SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 43 (Names 421 to 430)

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421) parigraha: (परिग्रहः)

bhagavAn holds every soul both in this world as well as nether. Hence, he is called ‘parigraha:’. This trait of holding the souls and not letting them go is shown when rAma granted paramapadham to all of his relatives, denizens of ayOdhya, their relatives, the demigods that they worshipped, gardens, trees, grass, etc.

The scriptures say that bhagavAn grants paramapadham to every soul who is affectionate about him in all of his incarnations.

This fully shows rAma’s divine quality called sauSeelyam or affability.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn holds every soul with equanimity both here and hereafter, he is called ‘parigraha:’.

इहामुत्र समं सर्वग्रहणात् स्यात् परिग्रहः |

422) ugra: (उग्रः)

Thereafter, the divine names of kalki – who is dormant in pAthALa, and who is the destroyer of all bad elements with bad character and wrongful deeds – are hailed.

At the end of this yuga (kaliyuga), when people indulge heavily in committing sins, and when the varna-ASrama dharmas decline, bhagavAn appears as kalki with a fierce form. Hence he is called ‘ugra:’ – the fierce one.

The root ‘ucha’ उच (to collect) gets the ‘ran’ (रन्) adjunct per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

The manthra varNas hailing kalki bhagavAn say thus: “…to that destroyer, and the blazing fire of time…”

The paushkara Samhitha says thus: “kalki is verily bhagavAn vishNu. He incarnates when the dharmas decline with an intention to eliminate the evil minded souls from the face of this earth in this kali yuga”

Etymology: He who appears in the form of kalki when the dharmas decline and slays the evil souls and thus protects this world is called as ‘ugra:’ by the learned men.

नष्टॆ धर्मॆ कल्किरूपॊ ह्यवतीर्य महीभृतः |
म्लॆच्छादीन् हतवान् यॊsसौ उग्र इत्युच्यतॆ बुधैः ||

423) samvathsara: (संवत्सरः) (also repeated in 92)

Since bhagavAn waits for the right time, resting on AdhiSEsha in the pAthALa lOka, he is called ‘samvathsara:’ – the one who rests.

The root word ‘vasathi’ वसति (to rest or to reside) gets the ‘saM=m’ (सम्) prefix and the ‘sara:’ (सरः) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

All the scriptures hail bhagavAn thus in his meditative hymn:

  • “…him, who reclines on the serpent bed AdhiSEsha”
  • “…he who is surrounded by the embodiments of his divine weapons such as the chakra, etc”

Etymology: With all the tools for destruction, and waiting for the right time, since bhagavAn rests on AdhiSEsha in the pAthALa loka, he is called ‘samvathsara:’.

संहारस्यॊपकरणैः साकं कालप्रतीक्षया |
संवत्सरः स्यात् पातालॆsनन्तॆ संवसतीति सः ||

424) dhaksha: (दक्षः) (also repeated in 917)

As hailed mahAbhAratha that says “kalki shall roam around in this world continuously, slaying all evil minded souls”, since bhagavAn is dexterous and quick in slaying of enemies, he is called ‘dhaksha:’ – the dexterous one. In this context, the root ‘dhaksh’ (दक्ष्) is taken to mean ‘developing’ or ‘quick’.

The scriptures hail “janArdhana is quick in actions”

Etymology: Since the root ‘dhaksh’ means ‘swiftness’, and since all the evil souls are slain by bhagavAn within a moment, that swiftly acting bhagavAn is called as ‘dhaksha:’ by the learned men.

शीघ्रार्थत्वात् दक्षधातॊः निमॆषात् दस्यवॊ हताः |
यॆन सॊsयं शीघ्रकारी दक्ष इत्युच्यतॆ बुधैः ||

425) viSrAma: (विश्रामः)

bhagavAn is finally the resting place for all the distressed souls suffering from their sins. Hence, he is called ‘viSrAma:’ – the resting abode.

In the sabhA parva of SrI mahAbhAratha, it is said thus: “In order to establish dharma, and for the welfare of the learned men, he incarnates in this world”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the resting place for all the distressed souls who are suffering by committing sins and enjoying their fruits, he is called ‘viSrAma:’.

पापानि तत्फलान्यॆवं श्रान्ता भॊक्तुं च यॆ जनाः |
तॆषां विश्रामभूमित्वात् विश्रामः परिकीर्तितः ||

426) viSvadhakshiNa: (विश्वदक्षिणः)

How can he be considered to be favoring even the evil souls? (In the previous divine name, he is shown to be the resting place for all distressed souls, and hence considered benevolent to all souls alike. How can this impartial benevolence be justified?) This question is answered in this divine name – viSvadhakshiNa:.

bhagavAn rules over all souls in this world alike, irrespective of whether they are favorable to him or otherwise. Hence, he is called ‘viSvadhakshiNa:’.

