Daily Archives: November 14, 2019

thiruvAimozhi – 10.3.10 – avaththangaL viLaiyum

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Third decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “I am too worried for you who are roaming around even without nambi mUththa pirAn (balarAma) in the forest where demons sent by kamsa are also roaming around”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

avaththangaL viLaiyum en soRkaL andhO! asurargaL vankaiyar kanjan Eva
thavaththavar maRuga ninRu uzhitharuvar thanimaiyum peridhu unakku irAmanaiyum
uvarththalai udan thirigilaiyum enRenRu UduRa ennudai Avi vEmAl
thivaththilum pasu nirai mEppu uvaththi senganivAy engaLAyar dhEvE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

sem – reddish
kani – like fruit
vAy – having beautiful lips
engaL – in our clan
Ayar – for the herdspeople
dhEvE – Oh enjoyable lord!
vankaiyar – very strong
asurargaL – demons
kanjan Eva – sent by kamsa
thavaththavar – rishis who are engaged in thapas (penances)
maRuga ninRu – to be worried (thinking “what will happen to you!”)
uzhitharuvar – will roam around;
unakku – for you
thanimaiyum – loneliness
peridhu – will give joy;
irAmanaiyum – very strong nambi mUththa pirAn (balarAma)
uvarththalai – disagreement for your free roaming around
udan thirigilaiyum – not having with you;

(at this stage)
avaththangaL – disasters
viLaiyum – will occur
enRu enRu – thinking repeatedly
ennudai Avi – my heart
UduRa – inside
vEm – burning;
andhO – alas!
en sol – my word
koL – you should hear;
thivaththilum – even more than remaining in paramapadham
pasu nirai mEyppu – tending the cows
uvaththi – cannot be jofyul.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh enjoyable lord of the herdspeople in our clan, who are having beautiful lips which resemble a reddish fruit! Very strong demons sent by kamsa will roam around there [in the forest] to make the rishis who are engaged in penance, worry; loneliness will give you joy; you are not even having balarAma with you due to his disagreement for your free roaming around; my heart is burning inside thinking repeatedly that disasters will occur; alas! You should hear my word; it cannot be more joyful tending the cows than remaining in paramapadham. As said in thiruviruththam 21 “mAyaiyinAl” , you can enjoy here while being there itself.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • avaththangaL … – Don’t think that you need to put every word of mine into practice; it is sufficient if you listen to my word.
  • andhO – Alas! You are ignoring it because the word is uttered by me, instead of seeing the difficulty in putting it into practice.
  • asurargaL … – They are inferior by birth, many in numbers and are very strong; further, the evil kamsa can also come.
  • thavaththavar maRuga ninRu uzhi tharuvar – You can only abandon me; they will roam around to create fear in the rishis (sages) who are engaged in penance; those who are as said in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 1.20 “garbhabhUthA: thapOdhanA:” (they are cared by you like pregnant ladies care for the child in the womb, and are having penance as their wealth) and SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 6.16 “Ehi paSya SarIrANi” (Look at our bodies); those who look up to you for their protection to worry thinking “what will happen to emperumAn by these demons”. Alternatively, she is talking about the likes of SrI nAradha bhagavAn, SrI sugrIva mahArAjar, periyAzhwAr, piLLai uRangA villi dhAsar et al [those who have thapas of prapaththi].

When asked “But should I not go and eliminate the enemies of my devotees?” she says,

  • thanimaiyum peridhu unakku – As you walk along, you have become totally alone! This time of roaming around alone without balarAma is great for you as said in SrIvishNu purANam 5.7.1 “EkathA thu vinA rAmAm krishNO brindhAvanam yayau” (Once, krishNa went to the forest in vrindhAvanam without balarAma).
  • irAmanaiyum uvarththalai – You don’t agree with balarAma at times since it is impossible to perform mischievous acts in his presence.
  • uvarththalai – having displeasure/disagreement.
  • udan thirigilaiyum – Due to the disagreement, you are not roaming around with him to create fear in the enemies who see from a distance and think “They are together [we cannot fight with them easily]”.
  • enRu … – The fear and burning in my heart is not due to your going but your going alone without balarAma.
  • UduRa – Inside. My heart is burning.

