Monthly Archives: June 2018

mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi – 100 – sArvu namakkenRum

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that emperumAn will be the refuge only for those who attain periya pirAttiyAr’s divine feet as the refuge.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

sArvu namakkenRum chakkaraththAn thanduzhAyth
thArvAzh varaimArvan thAn muyangum kArArndha
vAnamaruminnimaikkum vaNdAmarai nedungaN
thEnamarum pUmEl thiru

Word by Word Meanings

chakkaraththAn – one who has sudharSanam [divine disc] in his divine hand
thaN thuzhAy thAr vAzh – one who has the cool thuLasi garland
varai mArvan thAn – by emperumAn, who has mountain-like chest
muyangum – one who is together with him
kAr Arndha vAn – in the sky full of dark clouds
amarum – one which is established well
min – like lightning
imaikkum – being resplendent
vaN thAmarai – like a beautiful lotus
nedu – wide
kaN – having divine eyes
thEn amarum pU mEl – one who lives atop a lotus which is full of honey
thiru – periya pirAttiyAr (SrI mahAlakshmi)
namakku enRum sArvu – is our refuge for all times

vyAkyanam

sArvu namakku enRum – when we are in danger, our refuge is emperumAn. Whether we are in danger or not, the refuge always is periya pirAttiyAr. Just as it is mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 6-5Athmaivaripur Athmana:” (for AthmA, mind is enemy), when we cannot be refuge to ourselves, emperumAn remains as our refuge. When he too, out of his total independence, is angry towards us, only periya pirAttiyAr is our refuge. The difference between emperumAn and periya pirAtti is the same as the difference between us and emperumAn. We only keep looking for whatever is advantageous to us. emperumAn is one who gets very angry with us, looking at our sins. Has it not been said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 27 – 45 “rAgavAdhdhi bhayam gOram” (due to the severe fear towards SrI rAma)! But, if he is angry, it is pirAtti who lowers it. Since she is his consort, he cannot but do what she likes.

chakkaraththAn – the supreme being who has chakkaram (divine disc). He has the divine disc as a symbol of protection. nammAzhwAr too has mercifully said in periya thiruvandhAdhi 87 “eppozhudhum kai kazhalA nEmiyAn nam mEl vinai kadivAn” (one from whose hand the divine disc will never disappear, will remove our sins).

thanduzhAyth thArvAzh varai mArban – one who has the divine thuLasi garland on his divine shoulders.

thanduzhAyth thArvAzh varai marban thAn – donning the divine thuLasi garland as the symbol of being the head of all wealth. emperumAn himself, who has mountain-like chest.

thAn muyangum – one who is donning the divine thuLasi garland as the symbol of sweetness, will himself embrace.  muyangudhal – embracing. In other words, he will be happy with pirAtti. She will offer herself to him. emperumAn who is like this, will make her [say] “agalagillEn” (inseparable) from him. He will say that he feels agalagillEn from her. The reason for a mother being very affectionate towards her husband is the cause of good things happening to the child. The simile for this is given ahead.

kArArndha vAnamarum minnimaikkum – just as lightning flashes across the sky with dark clouds, [SrI mahAlakshmi is] shining with a complexion contrary to the dark colour [of emperumAn].

vaNdAmarai nedungaN – one who has wide lotus-like eyes which look at followers with affection and magnanimity. SrI vishNu purANam 1-9-105 says “paSyathAm sarvadhEvAnAm yayau vakshasthalam harE: ” (even as the celestial entities were watching, thirumagaL (SrI mahAlakshmi) attained the divine chest of emperumAn). That she did not bother about the celestial entities watching is indicated here by the 6th case. Just as mentioned in SrI vishNu purANam 1-9-106 “thayA vilOkithA dhEvA: harivakshasthalasthayA lakshmyA maithrEya sahasA parAm nirvruthimAgathA:” (the celestial entities who were graced by lakshmi dhEvi from the divine chest of hari (emperumAn) were very joyous), residing in the divine chest of emperumAn, pirAtti graces the chEthanas who travel far and wide in search of wealth so that the swelling in their soles would disappear.

thEnamarum pUmEl thiruperiya pirAttiyAr, who is sitting atop a lotus which is full of honey, is our refuge at all times.

thEnamarum pUmEl thiru – periya pirAttiyAr who has unlimited sweetness, is our refuge.

