Monthly Archives: October 2019

SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 38 (Names 371 to 380)

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371) mahIdhara: (महीधरः) (also repeated in 319)

Since bhagavAn only reduces the load on this earth by destroying all evil entities, he is called ‘mahIdhara:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn bears the world by reducing the load (by destroying all evil entities), he is called ‘mahIdhara:’.

भूभारनाशनॆन ज्याधरणात् धरणीधरः |

372) mahAbhAga: (महाभागः)

Since bhagavAn showed the fortune of winning over the gOpikAs, neeLA dhEvi, the sixteen thousand maidens, rukmiNi, sathyabhAmA, jAmbavathi, et al, with all of them voluntarily willing to marry him, he is called ‘mahAbhAga:’.

Etymology: mahAbhAga: is the one who possesses lofty attributes that are desired by many great women such as rukmiNi, sathyabhAmA, and others, and was married by them.

रुक्मिण्यादि बहुस्त्रीभीः महाभागः स्वयंवृतः |

373) vEgavAn (वॆगवान्)

Although born as a human, since bhagavAn shows his invincible supreme lordship even in his incarnations, he is called ‘vEgavAn’. The ‘mathup’ (मतुप्) adjunct used in this divine name indicates extremity of such qualities.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn displays his inseparable supreme lordship even during his human incarnation right from childhood, he is called ‘vEgavAn’.

दुर्वारपरमैश्वर्यप्रसारत्वात् विशॆषतः |

मनुष्यधर्मॆ बाल्यॆsपि वॆगवानिति शब्द्यतॆ ||

374) amithASana: (अमिताशनः)

How or where has he displayed such feats? This is illustrated here with this divine name ‘amithASana:’ – the one with unlimited appetite.

bhagavAn swallowed all the unlimited quantities of food prepared by the cowherds for indhra (in the name of gOvardhana parvatha). The scriptures say that the cowherds (gOpas) were extremely astonished at this extraordinary feat and doubted if he was any god, or a demon. Such are his divine plays.

Etymology: He who ate the unlimited quantities of food prepared by the cowherds with the intent of offering it to indhra without leaving any traces is called ‘amithASana:’.

इन्द्राय कल्पितं गॊपैरमितं चाशनं स्वयम् |
भुक्तवान् यश्च निःशॆषं प्रॊच्यतॆ स अमिताशनः ||

===============================
उद्भवः क्षॊभणॊ दॆवः श्रीगर्भः परमॆश्वरः ।
करणं कारणं कर्ता विकर्ता गहनॊ गुहः ॥ ४१ ॥
================================

375) udhbhava: (उद्भवः) (also repeated in 796)

With his numerous divine deeds such as getting tied with a rope by yaSOdhA etc, since bhagavAn uplifts the fallen souls from the shackles of death (samsAra), he is called ‘udhbhava:’ – the one who uplifts fallen souls from samsAra.

This is as hailed by the scriptures thus: “…that dhAmOdhara, who was tied with a rope, but who unties the fallen souls from the shackles of death”

Etymology: He is called ‘udhbhava:’, with whose grace the fallen individuals are uplifted from this samsAra.

समुद्गतॊ भवॊ यस्मात् उद्भवः परिकीर्तितः |

376) kshObhaNa: (क्षॊभणः)

bhagavAn is called ‘kshObhaNa:’ since he mixes up the individual souls and the prakruthi (nature), which are otherwise different from each other. He binds the individual souls in different bodies (made of nature) at the time of creation, and thus combines the two different entities.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn binds the fallen individual souls (eligible to be bound due to their karma) in the lower nature, he is called ‘kshObhaNa:’.

प्रकृतिं बन्धनार्हांश्च क्षॊभयन् क्षॊभणः स्मृतः |

377) dhEva: (दॆवः)

bhagavAn ties the individual souls with his rope called ‘mAyA’ just like trapping tigers and wild boars, and plays with them in this creation. Hence, he is called ‘dhEva:’ – the one who plays. It comes from the root ‘dhiv’ (दिव्), to mean ‘sport’ in this context.

Etymology: Just like trapping and caging a tiger and other wild beasts, since bhagavAn binds the individual souls (bound by karma) in this creation with his rope called ‘mAyA’ and plays with them, he is called ‘dhEva:’.

व्याघ्रादिवज्जीवततॆः मायापाशॆन बन्धनम् |
कृत्वा नित्यं क्रीडति यः स दॆवः परिकीर्तितः ||

378) SrIgarbha: (श्रीगर्भः)

bhagavAn – along with SrI mahAlakshmi – play thus with all these creations, and since his divine wealth constantly grows with such divine sport, he is called ‘SrIgarbha:’.

As the scriptures say, SrI mahAlakshmi is the one who never gets separated from bhagavAn.

Etymology: He is called ‘SrIgarbha:’, who constantly engages in divine sport with SrI mahAlakshmi and enjoys.

श्रीगर्भः श्रीरॆन भॊगक्रीडा साह्यॆन पॊष्यतॆ |

379) paramESvara: (परमॆश्वरः)

Thus, the one who possesses absolute supremacy purely due to his association with SrI mahAlakshmi, who married him out of her own wish, is called ‘paramESvara:’.

The SrImath rAmAyana says thus: “rAma glittered with sIthA by his side, just as the lord of all beings – vishNu – shines forth with SrI mahAlakshmi by his side”.

