SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
431) artha: (अर्थः)
bhagavAn is verily the goal of attainment for all true devotees who are full of true knowledge. Thus, he is called ‘artha:’ – the wealth.
The root ‘ru’ ऋ (goal) gets the ‘than’ (थन्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.
bhagavAn himself declares thus in bhagavath gIthA: “The truly knowledgeable soul surrenders unto me saying ‘vAsudhEva is everything’”
Etymology: The one who is attained as the only goal by ‘paramaikAnthin’s (परमैकान्तिनः) who have otherwise completely given up all of the other three desires (viz. dharma, artha and kAma) is called ‘artha:’.
परमैकान्तिभिर्नित्यम् एषणात्रयवर्जितैः |
स्वयं प्रयॊजनतया प्राप्यमाणॊsर्थ उच्यतॆ ||
432) anartha: (अनर्थः)
The ignorant souls desiring material benefits would not approach bhagavAn for his sake, but they approach him only for lower material benefits. Thus, he is also called ‘anartha:’.
Such ignorant souls approach bhagavAn only for the sake of gaining material wealth from him.
This is as hailed in the scriptures thus:
- “kubEra seeks wealth from me…”
- “Devotees of bhagavAn can be classified into three categories based on the type of fruits they desire from him (gaining material wealth, liberation from samsAra, and purely his service)”.
Etymology: Since bhagavAn is not sought unconditionally by the less fortunate seeker of material benefits, the learned men call him ‘anartha:’.
(In other words, since bhagavAn is sought with the sole intention of gaining lower material benefits, he is called ‘anartha:’)
अर्थार्थिनाsल्पभाग्यॆन निर्व्याजं नार्थ्यतॆ यतः |
तस्मादनर्थ नामाsसौ वॆदविद्भिः प्रकीर्तितः ||
433) mahAkOSa: (महाकॊशः)
Although bhagavAn keeps giving abundantly to everyone at every time, since his wealth never diminishes, he is called ‘mahAkOSa:’ – the one with tremendous treasure.
The immense treasure that he possesses consists of various nidhis such as ‘Sankha nidhi’, ‘padhma nidhi’, etc. (famously called ‘nava nidhis’), high mountains (such as mahAmEru – which is a golden mountain with a diamond peak), and other similar things.
Etymology: He whose treasury is filled with immense wealth made of the great Sankha, padhma and other nidhis, and high mountains (such as mEru) is called ‘mahAkOSa:’.
शङ्खपद्मादिनिधयॊ महान्तॊ रॊहणॊ गिरिः |
कॊशा भाण्डगृहा यस्य महाकॊशः स उच्यतॆ ||
434) mahAbhOga: (महाभॊगः)
The experience of lower material benefits is also given by bhagavAn only. Hence he is called ‘mahAbhOga:’.
bhagavAn declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “Thereafter, he begets all material desires as ordained by me”
Etymology: He from whom the experience of great materialistic desires born out of lowly wealth is also born is called ‘mahAbhOga:’. He is indeed the one who grants all the desired wealth.
अर्थसाध्यः कामभॊगॊ यस्मादॆषां महानिति |
महाभॊगः स विज्ञॆयॊ ह्यष्टार्णश्चिन्तितार्थदः ||
435) mahAdhana: (महाधनः)
Since bhagavAn possesses immense wealth sufficient to bestow immeasurably even upon the greediest person in this creation, he is called ‘mahAdhana:’.
prahlAdha hails this attribute of bhagavAn thus:
“People like marIchi, dhaksha, and others begot the fruits of righteousness, wealth and other material desires infinitely, as bestowed by bhagavAn”.
Etymology: Since bhagavAn always possesses inexhaustible wealth that can be bestowed even upon the greediest person immeasurably, he is called ‘mahAdhana:’.