When asked “Did I leave to make you force me like this?” she says,

  • thivaththilum pasu nirai mEyppuvaththi – Yes. You are known to change your presences in different places. You have come here to tend the cows giving up your presence in paramapadham. You have given up your presence there. She is thinking that his leaving paramapadham is bad. [She thinks] If he were there I need not be perturbed. It does not matter whether we get his presence or not; at least there will be no danger for him [since he need not face the demons]. Should you, who abandoned the residents of paramapadham and desired the cows, need any reason to abandon us? He cannot say that he has not left paramapadham.

He smiled thinking “What an overwhelming love she has towards me!”.

  • sem kani vAy engaL Ayar dhEvE – They become immersed in that smile. He smiles saying “Yes, I gave up my presence in there, but how can I leave you?” They become immersed in his smile/lips.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 56 (Names 551 to 560)

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551) vEdhA: (वॆधाः)

As shown thus in the previous divine names, bhagavAn manifests with a variety of unlimited auspicious qualities at all times. Thus, he is called ‘vEdhA:’.

As shown before, the SrImath rAmAyaNa hails bhagavAn as “the one who has transcended the darkness of ignorance”.

Etymology: He who shows great variety of supreme auspicious qualities at all times to his devotees is called ‘vEdhA:’. This six syllable manthra is capable of conferring all auspiciousness to the chanter.

महाविभवकल्याणं सततं विदधाति यः |
भक्तॆभ्यः परमं वॆधाः षडर्णॊ मङ्गलप्रदः ||

552) svAnga: (स्वाङ्गः)

bhagavAn shows his absolute supremacy by means of all of his characteristic paraphernalia such as chathram छत्रम् (the white umbrella), chAmaram चामरम् (a fanning gear made from the bushy tail of a yak) and other such similar royal insignia, which indicate his superiority over others. Since he possesses all of these at all times, he is called ‘svAnga:’.

Etymology: He who possesses all royal insignia such as the white umbrella and others as his characteristic paraphernalia at all times is called ‘svAnga:’. This six lettered manthra confers retinue upon the chanters.

स्वासाधारणमङ्गं हि छत्रादि परिबर्हणम् |
यस्यास्ति नित्यं स स्वाङ्गः षडर्णः परिवारदः ||

553) ajitha: (अजितः)

Furthermore, the supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam is not affected by natural effects such as birth and death as seen in this world. Not just that, it also houses entities that are made of five upanishadhic elements which are purely saththvik in nature. Since that abode is not won over by lowly nature, it is called ‘ajithA’ अजिता (the unconquered).

Since bhagavAn owns such a supreme abode, he is called ‘ajitha:’.

The vEdhas quote thus: “brahmA entered that aparAjithA (bhagavAn’s abode), which is fully made of gold”

Etymology: He who owns the town of ‘ajithA’ (SrIvaikuNtam) – which is not affected by lowly nature in this world – is called ‘ajitha:’. This seven syllable manthra is capable of conferring mOksha to the chanter.

प्राकृतैर्न जिता या सा यस्यास्तीत्यजिता पुरी |
अजितस्तॆन विज्ञॆयः सप्तार्णॊ मुक्तिदॊ मनुः ||

554) krishNa: (कृष्णः) (also repeated in 58)

Further, bhagavAn possesses a beautiful deep dark hue like the water-bearing dark clouds. Thus, he is called ‘krishNa:’ – the dark one.

The learned men have also concluded based on various scriptural statements that the same beautiful dark hued form could be seen in all of his incarnations such as varAha, et al.

This divine attribute of bhagavAn showing his supernatural beautiful form is supported by the scriptures thus:

“arjuna, I plow this earth by being a massive plough. Also, I am extremely dark in color. For all these reasons, I am called ‘krishNa’”

“Five elements together make up the divine body of bhagavAn. Although he is omnipotent, he does not give up his divine form due to his supreme nature of showing utmost compassion. The five elements making up his divine body are said to be ‘paramEshtI’ (परमॆष्ठी), ‘pumAn’ (पुमान्), ‘viSva:’ (विश्वः), ‘nivruththa:’ (निवृत्तः) and ‘sarva:’ (सर्वः).”