This completes the translation of mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi.

periya pirAtti samEdha periya perumAL thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
pEyAzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
perivAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thirivadigaLE SaraNam
appiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.10 – ulagamuNda

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srinivasan -ahzwar

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth decad – AzhwAr who called out out of his great attachment, due to his sorrow which was caused by the greatness of emperumAn , determined “for the attainment of the result, there is no means other than the divine feet of emperumAn who is the refuge” and highlights the following aspects:

  1. his quality of protecting the entire universe, which highlights him as the refuge
  2. his being with the very radiant instruments  which are focussed on eliminating the enemies without a trace
  3. the great experience caused by his relishable form and qualities
  4. his richness in causing harm to the enemies of the universe
  5. his effortless activities in protecting the devotees
  6. his being worshippable by even the greatly wise personalities
  7. his commonly and greatly relishable nature
  8. his being the caring refuge for even those who fiercely consider themselves to be lords
  9. his very enjoyable beautiful, physical features
  10. his form of being the refuge

Meditating upon these aspects of thiruvEngadamudaiyAn who is the refuge, AzhwAr performs proper and complete surrender towards him and completes this decad.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

In the previous decad – AzhwAr explained the nature of the goal perfectly; in this decad, he explains the nature of the means perfectly; though there is discussion about the means in previous decad, the discussion about the goal is prominent in that; though there is discussion about the goal in this decad, discussion about the means is prominent. Previous decad is like thirumanthram [which emphasises the goal] and this decad is like charama SlOkam [which emphasises the means]. But aren’t both the means and the goal present in one [bhagavAn] [why highlight separately]? Yes – that is by his potency [he remains both the means and the goal]. But since both are individual states, they are to be highlighted individually only.

AzhwAr became very depressed since emperumAn who is the protector of all, did not arrive even after AzhwAr cried loudly to be heard in paramapadham, with great sorrow. emperumAn is Sriya:pathi (lord of SrI mahAlakshmi), with no unfulfilled desires, with both [material and spiritual] realms as his wealth, with all auspicious qualities. As said in linga purANam “vaikuNtEthu parElOkE SriyA sArdham jagathpathi: AsthE vishNurachinthyAthmA bhakthai: bhAgavathaissaha (In the most noble abode of vaikuNtam the lord of the world is present with SrIdhEvi nAchchiyAr; such vishNu is present there with devotees and followers) – sarvESvara while being in SrIvaikuNtam giving his audience to nithyasUris, thought “We should not be staying far away so that we are unreachable by many [in the material realm]” and mercifully incarnated as SrI rAma, krishNa et al and manifested his qualities and activities to those people who lived in those times. He also descended to thirumalA along with his consorts, for the benefit of the samsAris who are subsequent to the times of SrI rAma, krishNa et al, as the one who creates the taste [towards him] in them. Seeing that there is no restrictions based on the adhikAri (individual’s nature), kAlam (krutha yuga etc) and anga (ancillary steps before worshipping), and the sauSeelyam (simplicity) which makes emperumAn accessible easily, AzhwAr approaches thiruvEngadamudaiyAn through periya pirAttiyAr, highlights his own ananyagathithvam (lack of any other refuge) and surrenders unto emperumAn‘s divine feet and informs his firm faith.

Even previously AzhwAr performed prapaththi (surrender) in many places; on those occasions as per the rule of “wherever the entity is, his qualities will follow”, lakshmI’s presence was highlighted; here, AzhwAr is expressing the same explicitly. Previous acts of surrender are like thirumanthram [where SrI mahAlakshmi’s name is not explicitly present]; this surrender is like dhvayam [where SrI mahAlakshmi’s name is explicitly present]. Though emperumAn’s relationship with SrI mahAlakshmi is known through the meaning of the words in thirumanthram, it is only in dhvayam that this is explained explicitly; this decad is similar to that.

[The different types of persons who surrender are explained here] SrIvishNu purANam “thAvadhArthis thathA vAnchA thAvan mOhas thathAsukham” [SlOkam is explained here. This SlOkam is similar to SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.16]; thAvadhArthi: – Only goal is to redeem lost wealth; thathAvAnchA – Only desire is to attain inapt objects; thAvan mOha: – considering body and soul to be same; thathAsukham – Only those pleasures which are contradictory to that which is explained in thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavalli 7 “EshahyEvAnandhayAthi” (he – emperumAn – himself makes jIvAthmA ecstatic). “yAvannayAthi SaraNam thvAmaSEshAganASanam” – aiSvaryam (worldly wealth), kaivalyam (eternal self-enjoyment) and hurdles for attaining kainkaryam to bhagavAn will all remain only until bhagavAn is reached. In this manner, AzhwAr considers that all his hurdles are removed and there is no shortcoming in having all his desires fulfilled,  surrenders at the divine feet of thiruvEngadamudaiyAn who is always present.