अनिरूप्यातिकृपणप्रदॆयं धनमक्षयम् |
अस्यैवास्तीति सततं स महाधन ईरितः ||
अनिर्विण्णः स्थविष्ठॊ भूः धर्मयूपॊ महामखः ।
नक्शत्रनॆमिर्नक्षत्री क्षमः क्षामः समीहनः ॥ ४७ ॥
436) anirviNNa: (अनिर्विण्णः) (also repeated in 893)
As explained previously, even after giving away lowly material wealth immensely to the seekers, although bhagavAn repeatedly tries to attract such souls towards him thereafter, the ignorant souls would never turn towards him easily due to their strong desires in lowly material benefits. Yet, bhagavAn never gives up. He tirelessly tries again with great earnestness (like a greedy soul working hard to amass wealth) to bring them into his fold. That tireless exertion of bhagavAn itself results in his eternal engagement with these worlds (repeated cycles of creation, sustenance and destruction). Thus he is called ‘anirviNNa:’.
The vishNu purANa glorifies this attribute of bhagavAn thus: “The eternal cycles of creation, sustenance and destruction of all these worlds are verily due to the tireless attempts of bhagavAn in bringing all souls into his fold”.
Etymology: He is called ‘anirviNNa:’ who is constantly occupied in the eternal cycles of creation, sustenance and destruction (without the least bit of despondence).
अनिर्विण्णॊ जागरूकॊ जगद्व्यापारसन्ततौ |
437) sthavishta: (स्थविष्ठः) (also repeated in 53)
Thereafter, the non-depressed tireless efforts of bhagavAn in bringing people into his fold are illustrated famously in the uththama anuvAka of svAdhyaya brAhmaNa as well as in the vishNu purANa. From this divine name, the stellar form of bhagavAn as ‘SimSumAra’, which is a constellation in the shape of a crocodile is hailed.
Since bhagavAn – in this form – is expansive as ‘SimSumAra’, he is called ‘sthavishta:’.
The vishNu purANa says thus: “The SimSumAra chakra is verily the divine form of bhagavAn – our Lord”.
Etymology: Since bhagavAn always manifests in the SimSumAra chakra form as a stellar constellation in an expansive form, he is hailed as ‘sthavishta:’. He is the one who cleanses us of all our sins.
शिंशुमाराकृतितया तारारूपॆण सर्वदा |
स्थौल्यात् स्थविष्ठः सम्प्रॊक्तः सप्तार्णः पापनाशनः ||
438) bhU: (भूः)
Being in association with the dhruva star, since the SimSumAra chakra acts as the support for all entities, bhagavAn (in the form of SimSumAra chakra) is called ‘bhU:’ – the support.
The vishNu purANa says “At the end of that constellation (SimSumAra) is the dhruva star located”.
Etymology: Since the SimSumAra chakra supports every entity due to its relation with dhruva star, bhagavAn in that form is called ‘bhU:’. He is the one who grants all the desired wealth to his devotees.
औत्तानपादिसम्बन्धात् सर्वाधारतया तथा |
भवतीति च भूः प्रॊक्तॊ भक्तानां भूतिदॊ मनुः ||
439) dharmayUpa: (धर्मयूपः)
Since bhagavAn bears the dharma thathvam in a prime position as his head, he is called ‘dharmayUpa:’. The root ‘yu’ यु (to unite) gets the ‘pa’ (प) adjunct with a dhIrgha swara in the root, resulting in the word ‘yUpa’.
The scriptures support thus:
- “Dharma takes shelter in his head”
- “His head is verily dharma”, etc.
Etymology: Since bhagavAn bears the entity of ‘righteousness’ as verily his head at all times, he is called ‘dharmayUpa:’.
उत्तमाङ्गतया धर्मतत्वं यौतीति सर्वदा |
धर्मयूपः समाख्यातॊ ह्यष्टार्णॊ धर्मदायकः ||
440) mahAmakha: (महामखः)
Since the ‘yagya’ itself is a limb of bhagavAn – which is also an auxiliary tool for the practice of dharma, he is called ‘mahAmakha:’.
This is since the scriptures say “yagya is itself known to be verily the dharma”.
Etymology: Since ‘yagya’ itself – which is most revered due to its being the embodiment of dharma – is the limb of bhagavAn, he is called ‘mahAmakha:’. He is the one who supports every soul in its righteous actions.
धर्मदॆहतया पूज्यॊ यज्ञॊsस्यावयवॊ यतः |
ततॊ महामखः प्रॊक्तॊ ह्यष्टार्णः कर्मकारकः ||
adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan
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