The root ‘dhakshi’ (दक्षि) gets the ‘inan’ (इनन्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name. The word ‘dhAkshiNyam’ (दाक्षिण्यम्) is itself understood as being tolerant towards even the offending souls, and thus the meaning of this divine name.

SrI mahAbhAratha says thus: “He graces all of these worlds and takes them into his fold”.

Alternately, bhagavAn also gets this divine name since he offered the entire world as a donation in the aSvamEdha yagyam. This is as shown in the AraNya parva of SrI mahAbhAratha thus: “After having slain all the robbers, bhagavAn conducts a grand aSvamEdha yajna and dutifully offers this entire world to the brAhmaNas as a donation”.

Etymology: The one who is extremely tolerant even towards his offenders is called ‘viSvadhakshiNa:’. Alternately, he who offered the entire world as a donation to the brAhmaNas in the aSvamEdha sacrifice is called ‘viSvadhakshiNa:’.

अपकारिष्वतिक्षान्तॊ विश्वदक्षिण उच्यतॆ |
यद्वाश्वमॆधॆ पृथिवीं दक्षिणात्वॆन दत्तवान् |
महीसुरॆभ्यः कृत्स्नां यः स स्मृतॊ विश्वदक्षिणः ||

विस्तारः स्थावरः स्थाणुः प्रमाणं बीजमव्ययम् ।
अर्थॊsनर्थॊ महाकॊशॊ महाभॊगॊ महाधनः ॥ ४६ ॥

427) visthAra: (विस्तारः)

bhagavAn (as kalki) completely destroys kali and establishes krutha yuga again, thereby extending the scope of vEdhas. Thus, he is called ‘visthAra:’.

The root ‘sthu’ स्तृ (to extend) gets the ‘ghanja’ (घञ) adjunct per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

The scriptures hail thus: “Thereafter, oh scion of the bharatha clan, the unrighteousness or adharma shall be destroyed, and the righteousness or dharma shall be firmly established – all at the beginning of krutha yuga. Then, all the people become righteous in their minds and actions”

Etymology: Destroying the kali age completely and establishing krutha yuga thence, since bhagavAn extends the scope of vEdhas thereafter, he is called ‘visthAra:’.

प्रबलं यः कलिं हत्वा प्रवर्त्य च कृतं युगम् |
विस्तार्य वॆदमर्यादां स्थितॊ विस्तार उच्यतॆ ||

428) sthAvarasthANu: (स्थावरस्थाणुः)

After having established dharma thus, since bhagavAn becomes extremely peaceful, he is called ‘sthAvarasthANu:’.

This is hailed in the AraNya parva of SrI mahAbhAratha thus: “Having established dharma and having extended the scope of vEdhas, bhagavAn becomes peaceful”.

Etymology: He who firmly establishes dharma and becomes peaceful, and who cannot be moved from his pacific state whatsoever is called ‘sthAvarasthANu:’.

स्थावरीकृत्य धर्मान् यः शमॆ स्थास्यति नित्यशः |
यॆन कॆनाप्यचाल्यः सः स्थावरस्थाणुरुच्यतॆ ||

429) pramANam (प्रमाणम्) (also repeated in 959)

Thereafter, bhagavAn looks after the welfare of all people in krutha yuga by creating the necessary guidelines and promoting them. Thus he is called ‘pramANam’. Even the usual pramANas like prathyaksha, anumAna and Agama are established with his power only.

This is as shown in the mahAbhAratha thus: “All humans in this world follow the conduct of bhagavAn”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn establishes the welfare of people in krutha yuga (by means of pramANas), he is called ‘pramANam’.

हिताहितस्थापकत्वात् प्रमाणं स्यात् कृतादिषु |

430) bIjamavyayam (बीजमव्ययम्)

Thus, since bhagavAn reestablishes dharma again and again – as and when dharma declines as in during the end of kali yuga and the like, he is called ‘bIjamavyayam’ – the seed of dharma who knows no extinction.

Etymology: He who reestablishes dharma at the end of kali yuga in order to protect his devotees is called as ‘bIjamavyayam’.

यॊ वै कलियुगस्यान्तॆ मुहुर्धर्मप्ररॊहणाम् |
करॊति भक्तरक्षार्थं स भवॆद्बीजमव्ययम् ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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