Daily Archives: November 10, 2019

SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 54 (Names 531 to 540)

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531) nandha: (नन्दः)

Thus, bhagavAn is replete with infinite objects of enjoyment, bliss derived thereof, the tools in deriving such bliss etc. Thus, he is called ‘nandha:’. Since he is in possession of all such entities, the ‘ghanja’ (घञ) adjunct is used per grammatical rules.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is always replete with objects of enjoyment, tools for enjoyment, the experience of enjoyment, the souls who enjoy etc, he is called ‘nandha:’.

भॊग्यैर्भॊगॊपकरणैः भॊगैर्भॊक्तृभिरॆव च |
तस्मिन् समृद्ध्यतॆ नित्यमिति नन्दः प्रकीर्तितः ||

532) sathyadharmA (सत्यधर्मा)

As explained till now, bhagavAn sincerely keeps up his vow of protecting his devotees – right from their first step towards bhagavAn till their attainment of bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘sathyadharmA’ – the one who follows his ‘dharma’ religiously.

Etymology: The one who devoutly carries out his vow (which is also his ‘dharma’) of protecting his devotees right from their initiation up till their attainment of mOksha is called ‘sathyadharmA’. This eight lettered manthra enhances honesty and righteousness amongst devotees.

आप्रक्रमादास्वप्राप्तॆरार्जवात् सत्यवर्तनः |
यः स्यात् स सत्यधर्मा च वस्वर्णॊ सत्यधर्मदः ||

533) thrivikrama: (त्रिविक्रमः)

With such divine glories, bhagavAn pervades all of the three vEdhas. Hence, he is called ‘thrivikrama:’.

The scriptures hail thus:

  • “The word ‘thri’ (त्रि) is referred to as the three vEdhas by the learned men. Since bhagavAn pervades all of them, he is called ‘thrivikrama’”
  • “…he, in whom all the vEdhas converge…”
  • “All vEdhas glorify nArAyaNa only”, etc.

Etymology: With his unbounded glories, the one who pervades all of the three vEdhas is called ‘thrivikrama:’.

(NOTE: The ‘three vEdhas’ referred to in this divine name actually represent the three types in vEdhas namely ‘Rk’, ‘yajus’ and ‘SAma’. These three types only make up the four vEdhas that we know, viz rig vEdha, yajur vEdha, sAma vEdha and atharvaNa vEdha)

त्रीन् वॆदान् क्रमतॆ यॊ हि महिम्ना स त्रिविक्रमः |

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महर्षिः कपिलाचार्यः कृतज्ञॊ मॆदिनीपतिः ।
त्रिपदस्त्रिदशाध्यक्षॊ महाशृङ्गः कृतान्तकृत् ॥ ५७ ॥
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534) maharshi: (महर्षिः)

In his incarnation as kapila, bhagavAn knew the true purport of vEdhas. Thus, he is addressed as ‘maharshi:’ – the one who realizes/visualizes the true purport of vEdhas.

The dhyana SlOka for kapila maharishi says thus: “…then one must remember him, who orally expounded the meanings of vEdhas, such as Rk and others”

Other scriptural statements also hail thus:

  • “…that great kapila, who was born as a rishi (knowledgeable by birth)”
  • “That expounder of SAnkhya – kapila – is known as ‘parama rishi’”, et al

Etymology: bhagavAn, as kapila – who visualized the true purport of vEdhas, is called ‘maharshi:’.

साक्षात् द्रष्टा स वॆदानां महर्षिः कपिलः स्मृतः |

535) kapilAchArya: (कपिलाचार्यः)

bhagavAn – in his incarnation as kapila muni – possessed a radiant hue. Hence he is called ‘kapila:’. Also, he propounded the tenets of vEdhas and became an AchArya. Hence he is called ‘AchArya:’. These two attributes together form the divine name ‘kapilAchArya:’.

The root ‘kabru’ कबृ (hue) gets the letter ‘pa’ substituted in place of ‘ba’, and is suffixed with the ‘ilach’ (इलच्) adjunct, resulting in the divine name ‘kapila’ (कपिलः).

This feature of bhagavAn is hailed in the scriptures thus:

  • “…unto that kapila muni, who has the hue of smokeless fire, with garlands of Sankha and padhmAksha adorning him”

Further, the dhyana SlOka of kapila muni says thus: “…unto him who promulgates his philosophy”.

As seen here, kapila maharishi promulgated his school of philosophy, and hence called as ‘AchArya:’.

Etymology: Only since bhagavAn promulgated his philosophy as kapila, he is called ‘kapilAchArya:’.