Furthermore, sage parASara says “Oh maithrEya! Know the divine body of bhagavAn in his various incarnations as the great fish, the great tortoise, the great wild boar, et al to be made of the same five supernatural elements (unlike our natural bodies), because our knowledge would be opposed to the scriptures otherwise”

Etymology: The one who possesses a supernatural form with an extremely pleasing dark-cloud like hue is called ‘krishNa:’.

अप्राकृतातिरुचिरमॆचकः कृष्ण ईरितः |

555) dhruda: (दृढः)

Even in the vyUha form, bhagavAn shines forth with the same beauty and splendor in order to grace his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘dhruda:’ – the manifest one.

This divine name comes from the root ‘dhruh’ (दृह्), which is used in this context to mean ‘manifest’. The grammarians have defined the meaning of ‘dhruda:’ to be ‘manifest’ or ‘strong’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s beautiful forms are manifest and powerful (even in the vyUha forms), he is called ‘dhruda:’.

स्थूलत्वात् बलवत्वाच्च दृढ इत्यभिदीयतॆ |

556) sankarshaNa: (सङ्कर्षणः)

Who is the one who is both manifest as well as powerful as shown in the previous divine name? he is ‘sankarshaNa’.

bhagavAn is called sankarshaNa: because he pulls all the sentient and insentient entities in this samsAra into himself at the time of destruction.

The mauLa samhitha justifies this name by showing that this act of drawing all entities into himself at the time of destruction is even (equal among all entities).

Etymology: He who draws all sentient and insentient entities equally into himself at deluge is called ‘samkarshaNa:’.

सङ्कर्षणः संसृतौ यः समं चिदचितौ कृषॆत् |

557) achyutha: (अच्युतः) (also repeated in 101, 320)

Even in his vyUha form, the scriptures hail the divine attribute of bhagavAn thus: “Oh bhagavAn! You do not falter from your high position like the lower dhEvas such as brahmA, indhra, varuNa et al – who are subject to the cycle of birth and death, and thus falter from their positions. Thus, you are called ‘achyutha’”.

Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘achyutha:’ – the one who does not move from his position (or, the unshakeable one).

Etymology: Since bhagavAn doesn’t falter from his position like brahmA and other dhEvas, he is called ‘achyutha:’.

ब्रह्मादिवन्न च्यवतॆ स्थानादित्यच्युतः स्मृतः |

558) varuNa: (वरुणः)

The vEdhas say “He, by whom all of the space, swarga lOka and the earth are pervaded…”

Thus, since everything is pervasively covered by bhagavAn, he is called ‘varuNa:’.

The root ‘vrunj’ (वृञ्) means to cover. It gets the ‘unan’ (उनन्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: He who stands covering all the worlds is called ‘varuNa:’.

यः स्थितः सर्वमावृत्य वरुणः स तु कथ्यतॆ |

559) vAruNa: (वारुणः)

The word ‘varuNa’ also means the one who chooses bhagavAn as his master. Since bhagavAn resides in the minds of such people (varuNa), he is called ‘vAruNa:’.

In the bhagavath gIthA, bhagavAn himself declares thus: “I am equal to all entities, and there is no one whom I hate or love (without any rhyme or reason). They who sing my praise with all devotion shall reside in me, and I also shall reside in their minds firmly”

Etymology: The one who resides in the minds of people who accept him as their master is called ‘vAruNa:’.

स्वामित्वॆन वृणानॆषु स्थितॊ वारुण ईरितः |

560) vruksha: (वृक्षः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn stands as a big tree providing shelter to all of his dear devotees in all ways, thus giving them life. He provides shelter to all such devotees bearing all their thousands of misdeeds. Thus, he is called ‘vruksha:’ – the protector.

This divine name is also derived from the root ‘vrunj’ वृञ् (to cover) similar to ‘varuNa:’.

The scriptures support this attribute thus:

  • “For all the sages contemplating upon bhagavAn, that rAma is indeed their resting place. He is the tree that gives shelter to them in all their times of distress. He is their ultimate refuge.”
  • “He stands still like a tree – alone – in the supreme sky”
  • “Those who take shelter under the tree called ‘brahman’ – the supreme lord – shall surely beget unlimited ripe fruits”, etc.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘vruksha:’ since he is the refuge of all his dear devotees, and since he tolerates all of them and supports their lives.