Now, for surrender to fructify, one should surrender to the one who is the true refuge [emperumAn being the refuge is explained by “ulagam uNda peru vAyA” etc]; one should also be qualified to surrender [AzhwAr being properly qualified person to surrender is explained by “kula thol adiyEn” etc]. When surrendered to an unqualified person, it would even lead to slaying of the one who surrenders [when dhaSaratha surrendered to paraSurAma, paraSurAma’s anger did not decrease but only increased]. This being the case, as we see the act of surrendering being successful in some cases [like the pigeon being protected by emperor Sibi, hunter being protected by pigeon and so on], it is obvious that AzhwAr‘s surrender is successful here. Now, for the one who surrenders, he/she should also be truly having no other refuge; while surrendering, if it is not successful, one cannot say as [SrI rAma said] in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 21.20 “asamartham vijAnAthi” (This [king of] ocean is treating my patience as inability) [Such persons are not qualified to perform surrender. So, persons like AzhwArs are the real adhikAris for surrender]. As emperumAn blessed AzhwAr with unblemished knowledge and devotion, subsequently [when his desire to reach emperumAn was not fulfilled immediately], he performed madal [madal is the activity of crying out in public for a person to be accepted by him] so that emperumAn will himself fulfil the desire. When the result is delayed, if one can seek other refuges, the surrender will not work for such persons [like AzhwArs, one has to go to emperumAn only even in case of delays]. As seen in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 21-22 “sAgaram SOshayishyAmi padhbhyAm yAnthu plavangamA:” (I shall dry up the ocean. The army of monkeys can walk through the ocean bed), considering the ocean king’s delay as the reason, SrI rAma said “I will destroy the entity named water and will work with the other four elements” [such persons do not qualify to perform surrender].

SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 21.20 is further explained here.

kshamayA hi samA yuktham – The [monkey] elders were puzzled at SrI rAma thinking “He showed patience towards kaikEyi who took away his kingdom; but here he prayed to varuNa to cross the ocean and when he did not oblige, he became angry and started launching his arrow on the bow [started binding varuNa’s hands and legs]. Why is it like this?” (There is place for his mercy, but in this case it is not applicable.) [kaikEyi was simply desirous of her son ruling the kingdom and did not think SrI rAma as incapable, but ocean king considered SrI rAma to be incapable].

[But why did SrI rAma not become angry initially and wait for three days?]

My anger was subdued by my patience  [initially] when he did not come just as thArA surrendered to vAli and subdued him initially from killing sugrIva.

mAm – as said in “supthamaththakupithAnAm svabhAva gyAnam dhrushtam” (Subsequent to sleeping, becoming mad and being angry, one will realise his true self), after being angered, he [SrI rAma] realised his heritage. He (varuNa) does not know that I [SrI rAma] am coming from a famous lineage, which does not seek help from others; he does not know that I am the son of dhaSaratha (suptha … – those who hid their nature, will reveal the same in dream state; SrI rAma too realised his regal heritage).

ayam – varuNa was thinking about the vastness of the ocean considering it to be a mahOdhadhi (great ocean); he does not realise who is angry at him. makarAlaya: – He (varuNa) is thinking himself to be on a par with the emperor of ayOdhyA, kOsalA etc; he does not realise that it is just a fish pond.

asamartham vijAnAthi – He does not realise that “I have reformed even those who were dishonest, and engaged them in service”.

What is to be done now?

dhikkshamAm – Now I don’t need patience. Should it not be used where it is applicable? Just like anger, I would put it to use when the time is right.

How can a descendant of ikshvAku dynasty not show compassion?

IdhrusEjanE – What is the use of it? Patience is not applicable here. For this ocean, the connection with rAvaNa et al on the other side has caused it to acquire their qualities.

