SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
See nampiLLai’s introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
See nampiLLai’s introduction.
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
In the second decad – previously, AzhwAr called out to emperumAn with anguish on meditating the cruel acts of the worldly pleasures and senses; due to the previously experienced enjoyability in “kannalE amudhE“, he undergoes anguish along with great attachment, and as he did not attain the expected experience, he thinks that it is due to the hurdles and highlights the following aspects about emperumAn who can eliminate those hurdles and bestow that experience:
- his being with enjoyable symbols
- his specific acts for the protection of all
- his eliminating the hurdles which stop his protection from taking effect
- his infinite greatness
- his being desired by his devotees
- his completeness with the weapons which are used to protect his devotees
- his reclining on the [milk] ocean for the protection of his devotees
- his suprahuman activities during his incarnations
- his great love
- his great lordship of being the antharyAmi of even those who consider themselves to be the lords
Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr thinks “emperumAn who is the protector and is enjoyable as mentioned here, has not eliminated my hurdles and let me enjoy him” and due to great sorrow, performed many acts in discontent and became unhappy. Seeing his state, those who care for him, inform periya perumAL, who is in the easily approachable archAvathAram (deity form), about AzhwAr’s unconscious state due to overwhelming affection. AzhwAr explains this scenario through the words of the mother of the nAyaki (parAnguSa nAyaki, AzhwAr in feminine mood) who is separated from periya perumAL (the lord), being unable to bear her daughter’s great sorrow, out of her helpless situation, visualising periya perumAL’s presence and informing him the same.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
See nampiLLai‘s introduction.
Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction
AzhwAr observed the meaning of the term “nama:” in thiruvAimozhi 7.1 “uNNilAviya” stretching it up to servitude towards devotees as said in thiruvAimozhi 7.1.11 “thoNdar thoNdar thoNdar thoNdan satakOpan” (AzhwAr, who is the servitor of the chain of devotees of emperumAn). In thiruvAimozhi 6.10 “ulagumuNda peruvAyA“, he surrendered at the divine feet of thiruvEngadamudaiyAn in the presence of periya pirAttiyAr as purushakAram (mediation, recommendation); since emperumAn still placed AzhwAr in this world where sensual pleasures and senses are in vogue, he thought emperumAn may be trying to abandon him and hence cried out in “uNNilAviya“. If one does not attain the result even after pursuing the sAdhana [means, emperumAn] which has no vyabichAra (invisibility of result) and vyavadhAna (delay), one would become upset and call out for emperumAn only. But why is he still not attaining the result? While the result is on its way, AzhwAr is suffering due to his impatience; he is so tender that his tenderness even defeats ISvara’s omniscience. He does not remain patient as pirAtti as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 39.40 “thath thasya sadhruSam bhavEth” (it will be fitting if SrI rAma could come on his own and take me), due to his overwhelming taste [towards emperumAn]. One cannot remain patient if one meditates upon the faults of samsAram (material realm) and emperumAn’s great qualities.
samsAris (worldly people) who don’t know about bhagavAn are not companions for him; nithyasUris (eternal residents of paramapadham) who don’t need to know about not being with bhagavAn [since they never separate from him], are not companions for him as well; to suffer in separation, AzhwAr is the lone person. Whenever bhattar set out to explain this decad, he would place his hand on his head [highlighting one’s own ignorance] and say “How can we speak about this decad, when we do not understand AzhwAr’s state and when we do not have his emotions?”
emperumAn too remained thinking “as AzhwAr has declared that his everything is in my responsibility, and as I have decided to take care of him, would I not fulfil his desires? Whatever experience he would get in paramapadham, while he enjoys the same right here in samsAram, and if he unnecessarily doubts ‘the hurdles are not removed’, I will eliminate his doubts as well; would there not be few days delay here and there? What is the issue here?”. Now, can he keep AzhwAr in this samsAram while he cannot tolerate it? As a [righteous] person would make his own children starve to care for the guests, emperumAn is thinking “Let him suffer for a few days if necessary; let us uplift the world with his prabandham”. emperumAn kept AzhwAr in this world thinking that AzhwAr’s presence here even for a muhUrtham (48 minutes) would be sufficient to reform the world which could not be reformed even by emperumAn himself; AzhwAr was thinking “if he knows my state, and if he is not lacking in ability, why should he use me in his purpose? Why can’t he use someone who can tolerate the suffering here, to reform the world?”. And emperumAn remains thinking “I should reform the world only with the one who cannot tolerate to be in this world”. One should fulfil his/her purpose with the help of a dhESika (AchArya, preceptor). The prapaththi (surrender) which was performed by AzhwAr did not lead to immediate result. This is like brahmAsthram [the best weapon] becoming ineffective.