Etymology: Owing to SrI mahAlakshmi who voluntarily married bhagavAn, since he possesses absolute supremacy and lordship over every entity, he is called ‘paramESvara:’.

श्रीस्वयंग्रहसार्थात् स्वात् ऐश्वर्यात् परमॆश्वरः |

380) karaNam (करणम्)

Since bhagavAn is himself the tool helpful in attaining him, he is called ‘karaNam’ – the tool. It is indeed from just a very small fraction of such bhagavAn’s power that all of our sense organs such as eyes, ears, etc, action organs such as hands, legs, etc get their power to act as tools for knowledge and action.

The scriptures say thus:

“nArAyaNa is verily the eyes, and the object of vision. nArAyaNa is indeed the ears, and the object of hearing”, etc.

Etymology: The one who is himself the tool for all individual souls in the pursuit of attaining him is called ‘karaNam’.

स्वप्राप्तौ साधकतमं जीवानां करणं विदुः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 78 – onnA asurar

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onnA asurar thuLangach chelanItti
mannivvagalidaththai mAvaliyai vanjiththuth                                   112
than ulagam Akkuviththa thALAnai – thAmarai mEl

Word by word meaning

angu onnA asurar thuLanga – making the inimical demons (such as namuchi et al) in those seven worlds to suffer
sela nItti – extending further (to go beyond)
mannu i agal idaththai – this permanent, expansive  bhU maNdalam (region of world)
mAvaliyai vanjiththu – deceiving mahAbali (like this)
than ulagam Akkuviththa thALAnai – having divine feet, which made [such worlds] as his world

vyAkyAnam

angu onnA asurar thuLangach chela nItti – when demons such as namuchi (son of mahAbali) came opposing him exclaiming as in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 1-8-8 “ennidhu mAyam” (what is this clairvoyance?)[when emperumAn, as vAmana, asked for three steps of land with his small foot and grew up instantaneously as thrivikrama and measured all the worlds], stretching his foot such that they ran in fear, just as it is mentioned in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi  1-8-8 “mannu namuchiyai vAnil suzhaRRiya” (spinning the persistent namuchi around, in the sky) and in SrI vishNu dharmam 43-28 “dhravanthi dhaithyA:” (the demons are running).

mannivvagalidaththai – this world which was, for a long time, belonging to mahAbali

mAvaliyai vanjiththu – carrying out the deceitful act of showing a small foot and measuring with a huge foot.

thannulagam Akkuviththa – since vAmana does not see any distinction between his followers and himself and since indhra is not going to argue [claiming ownership of the worlds] the pAsuram says that thannulagam (his world) instead of indhranulagam  (indhra’s world). This is actually neither mAvali’s maN (land) nor indhra’s maN; isn’t it actually “vAmanan maN” (the land of vAmana) as mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 4-4-1! Hence, she is saying that it is “thannulagam

thALAnai – these are all related to his divine foot. She says that she will destroy that too.

 

Until now, she was saying that she will destroy his fame which he attained during his incarnations. Now she goes to all the divine abodes where he has taken residence with the fame “he is at the limit of saulabhya sauseelyAdhi (easy to approach and being very simple etc) qualities” and says that she is going to tell all the world that “he is deceiving everyone saying that he has all those qualities; he doesn’t have these qualities”.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 22

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அன்றோ இங்கு ஆண்டாள் அவதரித்தாள் குன்றாத

வாழ்வான வைகுந்த வான் போகம் தன்னை இகழ்ந்து

ஆழ்வார் திருமகளாராய் 

இருபத்திரண்டாம் பாசுரம். ஆண்டாள் நாச்சியாரின் திருவவதாரம் தனக்காகவே என்று மிகவும் அனுபவித்து அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

இன்றுதான் திருவாடிப்பூரமோ? இந்த தினத்திலேதான் ஸ்ரீ பூமிப்பிராட்டி ஸ்ரீவைகுந்தத்தில் இருக்கும் எல்லையில்லாத ஆனந்த அனுபவத்தை விட்டு, பெரியாழ்வாரின் திருமகளாரான ஆண்டாள் நாச்சியாராக, ஒரு தாய் தன் குழந்தை கிணற்றிலே விழுந்தால், எவ்வாறு தானே கிணற்றிலே குதித்துத் தன் குழந்தையை காப்பாற்றுவாளோ, அதைப் போல என்னுடைய உஜ்ஜீவனத்துக்காகவே இங்கே வந்து அவதரித்தாள். ஸ்ரீ வராகப் பெருமாள் பூமிப்பிராட்டியிடம் என்னை வாயினால் பாடி, மனத்தினால் த்யானித்து,தூயமலர்களைக் கொண்டு அர்ச்சித்தால், ஜீவாத்மாக்கள் என்னை எளிதில் அடையலாம்” என்று சொன்னதை நமக்கு நடத்திக் காட்டவே இப்பூவுலகில் வந்து அவதரித்தாள். என்ன ஆச்சர்யம்! என்ன கருணை!