While AzhwAr explains the qualities of emperumAn who is the SaraNya (refuge) in the first nine pAsurams, he surrenders in the tenth pAsuram.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mUnrAm thiruvandhAdhi – 99 – thotta padai ettum

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that it is only the divine feet of emperumAn, who removes the enemies of followers, which are to be attained for us.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

thotta padai ettum thOlAdha venRiyAn
attapuyakaraththAn annAnRu kuttaththuk
kOL mudhalai thunja kuRiththeRindha chakkarththAn
thAL mudhalE nangatkuch chArvu

Word by Word Meanings

thotta – carrying in the hand
padai ettum – the eight divine weapons
thOlAdha – without losing
venRiyAn – one who always wins
attabuyakaraththAn – one who dwells in the divine abode attabuyakaram in kAnchIpuram
annAnRu – once upon a time
kuttaththu – in the water reservoir
kOL mudhalai thunja – the powerful crocodile to be killed
kuRiththu eRindha chakkaraththAn – one who aimed the divine discus without losing the target, his
thAL mudhalE nangatkuch chArvu – divine feet alone are our refuge

vyAkyanam

thotta padai ettum thOlAdha venRiyAn – once he holds the divine weapons in his hand, he has the ability to win at every place, without losing anywhere. AzhwAr says that he is the real great warrior who, holding his eight weapons (arrows, bow, mace, conch, sword, disc, shield and knob) is always victorious. AzhwAr says that if we have to get rid of our fears, should we not attain him?

attabuyakaraththAn – one who resides in the divine abode attabuyakaram, in kAnchIpuram. He holds the eight divine weapons on his eight divine shoulders and has taken residence there.

kuttaththuk kOL mudhalai thunja kuRiththeRindha – one who demonstrated by his action that he will get rid of our enemies and protect us.

annAnRu – during that period when gajEndhrAzhwAn (the elephant gajEndhran) was in danger

kuttaththuk kOL mudhalai thunja – destroying the crocodile which was waiting in the pond, to kill gajEndhran

kOL mudhalai – the powerful crocodile which pulled gajEndhran such that only its [elephant’s] mouth was above the level of water.

kuRiththeRindha – the disc was thrown (by emperumAn) at the target such that it would tear apart the crocodile without hurting the divine feet of gajENdhran inside the crocodile’s mouth. Instead of getting bewildered in the anxiety to protect gajEndhran, thrown at the target correctly.

chakkaraththAn – one who has the divine disc.

thAL mudhalE nangatkuch chArvu – his divine feet alone are our refuge. Just as ALavandhAr had mercifully mentioned in sthOthra rathnam 22thvath pAdha mUlam SaraNam prapadhyE” (I surrender at your divine feet), only the divine feet of one who helped SrI gajEndhrAzhwAn are auspicious and fit to be attained.

mudhalE – our assistance is not needed for us. Our assistance is something which will not only be of no benefit to us, they will also become inimical to us. If we are able to extricate ourselves from the role of protecting ourselves, that alone will become the reason for emperumAn to shower his grace on us. The destruction of one (our activity) will become the reason for another (emperumAn’s grace) to be born. Independence and subservience cannot coexist in the same person. Could one kingdom have two kings?

nangatku – for those who do not have strength on their own, emperumAn alone is the refuge.

We will move on to the last pAsuram of this thiruvandhAdhi, next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.9.11 – theridhal ninaidhal

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Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, AzhwAr says “Those who learned this decad will become confidential servitors for emperumAn“.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr explains the result as “This decad will make those who are connected to it to be unflinching servitors to the one who is the protector of all”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

theridhal ninaidhal eNNal AgAth thirumAlukku
uriya thoNdar thoNdar thoNdar satakOpan
theriyach chonna Or AyiraththuL ippaththum
uriya thoNdarAkkum ulagam uNdARkE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

theridhal – having clarity (through hearing)
ninaidhal – thinking (firmly through contemplation)
eNNal – even if fixed in mind (through repeated meditation)
AgA – without any limit
thirumAlukku – for emperumAn who is the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi
uriya thoNdar – for those who became exclusive servitors
thoNdar – for those who are servitors
thoNdan – servitor
satakOpan – nammAzhwAr

(distinguished nature of bhagavAn and  that of other aspects)
theriya – in detail
sonna – mercifully spoke
Or AyiraththuL ippaththum – this decad among the thousand pAsurams