[SrI bharathAzhwAn is cited as an example for emperumAn‘s svAthanthriyam (freewill) in placing someone in a situation which is undesirable for that person, to fulfil his own purpose]
Now, SrI bharathAzhwAn returned from his uncle’s place and offered his obeisances to his mother; she calls him “rAjan” (Oh king). Unable to bear the anguish of hearing that word, he straightaway runs to SrI rAma [who was in the forest] and surrenders at his divine feet. He prays to SrI rAma “your highness should return to ayOdhyA”; perumAL (SrI rAma) cites many reasons for not returning at the moment and tells him “Dear brother! You should not force me; you spoke as if you are independent; realise your dependence upon me and return to ayOdhyA now”. Similarly, emperumAn is supremely independent to bestow something other than what is prayed by AzhwAr and abandon him; this is why, he is able to do whatever and whenever he desires. AzhwAr’s state is so special that even emperumAn who is sarvagya (omniscient) who can understand AzhwAr’s state cannot do anything for him.
AzhwAr called him saying thiruvAimozhi 7.1.5 “viNNuLAr perumAnEyO“, thiruvAimozhi 7.1.10 “mun paravai kadaindhu amudham koNda mUrththiyO” and thiruvAimozhi 7.1.9 “pala mudhal padaiththAy“, highlighting his parathvam (supremacy in paramapadham), avathAram (incarnations) and jagath kAraNathvam (vyUha state of being the cause of the world); among those, as parathvam is outside this material realm, AzhwAr could pacify himself saying that it is difficult to attain him; as avathAram is in previous ages, he could pacify himself saying that emperumAn did not help me back then; jagath kAraNathvam is done during srushti (creation) when one is in an unconscious state to realise emperumAn‘s help and hence he could pacify himself saying that he could not have done anything in that state; now, to make for all those losses, if emperumAn eternally resides in kOyil (SrIrangam) as periya perumAL, and if one surrenders to such periya perumAL and still does not get his desire fulfilled, one cannot tolerate that. One can tolerate if emperumAn is not present or if there is something lacking in emperumAn’s knowledge (ability etc), one can sustain oneself. AzhwAr is not losing due to lack of simplicity or supremacy in emperumAn. Even in this state, as AzhwAr did not attain the interactions he desired at the divine feet of emperumAn, he loses his own mood and acquires a feminine mood; that too, unable to speak about the state of self, AzhwAr acquires the mood of the divine mother of a nAyaki (parAnguSa nAyaki) and calls out for emperumAn.
Due to the gain/loss in union/separation, AzhwAr acquires feminine mood; why did he acquire the nature of a mother? When a river floods, it could spill over the banks and separately run as rivers, yet, the amount of water reaching the ocean will not reduce. Similarly AzhwAr’s love is so great as said in thiruvAimozhi 10.10.9 “adhaniRperiya avA” (the love which is greater than bhagavAn himself); hence he could assume any mood. parAnguSa nAyaki is unconscious and all her relatives are unconscious; though iLaiya perumAL (lakshamaNa) was more tired than perumAL (SrI rAma), still as he is focussed on protecting perumAL, he would be more alert; in the same say, the divine mother would become conscious for the protection of her daughter, as they have the family heritage of always depending on the divine feet of emperumAn even in dire situations. She places her daughter at the divine feet of periya perumAL and tells him “she is crying, offering obeisances, becomes unconscious, blabbering, speaking incohesively, breathing heavily, stopping even that, being stunned and having great sorrow in this manner; what are you going to do for her?” and keeps calling out for him.
This clan will always looks towards periya perumAL only.
[Two examples are cited]
ANdAL (dharmapathni of kUraththAzhwAn) said to AzhwAn “Our children have reached the suitable age for marriage; why are you not doing anything about it?” and AzhwAn responds “Why should I start worrying from today for bhagavAn‘s family? You send them to periya perumAL sannidhi around the time when I finish my recital”. ANdAL sends parASara bhattar and SrIrAmap piLLai (vEdha vyAsa bhattar) when AzhwAn completes the recital and stands at the divine feet of periya perumAL. periya perumAL enquires AzhwAn “It appears that you want to say something!” and AzhwAn submits to him saying “Everyone is saying that these children are ready for marriage”. emperumAn said “I will take care”; the subsequent day, suitable brides arrived for them.
agaLanga brahmarAyar [a king and disciple of parASara bhattar], was building the fort in the adaiyavaLandhAn [the outer fort around the SrIrangam temple], and was planning to demolish the house of iLaiyAzhwAn to build the fort. bhattar mercifully heard this and said to the king “Dear son! Don’t think that the fort you build is the protection for periya perumAL; the devoted families who live here are the protection for him; so, what you are doing is fine; but don’t think [pridefully] that you are doing all of this and instead think that periya perumAL is getting it done through you; this way, you will be walking the noble path”.
In this manner, this divine mother of parAnguSa nAyaki too, placing all responsibilities on him, and placing her daughter in between the two auspicious pillars (in front of periya perumAL), humbly reciting his qualities such as aSaraNya SaraNyathva (being the refuge for those without a refuge), and meditating upon emperumAn being the refuge for all irrespective of time, place and qualification, highlights the state of her daughter in the divine heart of periya perumAL.
Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.
- pAsuram 1
- pAsuram 2
- pAsuram 3
- pAsuram 4
- pAsuram 5
- pAsuram 6
- pAsuram 7
- pAsuram 8
- pAsuram 9
- pAsuram 10
- pAsuram 11
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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