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.2.8 – kadu vinai

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Second decad

Previous pAsuram

Image result for thiruvananthapuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the eighth pAsuram, AzhwAr invites SrIvaishNavas saying “Please go to thiruvananthapuram to see the divine feet of sarvESvaran who is mercifully resting there”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

kadu vinai kaLaiyalAgum kAmanaip payandha kALai
ida vagai koNdadhenbar ezhil aNi ananthapuram
padamudai aravil paLLi payinRavan pAdhangANa
nadaminO namargaL uLLIr! nAm umakkaRiyach chonnOm

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kadu vinai – cruel sins (which are the reasons for delay in attaining the result)
kaLaiyal Agum – can be eliminated
kAmanai – kAma (cupid, who is famous for his beauty)
payandha – one who created
kALai – krishNa who did not lose his youth (even after that)
ida vagai – as his abode
koNdadhu – had
ezhil – beauty
aNi – having
ananthapuram – thiruvananthapuram
enbar – is said;

(there)
padam udai – having hoods (which are expanded due to being in contact with emperumAn)
aravil – in the divine serpent mattress
paLLi – in mercifully resting
payinRavan – of the one who is very involved
pAdham – divine feet
kANa – to see and enjoy
namargaL uLLIr – oh our people
nadaminO – start walking;

(not having to think that no one informed)
nAm – we (who know the greatness of emperumAn)
umakku – for you
aRiya – to know
sonnOm – have told.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Cruel sins can be eliminated. It is said that krishNa who did not lose his youth even after creating kAma, is having beautiful thiruvananthapuram as his abode. Oh our people! Start walking towards such thiruvananthapuram to see and enjoy the divine feet of the one who is very involved in mercifully resting on the divine serpent mattress with hoods. We have told this for you to know.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kadu vinai kaLaiyal Agum – We can get rid of the cruel sins which cannot be eliminated by our own efforts.
  • kAmanaip payandha kALai – I have to instruct you only until you see him! He is the one who created kAma who bewilders the whole world with his beauty. When both (krishNa and kAma) are seen together, one will think “kAma is mistakenly identified as beautiful”. Even what is said in “prasavAnthancha yauvanam” (youth remains only until one becomes pregnant), is not applicable here.
  • ida vagai koNdadhu enbar – All the learned ones say that he has taken this place as his abode and will remain blissful; “padhmanAbham vidhurbudhA:” (Learned ones know about padhmanAnAbha).
  • ezhil aNi ananthapuram – Nothing new can be done in paramapadham; this is the unique greatness here over there [here, the town can be newly decorated].
  • padam udai aravil – The blossoming which happens when sarvESvaran reclines on him, is highlighted here in “padam udai aravu“.
  • paLLi payinRavan – The mattress is so cozy that even the naturally omniscient lord will become unconscious while resting on it.
  • pAdham … – All of you who are my brethren in thinking to see his divine feet as said in thiruvAimozhi 9.4.5vari vAL aravinaNaip paLLi koLginRa kariyAn kazhalE kANak karudhum karuththu” (Dark-hued emperumAn is mercifully resting on the serpent mattress which has stripes and radiance; my intellect is thinking to see the divine feet of such emperumAn). During an adhyayana uthsavam, when araiyar recited this pAsuram, ALavandhAr heard it and thought “We should have a connection with AzhwAr [by following his instructions]” and immediately gathered SrIvaishNavas who are his disciples, and mercifully went to thiruvananthapuram.
  • nAm – We who know the nature of his merciful resting posture and say as in thiruvAimozhi 3.7.1yavarElum avar – emmai ALum paramar” (anyone who has the wealth of worshipping emperumAn, is my lord).
  • umakku aRiyach chonnOm – We have told you, who are having the desire to see such form of emperumAn, to know about it.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 37 (Names 361 to 370)

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361) havirhari: (हविर्हरिः)

Just as declared in the vEdhas as “Only till such time I am not released from the bondages of samsAra, I cycle in this samsAra. The day I earn bhagavAn’s grace and get released from this cycle, I attain verily that supreme brahman and prosper”, bhagavAn knows and waits for the right time to grace each one of his dear devotees, and finally unites with such devotees in SrIvaikuNtam and also gives himself to them for mutual enjoyment. Thus, he is called ‘havi:’. The root ‘hu’ (हु) means to exchange – give and take. It gets the ‘isi:’ (इसिः) adjunct per grammatical rules, resulting in the word ‘havi:’.

Furthermore, bhagavAn only dispels all obstacles in the way of attaining him, and hence he is called ‘hari:’ – the one who steals (removes) the obstacles.

Since bhagavAn thus gives himself to his devotees, unites with such dear devotees, and also dispels obstacles in the way of such union, he is called ‘havirhari:’.

This is as said in the scriptures thus:

“hari steals (clears off) all sins of his dear devotees, even if they were known to be the most evil minded souls before, although they did not yearn for such divine grace. This is like fire displaying its nature of burning although touched without knowledge”.

‘havirhari:’ is thus a single name, and not two names.

bhagavAn himself declares thus: “I accept a part of the fire oblations, and hence called ‘hari:’. Also, I am called ‘hari:’ due to my greenish hue”.

Since bhagavAn thus accepts the oblations (havis) in the sacred fire, he is called ‘havirhari:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘havi:’ since he knows when the time is ripe and gives away himself to his dear devotees and also unites with them. He is called ‘hari:’ since he only removes the obstacles in the way of such divine union. Thus, he is called ‘havirhari:’.

Alternately, since bhagavAn accepts the oblations given in the sacred fire (directly as well as in the form as indweller of lower demigods to whom such oblations may be directed), he is called ‘havirhari:’.