(those who practice it)
ulagam uNdARku – one who protected everything
uriya thoNdar – exclusive servitor
Akkum – will make.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Even if fixed in mind after having clarity and thinking upon, emperumAn who is the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, is beyond limits; nammAzhwAr who is the servitor for those servitors of the exclusive servitors of such emperumAn, mercifully spoke in detail in this decad among the thousand pAsurams; one who practices this decad will be made an exclusive servitor of emperumAn who protected everything.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • theridhal … – For SrIman nArAyaNa who cannot be restricted within any limits by SravaNa (hearing), manana (contemplation) and nidhidhyAsithavya (repeated meditation). As said in katOpanishath 1.2.23 “nAyamAthmA pravachanEna labhya:” (This paramAthmA cannot be attained by mere hearing, meditation etc without devotion) – he is beyond conception for mere hearing etc; otherwise (when hearing etc were performed with love) these will lead to experience.
  • thirumAlukku – The reason for this (his inconceivable nature) is his being the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi; this is the identity of being the supreme lord.
  • thirumAlukku uriya thoNdar thoNdar thoNdar satakOpanAzhwAr who is an exclusive servitor of sarvESvara who is the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi. Due to the cruelty of having contemplated upon the nature of this material realm and due to the overwhelming emotions of having immersed in bhagavath vishayam, just as a very thirsty person will plunge into a pond, AzhwAr is engaging in the ultimate stage of servitude (i.e. being the servitor of emperumAn‘s servitors). This is the nature of AzhwAr’s aham budhdhi (thinking about self). When one is a dhEhAthmAbhimAni (considering body as soul), one would have his/her aham budhdhi on the body; when one knows that there is something different from the body, one would have his/her aham budhdhi on AthmA; when one contemplates oneself to be a servitor of bhagavAn, one would stop at the layer of prakAra (forms/attributes) of emperumAn, and would leave after accepting wealth etc; when one considers “SEshathvam” (servitude) is the goal, one should consider oneself to be a servitor of emperumAn’s servitors. After thiruvAimozhi 3.7payilum sudaroLi“, AzhwAr’s aham budhdhi stretches upto being a servitor of servitors of emperumAn. Only if one reaches this stage, he is in ananyArha SEshathvam (exclusive servitude).
  • theriyach chonna … – This decad which explains the greatness of bhagavAn and the defect of this material realm in detail.
  • uriya thoNdarAkkum ulagam uNdArkkE – This decad will make one become an exclusive servitor of sarvESvara who is the protector of all.
  • uriya thoNdarAkkum – True servitors are those who will not discard bhagavath vishayam even if it turns bad and this material realm turns good.

In the next article we will enjoy the next decad.

AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi – 98 – imam sUzh malaiyum

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that emperumAn gets rid of the enemies of those who attain him. He says that he removes our hurdles and gets rid of samsAram (life in this materialistic world).

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

imam sUzh malaiyum iru visumbum kARRum
amam sUzhndhaRa viLangiththOnRum namam sUzh
naragaththu nammai naNugAmal kAppAn
thuragaththai vAy piLandhAn thottu

Word by Word Meanings

imam sUzh malaiyum – the himAlaya mountain which is covered with snow
iru visumbum – the expansive sky
kARRum – vAyu (wind)
amam sUzhndhu – (due to robust build, height and speed) lowering and pervading
aRa viLangith thOnRum – coming in front, clearly
thuragaththai – the demon kESi who came in the form of a horse
thottu – touching him (with his divine hands)
vAy piLandhAn – emperumAn who tore (his) mouth
nammai – us
naman sUzh naragaththu naNugAmal kAppAn – he will protect us from entering  hell which has yama as its Lord.

vyAkyanam

imam sUzh malaiyum – in the (himAlaya) mountain covered with snow

iru visumbum – in the expansive sky

kARRum – in the wind

amam sUzhndhu – permeating in a widespread way

aRa viLangith thOnRum – permeating all these, due to his incarnations, the radiant emperumAn. nammAzhwAr too has mercifully stated in thiruvAimozhi 1-3-2pala piRappAy oLi varu muzhu nalam” that emperumAn gains radiance due to his several incarnations. By mentioning mountain, sky, wind etc, emperumAn’s jagathAkAratha (having the entire world as his physical form) has been indicated. Alternatively, if these words are taken as adjectives for the horse kESi, a form taken by a demon, we can construe the meanings as – the horse which came with these characteristics

vAy piLandhAN thottu – since kESi is an enemy for his followers, emperumAn due to that rage, with his own hands, caught him, tore his mouth and killed him.

naman sUzh naragaththu – in the naragam (hell) which is surrounded by yama. We can consider the meaning for this as – the hell that we have surrounded ourselves with. Or, we can consider this as – this world (materialistic realm itself is hell) which is under the control of yama.

nammai naNugAmal kAppAn – he will protect us from approaching hell. He will prevent us from entering hell. AzhwAr says that the sufferings which the horse (kESi) underwent at the hands of emperumAn are similar to the sufferings in the hell.