साधूनामाश्रयत्वाच्च सर्वैनःसहनादपि |
सर्वॊपजीव्यः सर्वस्वॊ वृक्ष इत्यभिदीयतॆ ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 99 – thennulagam ERRuviththa

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thennulagam ERRuviththa thiNdiRalum maRRivaidhAn                                 147
unni ulavA ulagaRiya Urvan nAn
munni muLaiththezhundhu Ongi oLi parandha                                                  148
manniya pUm peNNai madal

Word by word meaning

then ulagam ERRuviththa – so as to reach yamalOkam (hell)
thin thiRalum – what  great strength
maRRu ivai thAn – various other activities which are similar to these
unni ulavA – they cannot be thought of completely.
ulagu aRiya – announcing such activities so that people of the world would know
nAn – I, parakAla nAyaki
munni – standing up front
muLaiththu ezhundhu Ongi oLi parandha manniya pU peNNai madal Urvan – I will engage with madal from beautiful, firm and splendorous palm leaf which has been taken from a well sprouted, high grown pam tree.

vyAkyAnam

thennulagam ERRuviththa – he let sUrppaNaka to live in this world; in the case of thAtakA, he sent her to the world of yama [hell] itself. How cruel!

thiN thiRalum – how to praise his valour that he shows towards helpless women?

maRRivaidhAn unni ulavA – it is not possible to complete the incidents that I have gathered of this emperumAn, just like one gathers wealth which will help during times of distress. It will suffer the same way that vEdham suffered when it tried to estimate the bliss of emperumAn and returned empty handed. Since he is likely to come scurrying and fall at my feet after I start revealing these, I consider them as my wealth during distress.

ulagu aRiya Urvan nAn – I will engage with madal such that all chEthanas (sentient beings) will come to know of them.

munni – Standing right up-front, saying “I am going to engage with madal”. The meaning implied is that it is not possible to wait for him [thirumangai AzhwAr] any more.

What sort of madal is this?

muLaiththu ezhundhu Ongi oLiparandha manniya pUm peNNai madal – I will engage with madal which has sprouted from earth, grown tall, remained resplendently, remained firm.

Urvan nAn madal – I have a great brahmASthra (very potent weapon) in my hand. What shortfall do I have now? This implies that there is no hurdle for my goal being reached. She is praising this [madal] because she feels that it will help her in uniting with emperumAn, just like viSwAmithra bhagavAn united sIthAppirAtti with perumAL [SrI rAma].

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 44

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தெள்ளியதா நம்பிள்ளை செப்பு நெறி தன்னை

வள்ளல் வடக்குத் திருவீதிப் பிள்ளை – இந்த

நாடறிய மாறன் மறைப் பொருளை நன்குரைத்தது

ஈடு முப்பத்தாறாயிரம் 

நாற்பத்து நான்காம் பாசுரம். திருவாய்மொழிக்கு நம்பிள்ளை அருளிய உபந்யாஸங்களை வடக்குத் திருவீதிப் பிள்ளை ஈடு முப்பத்தாறாயிரப்படி வ்யாக்யானமாக ஏடுபடுத்திய வைபவத்தை அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

நஞ்ஜீயரின் சிஷ்யரான, தெளிந்த ஞானத்தை உடைய நம்பிள்ளை, நம்மாழ்வாராம் மாறன் தொடக்கமாக நம் பூர்வாசார்யர்கள் காட்டிய வேத/வேதாந்த மார்க்கத்தை விளக்க, அதை “இந்த உயர்ந்த அர்த்தங்கள் எல்லோருக்கும் சென்று அடைய வேண்டும்” என்ற வள்ளல் தன்மை கொண்ட வடக்குத் திருவீதிப் பிள்ளை இந்த நாடே அறிந்து உஜ்ஜீவனம் அடையும்படி அருளிச்செய்த வ்யாக்யானம் ஈடு முப்பாத்தாறாயிரப்படி வ்யாக்யானம். ஈடு என்றால் பொருள் (விளக்கம்), கவசம், ஒப்புயர்வற்ற என்று பல அர்த்தங்கள். இது ஸ்ரீபாஷ்யத்துக்கு ஏற்பட்ட உரையான ச்ருத ப்ரகாசிகையின் அளவிலே இருக்கும். ச்ருத ப்ரகாசிகையின் காலம் இதற்கு பிற்பட்டதாய் இருந்தாலும், ஒப்புமை சொல்லலாம்.

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