भक्तॆभ्यः स्वात्मदानाय यॊ ज्ञात्वावसरं मुदा |
दीयतॆ चादीयतॆ च तैर्यॊsसौ तु हविः स्मृतः ||

हरिश्च तद्विघ्नहरॊ यद्वा क्रतुषु दीयतॆ |
यद्धविस्तस्य हरणात् हविर्हरिरिति स्मृतः ||

362) sarvalakshaNa-lakshaNya: (सर्वलक्षणलक्षण्यः)

Thence, bhagavAn vAsudhEva’s form as the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi is hailed. bhagavAn possesses an auspicious divine body showing insignia of great prosperity due to his constant embracing of his consort SrI mahAlakshmi. Hence he is called ‘sarva-lakshaNa-lakshaNya:’ – the one who possesses all auspicious insignia.

Such divine auspicious insignia are shown in the scriptures thus:

  • “One should meditate upon that consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, who possesses the hue of a lotus, and is stationed in a divine lotus sporting the divine discus (chakra) in both of his hands”
  • “Oh lotus eyed one, the ocean of all auspiciousness and bliss…” etc.

Etymology: sarva-lakshaNa-lakshaNya: is the one who sports the insignia of his divine union with SrI mahAlakshmi.

सर्वलक्षणलक्षण्यॊ लक्ष्मीलक्षण-चिह्नितः |

363) lakshmIvAn (लक्ष्मीवान्)

Thus he is also called ‘lakshmIvAn’ – the one who is eternally united with SrI mahAlakshmi.

bhagavAn himself declares thus:

“When I held the hand of SrI mahAlakshmi in marriage (to enact our marriage for all individual souls to enjoy), I playfully disclosed her eternity just like myself (without another cause). I have taken shelter in her ever since, and she has sought my refuge. So we are mutually inseparable for eternity”.

The word ‘prakruthi’ in this sloka verily refers to SrI mahAlakshmi, who is the mother of all worlds.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is ever united with SrI mahAlakshmi, he is called ‘lakshmIvAn’.

लक्ष्म्या च नित्ययुक्तत्वात् लक्ष्मीवान् इति कथ्यतॆ |

364) samithinjaya: (समितिञ्जयः)

Ever united with SrI mahAlakshmi who is the mother of all worlds, bhagavAn becomes the father of every entity. Since the duo thus takes on the responsibility of their children (individual souls born in this creation) in bestowing all happiness upon them, and dispelling the confusions from their minds regarding their eternal natural subservience unto them, bhagavAn is called ‘samithinjaya:’ (read as samitinjaya:).

As the manthra varNas hail, bhagavAn is the one who wins over all sorrows of his devotees (in terms of confusions regarding their subservience, and all other types of obstacles that stop them from attaining him).

Etymology: Having united with SrI mahAlakshmi, since bhagavAn dispels the confusions from the minds of his dear devotees regarding their eternal and natural subservience unto the duo, and thus since he dispels the root of all their sorrows and bestows all auspiciousness, he is called ‘samithinjaya:’.

चॆतनानां स्वदासत्वविवादं जयतीति सः |
समितिञ्जय आख्यातः सर्वदुःखशमाश्रयः ||

===============================
विक्षरॊ रॊहितॊ मर्गॊ हॆतुर्दामॊदरः सहः ।
महीधरॊ महाभागॊ वॆगवान् अमिताशनः ॥ ४० ॥
===============================

365) vikshara: (विक्षरः)

As described hitherto, since bhagavAn never lets his love towards his dearest devotees diminish, he is called ‘vikshara:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s divine love towards his devotees said hitherto never diminishes, he is called ‘vikshara:’.

उक्तस्नॆहस्य अक्षरणात् विक्षरः परिकीर्तितः |

366) rOhitha: (रॊहितः)

bhagavAn possesses a reddish hue as in the calyx of a beautiful lotus flower, due to his eternal union with SrI mahAlakshmi. Hence, he is called ‘rOhitha:’ – the one with a beautiful reddish hue.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn possesses a reddish hue as in the calyx of a lotus flower, he is called ‘rOhitha:’.

पद्मस्य गर्भाभतया रॊहितः परिकीर्तितः |

367) mArga: (मार्गः) (also repeated in 398)

Since he is sought by all of his dear devotees, he is called ‘mArga:’ – the one who is sought after.

As said in the manthra varNas, bhagavAn is the one who is most liked by the devotees.

Etymology: The one who is constantly sought after by his devotees for fulfilling all their desires is called ‘mArga:’.

उपासकैर्मार्ग्यमाणॊ मार्गॊ वाञ्छितसिद्धयॆ |

368) hEthu: (हॆतुः)

bhagavAn is also called ‘hEthu:’ since he remains as the cause for the fulfillment of such desires of all of his dear devotees.

The root ‘hi’ (हि) refers to movement, which gets the ‘thu:’ (तुः) adjunct, resulting in the divine name.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn bestows the desired fruits upon all devotees and thus remains the cause for all their attainments, he is called ‘hEthu:’.

वाञ्छितार्थनिदानत्वात् हॆतुरित्यभिदीयतॆ |

369) dhAmOdhara: (दामॊदरः)

Since all the worlds (dhAmAni) reside in the belly of bhagavAn, he is called ‘dhAmOdhara:’. This divine name represents his disposition as primordial creator with SrI mahAlakshmi. The scriptures say thus: “The worlds by name ‘dhAma’ shine forth in his belly, due to which he gets the name ‘dhAmOdhara:’”.