We will take up the 99th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.9.10 – kuRugA nILA

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Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the tenth pAsuram, emperumAn says to AzhwAr “If you think worldly pleasures are alpam (insignificant) and asthiram (temporary), why don’t you pursue kaivalyam (being freed from material realm to eternally enjoy the self)”, AzhwAr says “since that will not lead to kainkaryam at your divine feet, I don’t need it”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “Is the distinguished benefit of enjoying the self a match to a momentary servitude towards you who are greatly distinguished?”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction. AzhwAr says “I am not discarding something just because they are bad and pursuing something just because they are good; I am pursuing you because its you and I am discarding everything else, because they are not you”. He says “I got to see good qualities, beauty etc in the apt entity (i.e. emperumAn)”.

pAsuram

kuRugA nILA iRudhi kUdA enai Uzhi
siRugA perugA aLavilinbam sErndhAlum
maRugAl inRi mAyOn! unakkE ALAgum
siRu kAlaththai uRumO? andhO! theriyilE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kuRugA nILA – without expansion or contraction in true nature
iRudhi kUdA – without an end

(due to being eternal)
enai Uzhi – at all times
siRugA perugA – without decay and growth
aLavil – without any limit
inbam – bliss of self
sErndhAlum – even if attained
mAyOn – Oh the amazing one whose momentary experience is greatly distinguished!
theriyil – if analysed
maRugAl – repeat
inRi – not having
unakkE – for you only
AL Agum – being a servitor and enjoying that servitude
siRu kAlaththai – that small fraction of time
andhO – alas!
uRumO – is it a match?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh the amazing one whose momentary experience is greatly distinguished! Even if the bliss of self which has no expansion or contraction, which is endless, which is without decay or growth at all times, is attained; alas! If analysed, it is not a match for being a servitor to you only and enjoying that servitude even if attained for a small fraction of time without a repeat experience,.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • kuRugA nILA – Not contracting and expanding.
  • iRudhi kUdA – Not having complete destruction.
  • enai Uzhi – Not having the contraction and expansion which are caused as an effect of time.
  • aLavil inbam sErndhAlum – In this manner, even if this endless bliss of self enjoyment is attained.
  • maRugAl inRi – bhagavath anubhavam (experiencing bhagavAn) is unique everytime.
  • mAyOn – Here emperumAn‘s being with auspicious qualities which make him undiscardable even if he is enjoyed only once.
  • unakkE AL Agum siRu kAlaththai uRumO – Considering “servitude at your divine feet is the goal” is irrevocable. Even if it is experienced for a fraction of a moment, would it be comparable to endless bliss of self enjoyment? [No, servitude to emperumAn‘s divine feet even for a fraction of a moment is much greater].

Seeing this [AzhwAr says],

  • andhO – [Alas!] Why am I in a situation of comparing a mountain with a small pebble!
  • theriyilE – When we speak without thinking, we cannot do anything; but if we speak after analysis, this can be the only situation. Why is this even needed to be instructed! [It is very obvious].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi – 97 – alar eduththa undhiyAn

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avathArikai

Unless emperumAn, who is the consort of periya pirAtti and head of the indefatigable nithyasUris, with his mercy grants it, even for entities such as brahmA et al, it is impossible to attain him with their own efforts. AzhwAr says that emperumAn, who is worshipped by nithyasUris, is beyond the reach of brahmA et al.-

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

alareduththa undhiyAn AngezhilAya
malareduththa mAmEni mAyan alareduththa
vaNNaththAn mAmalrAn vArsadaiyAn enRivargatku
eNNaththAnAmO imai

Word by Word Meanings

alar eduththa undhiyAn – one who has a divine navel which has a highly rising lotus flower
ezhilAya malar eduththa – like a beautiful kAyAmpU (a dark blue coloured) flower
mAmEni – having a dark divine form
mAyan – emperumAn who has amazing activities
alar eduththa vaNNaththAn – indhra (head of celestial entities), who has the complexion of kAnchi flower
mA malarAn – brahmA, who was born on a lotus
vAr sadaiyAn – Siva, who has lowly matter hair
enRu ivargatku – for all these celestial entities
imai – even a little bit
eNNaththAn AmO – can he be thought of?

vyAkyanam

alar eduththa undhiyAn – one who has a divine navel which displays a flower. One who has the lotus flower which is the cause for the worlds, on his navel. Isn’t that lotus the reason for the creation of worlds?

Angu – with him

ezhilAya malar eduththa mAmEni mAyan – he is one with amazing activities, whose divine form displays a beautiful flower. He is one with amazing activities, who has a dark complexion like that of kAyAmpU (a type of flower). He has a divine form which has the complexion and softness of a flower.

