him
pirivadhaRku – to separate
irangi – anguished
angu – in that assembly
thaiyal – (a popular) cowherd girl
avan – his
pasu nirai mEyppu – going to tend the cows
ozhippAn – to stop
uraiththana – spoken
ivaiyum paththu – this decad
avaRRin – to attain the result of the garland prepared by them which is to have his union
sArvu – became abundant

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Very generous nammAzhwAr, who is the controller of AzhwArthirunagari which has beauty and wealth, who is having the ghat of the thAmirabharaNi river, where conches reach, mercifully spoke this decad among the thousand pAsurams, on krishNa who is having reddish fruit like divine lips, who is enjoyable for us and the herd-people; this decad is like a garland of words, spoken in the mood of a cowherd girl among the youthful cowherd girls, being anguished to separate from him, to stop him from going to tend the cows; by singing this decad to attain the result of the garland prepared by them which is to have his union, became abundant. We can say that the result of all other decads will be the result for this decad also; the result of this decad is to proclaim that the knowledge about this distinguished decad saying “this is also counted among all of the other decads [though it is very special]!”

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • sengani vAy … – This decad was spoken on the divine feet of sarvaswAmi (lord of all) who won over the cowherd boys of his own age just as he won us over with his smile which can even melt diamond. “sengani vAy” indicates his victory over them; “Ayar dhEvu” indicates his victory over cowherd boys of his age; SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 3.29 “pumsAm dhrushti chiththApahAriNam” (SrI rAma’s beauty will attract the eyes and mind of even men).
  • aththiruvadi thiruvadi mEl – On the divine feet of that supreme lord of all. He manifests his lordship; he [AzhwAr] is also remaining in servitude since he is saying “thiruvadi mEl“.
  • porunal sangaNi thuRaivan – Just as all the noble personalities will reach where AzhwAr resides, on the banks of the divine thAmirabharaNi river, conches will reach.
  • mangaiyar … – Cowherd girls who are of the same age as he, recited this garland of words, being unable to bear the separation from him.
  • thaiyal … – Seeing that if everyone collectively spoke as in an assembly, he will not hear the words, a cowherd girl who is of the greatness of nappinnaip pirAtti spoke to stop him from going to tend the cows, in a way that he cannot refuse. This will match the words “adichchiyOm” (sevitor(s)), “thozhuththaiyOm” (inferior one(s)), “Azhum en Aruyir” (my worthy AthmA is immersing) and “en sol kEL” (listen to my word) in both plural and singular context.
  • ivaiyum paththu avaRRin sArvE – “avai” indicates previous decads. nanjIyar mercifully explained as well as wrote in his commentary [as seen in his introduction for this pAsuram] “This decad is recited along with the other ones! [How amazing!]”.

Alternatively,

  • ivaiyum paththu avaRRin sArvE – The result explained for the previous decads will be applicable for this decad also. Another explanation – “avai” indicates the words of the cowherd girls and this decad will match those. The result of those is the result for this decad also. If those words got them the result, this decad will also do the same. When they said “don’t go”, as he listened to that and united with them, those who learn this decad will also get to unite with him permanently. pAsuram should be arranged as in “sengani vAy engaL Ayar dhEvu – avanodum pirivadhaRkirangi – mangaiyar Aychchiyar Ayndha mAlai – thaiyal angavan pasu nirai mEyppozhippAn uraiththana – aththiruvadi thiruvadi mEl porunal sangaNi thuRaivan – vaN thenkurugUr vaN satakOpan – sol AyiraththuL – ivaiyum paththu avaRRin sArvE“.

In the next article we will enjoy the next decad.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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