Alternately, he is called dhAmOdhara: since he bestows happiness upon all the dhEvas. The word ‘dhAma’ in this context refers to bliss.

Also, he is called ‘dhAmOdhara:’ since he was tied with a rope in his belly by his mother yaSOdha to a grinding stone. The word ‘dhAma’ in this context means a rope.

Thus, although highly clever as loved by even SrI mahAlakshmi herself, bhagavAn voluntarily gets bound by his dear devotees (like yaSOdha, and other gOpikas) in their faultless devotion. He stands tied to a grinding stone with tears rolling down his cheeks, and thus displays his incomparable simplicity, although being the only supreme entity. This divine name shows this extraordinary simplicity and affection of bhagavAn.

Etymology: The one who houses all worlds (dhAma) in his belly is called ‘dhAmOdhara:’. Alternately, he is also popularly called dhAmOdhara: since he was easily tied by yaSOdha with a rope in his belly. Also, he is called ‘dhAmOdhara:’ since he bestows all happiness upon the dhEvas with his infinite bliss.

दामानि लॊकनामानि ह्युदरॆ यस्य सन्ति सः |

दामॊदरॊ मतॊ यद्वा यशॊदा दामबन्धनात् |
दॆवानां सुखशंसित्वात् दामात् दामॊदरॊsपि वा ||

370) saha: (सहः)

Although being the consort of verily SrI mahAlakshmi herself (indicating his absolute supremacy), since he happily puts up with all the tying, scolding, threatening etc by yaSOdhA, he is called ‘saha:’ – the one who endures.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn endures the acts of tying, scolding etc by yaSOdha, he is called ‘saha:’.

यशॊदाकृत-बन्धादि सहनात् सह ईरितः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 77 – mannA tharuga enRu

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mannA tharuga enRu vAy thiRappa maRRavanum
ennAl tharappattadhenRalumE aththuNaikkaN                                                            110
minnAr maNimudi pOy viN thadava mEleduththa
ponnAr kanai kazhaRkAl Ezhulagum pOykkadandhu                                              111

Word by word meaning

vAy thiRappa – as he asked, opening his mouth
avanum – that mahAbali (who heard that)
ennAl tharappattadhu enRalum – as he said that “the three steps of land have been given by me”
aththuNaikkaN – at that very moment
min Ar mudi pOy viN thadava – the radiant crown went and stroked the ethereal layer
mEl eduththa – that which was lifted high up
pon Ar kanai kazhal kAl – the coveted divine foot, decorated with valorous anklet and making a sound
Ezh ulagum pOy kadandhu – going across all the worlds above

vyAkyAnam

tharuga enRu vAy thiRappa – who will not soften when he (emperumAn as vAmana) opens his radiant mouth?

maRRavanum – this implies that mAvali, who was fully engaged in the beauty of vAmana opening his radiant mouth and in the sweetness of the speech, changed into a totally new person, just as gold is changed by being melted in a furnace [and is purified fully].

ennAl tharappattadhu enRalumE – just as SrI rAma said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18-34 “dhaththamasyAbhayam mayA” (refuge has been granted by me to vibhIshaNa) and in 18-35 “abhayam sarva bhUthEbhyO dhadhAmi” (I grant refuge from all creations), mAvali said “I have given already”. Since he had already taken a vow that he would grant whatever anyone asked for, he says that he has already given it.

aththuNaikkaN – vAmana started growing at that very moment and started measuring [all the worlds] since the one who had granted his wish, being a demon, could change his mind any time.

minnAr maNi mudi pOy viN thadava – the form of vAmana, who was a bachelor, changed into the crowned form of thrivikrama and that radiant crown, full of gems, pervaded all the upper worlds.

viN thadava – since the capability of the protector is not limited by the capability of the protected, the foot pervaded even SrIvaikuNtam. Didn’t purusha sUktham-1 say “bhUmim viSvathO vruthvA athya thishta dhaSAngulam” (pervading entire earth, he measured to an unlimited extent)!

mEl eduththa . . . Ezhulagum pOy – Just as thiruvAimozhi 7-4-1 said “mudi pAdham ezha” the divine foot which was lifted, competed with the divine crown and went higher and higher, up.

ponnAr kanai kazhal kAl – the divine foot which was golden, desired by everyone, and decorated with valorous anklet which seemed to roar “there is no one to equal me in protecting the followers”

Ezhulagum pOy kadandhu – the divine foot too went beyond the shell of the universe.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 21

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ஆழ்வார் திருமகளார் ஆண்டாள் மதுரகவி