तत्त्वप्रवचनादॆव कपिलाचार्य उच्यतॆ |

536) kruthagya: (कृतज्ञः) (also repeated in 83)

Although the sixty thousand sons of sagara (सगरः) offended him, bhagavAn kapila maharishi forgave them at once when amSumAn (अंशुमान्) saluted him on their behalf. Thus, he considers even small noble deeds as great things, which is why he is called ‘kruthagyna:’.

It is said thus in the vishNu purANa:

“When amSumAn approached kapila maharishi and pleased him by devoutly prostrating before him, that bhagavAn commanded amSumAn to seek a boon in return”

Etymology: He who considered the small noble deed of amSumAn – of humble submission – with great compassion is called ‘kruthagyna:’.

स्वाभिनमृत्वसुकृतं किञ्चिदंशुमता कृतम् |
विदितं यॆन कारुण्यात् कृतज्ञः सॊsभिदीयतॆ ||

537) mEdhinIpathi: (मॆदिनीपतिः)

The SrImath rAmAyaNa hails thus: “That vAsudhEva, unto whom all of these worlds belong, bears all of these at all times, taking the form of kapila”.

Thus, he is called ‘mEdhinIpathi:’ – the master of all worlds.

Etymology: The one who bears all the worlds in the form of kapila is called ‘mEdhinIpathi:’. This nine syllable manthra is known to bestow land unto the worshipper.

कापिलं रूपमास्थाय यॊ धारयति मॆदिनीम् |
स मॆदिनीपतिः ख्यातॊ नवार्णॊ भूप्रदॊ मनुः ||

538) thripadha: (त्रिपदः)

bhagavAn preaches about the three entities symbolizing the enjoyer (भॊक्तृ), the enjoyed (भॊग्यः) and the controller (नियन्ता), respectively meaning the sentient (चित्), insentient (अचित्) and the supreme lord (ईश्वरः). Thus, he is called ‘thripadha:’ – the one who shows the three entities with his words.

The scriptures say thus:

“In order to help the noble souls, I shall show them (make them realize) the three entities namely insentient nature, sentient soul and the supreme soul in their world in the form of kapila”.

Alternately, bhagavAn shows this truth through the three syllables in the praNava manthra.

Also, as seen earlier (62nd divine name), varAha bhagavAn had three humps on his back. Thus also, he is called ‘thripadha:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn preaches about the three entities namely achit, chit and ISvara to all his devotees. Alternately, he is represented by the praNava manthra, which in turn expounds the three entities. Also, in his incarnation as varAha, the word ‘padha’ refers to the hump on his back. varAha bhagavAn had three such humps on his back. For all these reasons, he is called ‘thripadha:’.

भॊक्तृ-भॊग्य-नियन्तॄणि ज्ञाप्यान्यस्य पदान्यतः |
प्रणवॆ त्रीणि वाsप्यॆतद्वाचकानि पदान्यतः ||

वाराहरूपस्यास्थानॆ पदानि ककुदानि वा |
त्रीणि सन्ति ततॊ वाsसौ त्रिपदः परिकीर्तितः ||

539) thridhaSAdhyaksha: (त्रिदशाध्यक्षः)

Thence the varAha avathAram of bhagavAn is hailed. Since bhagavAn protected brahmA and other dhEvas during their fear of deluge, he is called ‘thridhaSAdhyaksha:’.

Etymology: The one who protected brahmA and others during their fear of deluge is called ‘thridhaSAdhyaksha:’.

सखा स्यात् त्रिदशाध्यक्षॊ ब्रह्मादॆः प्रलयापदि |

(Note: This is not the real deluge that is being spoken of. Rather, when a demon named hiranyAksha hid the land or bhUmi under water, there was no place for brahmA to create any object. This instilled in the dhEvas a fear of deluge, which was evaded by bhagavAn in the form of varAha by killing hiranyAksha)

540) mahASrunga: (महाशृङ्गः)

As varAha, bhagavAn held bhUmi at the tip of his tusk. Hence, he is called ‘mahASrunga:’ – the one with a magnificent tusk.

The scriptures establish this fact in various places, thus:

  • “…that varAha, who possesses a single tusk…”
  • “Oh lord, all of these entities making up the bhUmaNdalam (भूमण्डलम्) are held at the tip of your tusk as effortlessly as a lotus leaf bears a drop of marsh”, etc.

Etymology: He who has the entire bhUmi at the tip of his tusk is called ‘mahASrunga:’.