With that amazing entity…..

alar eduththa vaNNaththAn – indhra who has the complexion of a beautiful flower [kAnchi]

mAmalarAn – nAnmugan (brahmA) who was born in the divine lotus

vAr sadaiyAn – Siva who has a form with lowly matted hair, as if he wants to accomplish something

enRu ivargatku eNNaththAn AmO – is it possible for these entities to even think of emperumAn? AzhwAr says that these people [indhra, brahmA, Siva et al] cannot even think of the characteristics of emperumAn which have been mentioned earlier.

imai – would mean enquire or a little bit.

We will take up the 98th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 6.9.9 – Avi thigaikka

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Full series >> Sixth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the ninth pAsuram, AzhwAr explains emperumAn‘s act to finish AzhwAr as “by showing the worldly pleasures and keeping me away from your divine feet”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “Are you planning to keep me in this samsAram where the senses which are under your control, are rampant, and to finish me? Will the day I reach your divine feet not arrive soon?”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

In the ninth pAsuram, AzhwAr expands upon his words from previous pAsuram “puRaththittu innam keduppAyO?” and says “Will the day I reach your divine feet not arrive soon?”.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Ninth pAsuram. emperumAn asks “How did I trouble you here?” and AzhwAr responds “If you keep me in this world where one gets sucked into the visually appealing aspects, is there anything you need to separately do to trouble me?”. He further says “When you decide to keep me here, is it not like you digging a pit and pushing me in there?”. As said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 16.19thAn aham dvishatha: krUrAn samsArEshu narAdhamAn | kshipAmi …” (I continuously push those (demoniac people) who are having hatred towards me (as explained previously), being cruel, being lowly amongst men, being inauspicious, in births (which contain repeated birth, death, old-age and disease), that too, in demoniac births).

pAsuram

Avi thigaikka aivar kumaikkum siRRinbam
pAviyEnaip pala nI kAttip paduppAyO?
thAvi vaiyam koNda thadandhAmaraigatkE
kUvik koLLum kAlam innam kuRugAdhO?

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Avi – heart
thigaikka – to tremble
aivar – the five senses
kumaikkum – torturing saying “give me more”
siRu – insignificant
inbam – sweet pleasures
pala – in many varieties
kAtti – revealing
nI – you (who have the ability to destroy these)
pAviyEnai – me who is a sinner (to be residing in this sorrowful place while being qualified to be joyful endlessly)
paduppAyO – are you planning to finish me?
vaiyam – earth
thAvi – measured to claim full ownership
koNda – accepted
thadam – infinitely enjoyable
thAmaraigatku – to engage in the divine lotus feet
kUvik koLLum – to invite me
kAlam – the time
innam – even at this stage (when I have realised that even the sight of worldly pleasures is the cause to disaster)
kuRugAdhO – Will it not happen soon?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Are you planning to finish me who is a sinner, by revealing the many varieties of insignificant, sweet pleasures which are causing my heart to tremble by saying “give me more” and torturing the five senses? Your infinitely enjoyable, divine lotus feet measured the earth to claim full ownership and accepted it. Will the time to invite me to engage in those divine feet, not happen soon, even at this stage?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • Avi thigaikka – To make the heart/mind, which is the root for the senses, tremble.
  • aivar kumaikkum – [Instead of saying “aindhu” (as non-living thing), “aivar” (as living thing) is used] Due to the level of cruelty, they are addressed like a chEthana (sentient). Just as a weak person will be tortured by five strong persons, each sense will try to extract the best for its interest. Even if they torture like this, at least if there is some taste, one can accept.
  • siRRinbam – Like [non-existing] honey in muLLi flower. They are as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.2.6aRpa sArangaL” (insignificant pleasures). Even if you were to be discarded, at least there should be a lot more to enjoy [even that is not there].
  • pAviyEnai – I who am born to enjoy endless great pleasure as said in thiruvAimozhi 10.9.11 “andhamil pErinbam“, am caught in enjoying such insignificant pleasures. AzhwAr who said in thiruvAimozhi 4.5.3vIvil inbam miga ellai nigazhndhanan” (one who is in the ultimate state of continuous bliss), is saying this now.
  • pala – I am not so weak to be just bound by one aspect – so there are many aspects.
  • nI kAttip paduppAyO – Are you, the saviour, yourself showing these to finish me?
  • kAttip paduppAyO – The same aspects without which the worldly people cannot survive, are causing AzhwAr bewilderment at the very sight of them. There is a particular species of birds named “asuNamA”. These birds cannot be easily caught. Those who try to catch them will first sing and hearing that, the birds will become attracted and melt. At that time, they will beat the drums loudly. Unable to tolerate the sound, they will fall. Similarly, AzhwAr melts on enjoying bhagavAn’s guNas (qualities). At that time, if he sees worldly matters, he will fall. The nature of worldly pleasures is such that – even after enjoying a pleasure for many days, when being away for some time from that, one cannot meditate upon that and explain the nature of that experience clearly; in spite of such nature, one becomes attracted to them due to the abundance of sins.
  • thAvi … – While speaking about something else (emperumAn‘s act of measuring the world), AzhwAr is establishing his goal.
  • thAvi vaiyam koNda – Explains the potency of emperumAn in fulfilling what he desires. Explains how effortlessly he measured the entire earth.
  • thadam thAmaraigatkE – In the divine feet which have infinite enjoyability. With this – the goal is explained. By saying “kUvik koLLum kAlam” (the time you will invite me), the nature of the means is explained. By saying “innam kuRugAdhO” (has it not arrived yet), AzhwAr‘s taste/craving is explained. Would you still delay even after the stage where I will be finished on seeing worldly matters and not giving up attachment to your divine feet knowing well their enjoyable nature? During the final days of piLLAn, nanjIyar goes to him to enquire about his health. piLLAn keeps saying ” kUvik koLLum kAlam innam kuRugAdhO?“. Hearing that nanjIyar starts crying. Seeing that piLLAn says to nanjIyar “Why are you crying? Does it appear that what I am going to get in paramapadham is any lesser than our current situation here?” [piLLAn indicates that nanjIyar should not be crying and should instead be relishing the thought that he will be in paramapadham soon].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi – 96 – vAzhththiya vAyarAy