ஆழ்வார் எதிராசராம் இவர்கள் வாழ்வாக

வந்துதித்த மாதங்கள் நாள்கள் தம்மின் வாசியையும் 

இந்த உலகோர்க்கு உரைப்போம் யாம் 

இருபத்தொன்றாம் பாசுரம். ஆழ்வார்கள் பதின்மர் என்பதும் உண்டு பன்னிருவர் என்பதும் உண்டு. எம்பெருமான் விஷயத்திலே ஆழ்ந்தவர்களை மட்டும் பார்த்தால், இவர்கள் பதின்மர்கள். இவர்களுடைய மாத, நக்ஷத்ரங்களை நன்றாகக் காட்டியருளினார் கீழே. ஆண்டாள் மற்றும் மதுரகவி ஆழ்வார் ஆகிய இருவரும் ஆசார்ய அபிமான நிஷ்டர்கள். ஆண்டாள் “விட்டுசித்தர் தங்கள் தேவர்” என்று தன் தகப்பனாரான விஷ்ணுசித்தர் விரும்பிய தெய்வம் என்றே எம்பெருமானை அனுபவிக்கிறாள். மதுரகவி ஆழ்வாரும் “தேவ மற்றறியேன்” என்று நம்மாழ்வாரிடமே பக்தி கொண்டிருந்தார். இவ்விருவரும் சேர்க்கப்பட்டால் ஆழ்வார்கள் பன்னிருவர். இவர்களுடன் நம் ஆசார்ய பரம்பரையின் முக்யமான ஆசார்யரான “மாறன் அடி பணிந்து உய்ந்தவரான” எம்பெருமானாராம் யதிராஜரையும் சேர்த்து இங்கே அனுபவிக்கிறார். எம்பெருமானாரும் “ஸ்ரீராமானுஜம்” என்று நம்மாழ்வாரின் திருவடியாகவே கொண்டாடப்படுகிறார். இம்மூவருக்கும் மற்றுமொரு தொடர்பும் உண்டே – ஆண்டாள் பூமிப் பிராட்டியின் அவதாரம் என்றும், மதுரகவி ஆழ்வார் பெரிய திருவடியின் அவதாரம் என்றும் எம்பெருமானார் ஆதிசேஷ அவதாரம் என்றும் கொண்டாடப்படுவர். இவர்கள் அவதரித்த தினங்களின் பெருமையை இவ்வுலகுக்கு உரைப்போம் என்று அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

பெரியாழ்வார் திருமகளாரான ஆண்டாள், மதுரகவி ஆழ்வார் மற்றும் யதிகட்கிறைவரான ஸ்ரீ ராமானுஜர் ஆகிய இவர்கள் இவ்வுலகத்தில் உள்ளோரின் வாழ்ச்சிக்காக வந்து அவதரித்த மாதங்கள் மற்றும் நக்ஷத்ரங்களின் பெருமையை இந்த உலகத்தவர்களுக்கு எடுத்துரைப்போம்.

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thiruvAimozhi – 10.2.7 – thudaiththa gOvindhanArE

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Second decad

Previous pAsuram

Image result for anantha padmanabha swamy

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the seventh pAsuram, AzhwAr says “As one goes and serves sarvESvaran who is mercifully resting in thiruvananthapuram, our sorrow of not serving him previously will be eliminated immediately”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

thudaiththa gOvindhanArE ulaguyir dhEvum maRRum
padaiththa em parama mUrththi pAmbaNaip paLLi koNdAn
madaiththalai vALai pAyum vayalaNi ananthapuram
kadaiththalai sIykkap peRRAl kadu vinai kaLaiyalAmE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

ulagu – worlds
uyir – creatures (such as humans)
dhEvum – dhEvathAs (celestial beings)
maRRum – and other entities such as mahath (the great element) etc
thudaiththa – one who created them all and annihilated them too
gOvindhanArE – (as said in “thama: parEdhEva EkI bhavathi“, as he has a shining form in that stage) one who is known as gOvindha, himself

(created all those entities which were annihilated)
padaiththa – one who created
em – one who revealed this kAraNathvam (his being the cause)
parama mUrththi – lord who is greater than all

(to protect the created world)
pAmbu aNai – in the serpent mattress
paLLi koNdAn – one who is mercifully resting, his

(due to abundance of water)
madaith thalai – in the entrance of the canals
vALai pAyum – the (schools of fish) jumping around joyfully
vayal aNi – having the field as decoration
ananthapuram – in thiruvananthapuram
kadaiththalai – in the divine entrance
sIykkap peRRAl – if we engage in sweeping the floor etc
kadu vinai – great sorrow (of not attaining opportunity to do kainkaryam)
kaLaiyalAm – can be eliminated.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn, who is known as gOvindha, himself created the worlds, the creatures, dhEvathAs and other entities such as mahath and annihilated them too; being the creator, lord who is greater than all, who revealed this kAraNathvam, is mercifully resting on the serpent mattress. If we engage in sweeping the floor etc at the divine entrance of his thiruvananthapuram which is having farm-field as decoration with (the schools of) fish jumping around joyfully in the entrance of the canals, our great sorrow, of not doing kainkaryam until now, can be eliminated. gOvindha could also indicate krishNa as said in “krishNa Evahi lOkAnAm uthpaththirapi chAbyaya:” .

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • thudaiththa gOvindhanArE … – thudaikkai – annihilating. Annihilation precedes creation. mahAbhAratham sabhA parvam 38.23 “krishNa Eva hi lOkAnAm uthpaththirapichAbyaya:” (krishNa is the cause for all worlds), periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 1.1.6 “vaiyam Ezhum kaNdAL piLLai vAyuLE” (mother yaSOdhA saw the whole creation in krishNa’s mouth).
  • ulagu uyir … – One who created the world, celestial beings and other sentient beings. When they started violating their limits, he annihilated them, and subsequently he gave them the senses/bodies which are necessary to attain the purushArtham (goal), and protected them.
  • em parama mUrththi – sarvESvaran who is humble towards his devotees.
  • pAmbaNaip paLLi koNdAn – One who mercifully reclined on thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSEsha) in the created world, for the protection of the residents of the world. His,
  • madaiththalai … – In the abode which is decorated with fields where the (schools of) fish joyfully jump around and reside in the entrance of the canals, due to the abundant availability of water; just as mukthAthmAs reside in paramapadham singing sAma gAnam, even the animals reside joyfully in this abode.
  • kadaiththalai sIykkap peRRAl – If we get to perform divine sweeping kainkaryam at the sannidhi entrance.
  • kadu vinai kaLaiyalAmE – All the sorrows due to not performing service will be eliminated. After acquiring SEshathva gyAnam (knowledge of being a servitor), the sorrow of not having done service cannot be eliminated by prAyaSchiththam (atonement) [it will only go by engaging in kainkaryam fully].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 76 – mannai manam koLLa