मही यस्य च शृङ्गाग्रॆ महाशृङ्गः स कथ्यतॆ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 95 – pinnum uralOdu

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pinnum uralOdu kattuNda peRRimaiyum                                             139
annadhOr bUdhamAy Ayar vizhavinkaN
thunnu sagadaththAl pukka perunjORRai                                            140
munnirundhu muRRaththAn thuRRiya theRRanavum

Word by word meaning

uralOdu – (tied up) with the mortar
kattuNda peRRimaiyum – how great it was being tied down
Ayar vizhavin kaN – in the ArAdhanai (worship) carried out by the herdspeople to indhira, the chief of celestial entities
thunnu sagadaththAl pukka peru sORRai – the huge quantum of food carried by many carts
annadhu Or bUdhamAy – taking the form of a demon which cannot be spoken of in words
mun irundhu – right in fornt of them
muRRa – completely
thAn – he himself
thuRRiya – eaten
theRRanavum – what a shame! 

vyAkyAnam

pinnum uralOdu kattuNda peRRimaiyum – it is not that the girls just caught hold of his hand [as seen in the previous part]; more than that, they tied him to a mortar, an achEthana (insentient) entity. I will recount the greatness of that act too, for the entire world to hear.

kattuNda peRRImaiyum – The opinion here is that ”the sinner that I am, I did not get to see this greatness at that time itself”.  peRRimai – greatness (or fame). Here, it refers to the lowliness of the act due to viparItha lakshaNam (ironical, conveying the opposite meaning).

On top of this, I want to speak about one more activity.

annadhOr – it was such a despicable act that emperumAn put on, which cannot be described by words.

annadhu – unable to look at that grotesque form, she (parakAla nAyaki) turns her face away.

bUdhamAy – will anyone take on the role of a very lowly demon?

Ayar vizhavin kaN – since he took on the role of a demon, he went to all places because of his extreme hunger. He had to gobble up the food meant for the herdspeople who were holding on to him.

thunnu sagadaththAl pukka perunjORRai – was the quantum of food such that a couple of people could carry it and he ate that? He swallowed the food which was heaped like a mountain, brought by a huge line of carts. Just as periyAzhwAr had mentioned in his periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 3-5-1 “attukkuvi sORRup paruppadhamum thayir vAviyum neyyaLaRum” it was a combination of a mountain of cooked rice, a tank of curd and a pond of ghee which he swallowed.

munnirundhu – what a shameless act! If he had a bit of sense, would he not have put a screen between himself and the herdspeople when he swallowed all that food? Since even that was not there, he swallowed all the food in the presence of all the herdspeople.

muRRaththAn thuRRiya – he did not offer even a handful of food to anyone! What a glutton he was!

thAn thuRRiya – he ate it all up, without even getting his relatives together.

theRRanavum – he did not have any sense of shame even after doing all this! theRRanavu – clarity. Here, it means shamelessness.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 40

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அந்த வியாக்கியைகள் அன்றாகில் – அந்தோ
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குருவார் இக்காலம் நெஞ்சே கூறு 

நாற்பதாம் பாசுரம். திருவாய்மொழிக்கு ஆசார்யர்கள் அருளிய வ்யாக்யானங்களின் பெருமையை மேலும் கொண்டாடும்படி தன் நெஞ்சுக்கு அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

நெஞ்சே! முற்காலத்திலே பிள்ளான் தொடக்கமான ஆசார்யர்கள் திருவாய்மொழிக்கு நம்மாழ்வாரின் திருவுள்ளக் கருத்தைத் தங்கள் ஆசார்யர்களிடம் கேட்டு உணர்ந்து, பொருத்தமான வ்யாக்யானங்களை அருளாமல் போயிருந்தார்கள் ஆகில், அந்தோ! இக்காலத்திலே திருவாய்மொழியின் சீரிய அர்த்தங்களை நன்றாகத் தெரிந்து கொண்ட சொல்லக்கூடிய ஆசார்யர்கள் யார் இருப்பார்கள்! நீயே கூறு.

திருவாய்மொழி த்வய மஹா மந்த்ரத்தை விளக்கும்படி அமைந்துள்ளது. த்வயத்தில் முதல் வரியிலே சொன்ன “பிராட்டியுடன் கூடி இருக்கும் எம்பெருமான் ஸ்ரீமந் நாராயணின் திருவடிகளை உபாயமாகப் பற்றுவது”, மற்றும் இரண்டாவது வரியில் சொன்ன “இவ்வாறு பிராட்டியுடன் கூடியிருக்கும் எம்பெருமானுக்குத் தன்னலமில்லாத தொண்டு புரிவதற்கு ப்ரார்த்திப்பது” ஆகிய விஷயங்களையே திருவாய்மொழியில் விளக்கமாக அருளியுள்ளார் நம்மாழ்வார்.

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