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says in this pAsuram that emperumAn has such a soft nature that he cannot tolerate the conduct [worshipping constantly] of nithyasUris too. Alternatively, it can be construed that AzhwAr says that even people with high levels of knowledge such as brahmA et al worship at his divine feet and attain what they desire. thirumazhisai AzhwAr too, in his nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 11 has mercifully stated “mAmalarAn vArsadaiyAn vallarE allarE vAzhththu” (brahmA, born in a lotus flower, and Siva, who has matted hair, are not capable of praising emperumAn).

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

vAzhththiya vAyarAy vAnOr maNimagudam
thAzhththi vaNangath thazhumbAmE kEzhththa
adiththAmarai malarmEl mangai maNALan
adiththAmariyAm alar

Word by Word Meanings

kEzhththa adi – having huge stem
thAmarai malar mEl –one who is sitting on the lotus
mangai – periya pirAtti’s
maNALan – consort emperumAn’s
adi Am thAmarai alar – divine feet which are like lotus flowers
vAnOr – nithyasUris [permanent dwellers of SrIvaikuNtam]
vAzhththiyvAyarAy – praising with their mouths
maNi magudam – crowns studded with gemstones
thAzhththi – lowering
vaNanga – since they worship
thazhumbu AmE – (those divine feet) have got scarred.

vyAkyanam

vAzhththiya vAyarAy – nithyasUris who have as their nature, praising emperumAn constantly. They have mouths which constantly keep singing hymns. Their mouths would have got scarred due to constant praising.

vAnOr maNimagudam thAzhththi vaNagath thazhumbAmE – since emperumAn’s divine feet are very soft, they cannot tolerate the constant bowing down of nithyasUris on themselves, and would get scarred. dhEvathAs (celestial deities) such as brahmA et al, bow down to emperumAn’s divine feet with their opulent crowns, due to which the divine feet would get scarred.

kEzhththa adiththAmarai mEl – lotus flower which has rounded, huge stalk. This implies that even if periya pirAtti sits atop the flower, it will bear her. We can construe this as lotus flower having a scent and beauty.

thAmari malar mEl mangai – periya pirAtti who dwells on such lotus flower and who is always in a youthful state.

maNALan – one who enjoys her beauty.

mANALan adiththAmarai – the divine feet of emperumAn are so soft that even if periya pirAtti wishes to touch them with her very soft hands , she will hesitate to do so. This implies that it is the union of  pirAtti and emperumAn that nithyasUris as well as entities such as brahmA et al  consider fit to be worshipped.

adiththAmaraiyAmalar – the divine lotus like feet of emperumAn would acquire a scar.

We will take up the 97th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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