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mannai manangoLLa vanjiththu nenjurukki
ennudaiya pAdhaththAl yAnaLappa mUvadimaN                                            109

Word by word meaning

pOr vEndhar mannai – that mAvali who is the chief of kings who have the strength to indulge in war
manam koLLa vanjiththu – bewildering him to make him believe (that this bachelor has come only to seek alms)
nenju urukki – softening his heart (through the beauty of his gait, speech etc)
manna – Oh King!
ennudaiya pAdhaththAl yAn aLappa – by measuring with my foot
mU adi maN tharuga enRu – saying ‘give me three steps of land’ 

vyAkyAnam

pOr vEndhar mannai – the chief king among all the kings who are great warriors.

manam koLLa vanjiththu – While people such as Sukra bhagavAn (guru [preceptor] for demons) tried to dissuade mahAbali from granting anything, saying “this (vAmana) is no ordinary bachelor; he is the deceitful vishNu himself”, vAmana deceived mahAbali through his beauty. Alternative interpretation – vAmana deceived mahAbali by making him believe fully thinking “He has come only for seeking alms; he hasn’t come to deceive”.

nenjurukki – just as it is said in thiruvAimozhi 1-8-6pulan koL mANAy” (in the guise of a dwarf and a bachelor at that, stealing the sensory perceptions), making mahAbali feel that he cannot sustain himself unless he grants whatever vAmana asks for, by softening mahAbali’s mind which was disturbed by Sukra (his guru).

The following conversation [as given in the arumpadhavurai (explanatory note) by puththUr swAmy] explains the way in which vAmana softened mahAbali’s heart:

ennudaiya pAdhaththAL yAn aLappa . . . . .

manna – vAmanA drew the attention of mahAbali by calling him “Oh King!”

mAvali stared at him from head to foot.

mUvadi – the child-like vAmana said “You must give me three steps”

mAvali asked him “What should I give you?”

maN – the child told him “I want three steps of land”

mAvali asked him “Through whose foot should I grant you three steps of land?”

ennudaiya pAdhaththAl – the child told him “Through my foot”

mAvali told him “Would you not take three steps of land as measured by my foot which is big?”

yAn aLappa – vAmana advised mAvali “Is it not your duty to grant me whatever I desire?”

mAvali kept quiet for sometime, with the desire “I should listen to his conversation for some more time”

tharuga – the child spoke as if nectar were dripping from each word “give now itself”

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 36 (Names 351 to 360)

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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<< Part 35

351) SarIrabhruth (शरीरभृत्)

Sporting such auspicious forms thus, since bhagavAn nourishes his devotees who are verily his divine body, he is called ‘SarIrabhruth’. He nourishes every individual soul with his adorable qualities.

The vishNu purANa says thus: “When bhagavAn resides in the heart of a devotee, that devotee shines forth with a very pleasant demeanor in this world”

The chAndhOgya upanishath also says thus: “Oh SvEthakEthu, your face is glowing as though suggesting that you have completely understood the supreme brahman”.

The devotees of bhagavAn who sincerely worship him as laid down by bhagavAn himself in various scriptures are indeed the body of bhagavAn. At the same time, bhagavAn considers such pure devotees themselves as verily his soul. Such an intimate relationship exists between bhagavAn and his true devotees, with which bhagavAn nourishes them.

Etymology: Situated in the middle of the lotus of heart of his true devotee (yOgi), since bhagavAn bears such an individual soul like his own body and nourishes it, he is called ‘SarIrabhruth’.

यॊगिहृत्कञ्जमध्यस्थः स्वदॆहं तं बिभर्ति यः |
शरीरभृत् स कथितॊ वस्वर्णॊ भुक्तिमुक्तिदः ||

352 and 353) mahardhdhi: (महर्द्धिः), rudhdha: (ऋद्धः) (also repeated in 279)

Thence, bhagavAn’s divine wealth in his manifestation as vAsudhEva is hailed.

bhagavAn’s divine wealth is expansive enough to look after the ‘yOga’ (attainment of wealth) and ‘kshEma’ (retentiveness of such gained wealth) of all of his devotees. Thus, he is called ‘mahardhdhi:’ – the one who bestows great prosperity upon his devotees.

Furthermore, bhagavAn himself experiences completeness from the progress of such true devotees. Hence, he is also greatly prosperous himself, and aptly called ‘rudhdha:’ – the greatly prosperous one.

This is as shown in the SrImath rAmAyaNa, where it says rAma was extremely happy after coronating vibhIshaNa as the ruler of lanka.

Etymology: The divine wealth of that vAsudhEva is hailed thereafter. bhagavAn looks after the possessions of his devotees with his unbound supreme wealth, due to which he is called ‘mahardhdhi:’. Also, he is feels greatly prosperous himself with the progress of such true devotees, and hence called ‘rudhdha:’.

स ऎवाथॊ विव्रियतॆ वासुदॆवॊ विभूतिभिः |
तद्यॊगक्षॆमवहन-निर्मर्यादविभूतितः ||
महर्द्धिस्तत्स्मृद्ध्या यः समृद्धः स्वृद्ध उच्यतॆ ||

354) vrudhdhAthmA (वृद्धात्मा)

bhagavAn’s nature is so magnanimous that all such greatness as shown in the previous divine names is reduced to merely a handful measure when compared to his divine natural self. Hence, he is called ‘vrudhdhAthmA’ – the magnanimous one by nature.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s divine nature is so great as to reduce all other greatness to merely a handful measure, he is called ‘vrudhdhAthmA’.

महिमानं चुलकयन् प्रवृद्धः सर्वतॊsधिकम् |
आत्मा स्वरूपं यस्यॆति स वृद्धात्मॆति कथ्यतॆ ||

355) mahAksha: (महाक्षः)

The word ‘mahAn’ refers to being venerable. The word ‘aksha:’ refers to the pivot or axle of a vehicle. Since the venerable garuda himself is used as bhagavAn’s vehicle, bhagavAn is called ‘mahAksha:’ – the one who possesses a venerable chariot.

In this context, the word ‘aksha:’ is used to represent the vehicle / chariot (ratha) of bhagavAn. A parallel can be drawn between the vehicle and garuda – who is verily the form of vEdhas – due to their common functionality of transporting.

Etymology: garuda is called ‘aksha:’ to mean ‘chariot’, since he acts similar to a chariot by carrying bhagavAn around. Since such a chariot of bhagavAn – garuda – is most venerable, bhagavAn is called ‘mahAksha:’.

अक्षस्तु तार्क्ष्यॊ वहनात् रथावयवसाम्यतः |
महान् पूज्यः स यस्यास्ति स महाक्ष इति स्मृतः ||

356) garudadhvaja: (गरुडध्वजः)

bhagavAn possesses the same garuda as his identifying flag as well. Hence he is called ‘garudadhvaja:’. The ‘garuda flag’ itself is one of the most uniquely identifying characteristics of bhagavAn showing his absolute supremacy.

Etymology: The one who possesses the same garuda as his flag as well is called ‘garudadhvaja:’.

स ऎव तु ध्वजॊ यस्य स उक्तॊ गरुडध्वजः |

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अतुलः शरभॊ भीमः समयज्ञॊ हविर्हरिः ।
सर्वलक्षणलक्षण्यॊ लक्ष्मीवान् समितिञ्जयः ॥ ३९ ॥
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357) athula: (अतुलः)

The one who is thus incomparable is called ‘athula:’. They vEdhas say thus: “There is no other entity like him”

Etymology: Due to his possession of garuda as his flag, bhagavAn is incomparable and hence called ‘athula:’.

गरुडध्वजत्वाद्धि स अतुलॊsनुपमः स्मृतः |

358) Sarabha: (शरभः)

bhagavAn punishes those entities that act beyond their limits, and hence called ‘Sarabha:’ – the punisher. This divine name comes from ‘SruNAthi’ (शृणाति), referring to punishment. The root ‘Sru’ (शृ) means to destroy. It gets the ‘abhach’ (अभच्) adjunct by grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn punishes those individuals who disobey his divine orders (in the form of SAsthras), he is called ‘Sarabha:’.

स्वाज्ञातिलङ्घिनः पुंसः शिक्षणात् शरभः स्मृतः |

359) bhIma: (भीमः) (also repeated in 948)

bhagavAn is also called ‘bhIma:’ since he induces fear among those who disobey his divine orders. The root ‘bhI’ भी (fearing) gets the ‘mak’ (मक्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name. In this context, it means the one who instills such fear.

With such fear of bhagavAn alone do the dhEvas such as vAyu, indhra, et al remain in their limits of action, bound by bhagavAn’s orders. This is clearly shown by vEdhas when they declare “out of his fear does the wind flow”, etc.

They also declare thus:

  • “All sentient entities in this creation fear bhagavAn greatly, as much as they see a rasied vajrAyudha (the weapon called ‘vajra’) – ready to attack”
  • “With fear of bhagavAn only the fire burns. With his fear alone the sun produces heat. With his fear, indhra, vAyu, yama – the lord of death – and others run around to be identified as obedient servants”, etc.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘bhIma:’ since he instills fear of punishment in the lower demigods such as vAyu, indhra, et al if they dare to disobey his orders.

भीमॊ यस्मात् बिभ्यति तु शरभात् पवनादयः |

360) samayagya: (समयज्ञः)

Thus, the one who clearly knows the behavior of his servants such as agni, vAyu, et al (to know how they behave at various times) is called ‘samayagya:’ – the one who knows the time. The vEdhas declare thus: “bhagavAn created these sun, moon, etc just as they were in the previous creation cycle”.

Alternately, he knows exactly when the time is ripe for him to give himself to his dearest devotees. He knows exactly when he can protect them, and provides his shelter of protection (abhayam) accordingly.

Etymology: The one who knows the behaviors of his servants such as agni and others at various times is called ‘samayagyna:’.

अग्न्यादीनां च समयम् ऊर्ध्वाग्रज्वलनादिकम् |
यॊ जानात्यधिकारं स समयज्ञः प्रकीर्तितः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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