Monthly Archives: August 2016

yathirAja vimSathi – 3

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Vacha Yatindra manasa vapusha cha yushmath
Padaravinda yugalam bhajatham gurunam /
Kuradinatha kurukesa mukadhya pumsam
Padanuchintana  paras sathatham bhaveyam //

(w to w) Yatindra  – O Ethiraja!, manasa  – by mind, Vacha  – by tongue, vapusha cha  – by body, yushmath  – your, Padaravinda yugalam  – lotus like feet, bhajatham – I worship, Gurunam – by Purvacharyas, Kuradinatha kurukesa mukadhya pumsam –  Kuresa, Tirukkurukaippiran pillan and so on, sathatham  pada anuchintana  para: – always focusing my mind at their feet, bhaveyam – to be done.
(Commentary) In the coming Slokas, Mamunigal prays Yathiraja to get opportunity to serve him and with a view to establish the same to his disciples, he prays in this Sloka. The word Kuradhinadha means Kuraththalwan, Kurukesa – Tirukkurukaippiran Pillan, adopted son of Sri Ramanuja, Muka means Embar, Mudaliyandan and other disciples. Grunanthi iti Guravaha, the etymology of Gurunam means that he who perform upadesa. Further, in the word Guru, Gu denotes the ignorance of inner darkness and ru means eradication of the same. Hence, Guru is that one who eradicates the ignorance by upadesa. This is the adjective to Kuresa and others.  In the word purva pumsam, the etymology of the word pumas – punanthi iti pumamsuhu, means to inform the sanctified people in general and particularly for Kuraththalwan and others, who are servants to the Lord, His devotees, and specially to Emberumanar. The word anuchinthana means that meditating Kuraththalwan and  disciples of Sri Ramanuja as his Chief. The word grammatically comes to mean the meditation on Kuraththalwan and others which is to be accomplished and for that he prays Sri Ramanuja.

Translation by Sri U.Ve.Dr.M.Varadarajan Swami, MA, MA, PhD

Source: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/10/yathiraja-vimsathi-tamil-3/

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yathirAja vimSathi – 2

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Sri Rangaraja charanambuja Rajahamsam
Srimath Parankusa padambuja brungarajam /
Sri Bhattanatha Parakala mukhabja mitram
Srivatsachihna saranam Yatiraja meede //

(w to w) Sri Rangaraja charanambuja Rajahamsamlike a King Swan at the feet of Sriranganatha, Srimath Parankusa padambuja brungarajam  –  like a great beetle settled to drink honey at the feet of  Nammalvar, Sri Bhattanatha Parakala mukhabja mitram  – like sun who makes the lotuses blossom for those Periyalwar and Tirumangai Alwar, Srivatsachihna saranam  – feet of Kuresa, who is like the mark of Srivatsa, Yatiraja – Yatiraja, meede  – I worship.

(Commentary) Sri Bhagavatham says that it is rare for a soul to take birth as human, which in turn gets perished in a short period. Even if one gets human body it is difficult to see bhagavatas who are loved by Vaikuntanatha (Sri Bhagavatham 11-2-29). As said above when there is dearth of bhagavatas, it is equally difficult to do service to them. So, there is every obstacle to write YathirajaVimsati, which is  a service to bhagavatas. With a view to eradicate such obstacles, Mamunigal again worships Yatiraja in another Mangala Sloka, beginning Sri Rangaraja. The word  Sri in the Sloka denotes Rangaraja who possesses the wealth of this world and  Sri Vaikunta. Or it also denotes the lotus like feet of Sri Rangaraja naturally, which has attributes like beauty, softness and fragrance.  Accordingly, it shows the richness of feet of Rangaraja. The nature of the wealthiest in Parankusa has three things – 1. Experiencing the Lord, 2. To do service to Him and 3. For the sake of doing service Jeevatma which naturally possesses Parabhakti, Parajnana and Parama bhakti in full. Elders say that Parabhakti means longing to see Him. Parajnana means after seeing Him longing to have unison with Him, and Paramabhakti means scared of being separated after unison with Him. These three must be there before doing service to Lord, like feeling hungry before taking food. When there is no hunger, the food will not be tasty.  Likewise, if these three does not exist, our service to Lord is futile. Hence, this word, Srimath enlightens that Nammalvar possesses those three attributes and its effect of experiencing service to Lord. In the sentence, Sri Bhattanatha Parakala the word Sri is applicable to both Alwars. This means that Sri Bhattanatha possesses wealth by establishing that Tirumal is Supreme Being and recited Tiruppallandu. Sri Parakala possesses the wealth of subjugating other religions, constructing compound wall in Srirangam besides lack of softness in the separation of Lord or in experiencing the Lord. Such kind of attribute Parakala himself mentioned in the hymn Periya Tirumozhi 4.9.6. Here Sri Anna Appangar Swami beautifully compares Tiruvindalur Perumal with that of Kuresa. In the word Srivatsachihna, vatsachihna means the Lord who possesses a mole in His chest. Kuresa is having the same nomenclature of Srivatsachihna.  Here, Sri is compared to Kuresa. That means Sri is equal to Srivatsachihnar. Sita safeguarded the single eyed demons who troubled her in Ashoka vanam. Likewise Naluran, who is the cause of Kuresa’s loss of sight, was granted liberation by the limitless grace of Kuresa. One can notice the equality of these incidents. In the first Sloka, the worship by bowing down head was done in the words pranamami murdhana. In this Sloka, Ede denotes the worship by voice. When worshipping is not possible without thinking in the mind, the voice and body implied the worship by mind. In this way, by the first two Slokas, mangalam was done before beginning the Stotra.

Translation by Sri U.Ve.Dr.M.Varadarajan Swami, MA, MA, PhD

Source: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/10/yathiraja-vimsathi-tamil-slokam-2/

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yathirAja vimSathi – 1

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Sri Madhavanghri jalajadhvaya nitya seva
Premavilasaya Parankusa pada bhaktam /
Kamadidosha haram atma padastrithanam
Ramanujam Yatipatim pranamami moordna //

(w to w) Sri Madhava anghri  jalajadhvaya  – at the lotus like feet of Sriyahppati, who is like Sri Mahalakshmi, who attained fame with all things, nitya seva  premavilasaya – with fond hope of doing daily kainkarya for which dilute mind, Parankusa pada bhaktam  – great devotion at the feet of Nammalvar, who is otherwise called Parankusa, atma padastrithanam  – for those who reached at his feet, Kamadidosha haram Yatipatim  – Chief of those saints who erase the desires and controlled limbs, Ramanujam  – Sri Ramanuja who is called Emberumanar, moordna  – by head, pranamami  – I am worshipping.

(commentary) The word Sri is adjective to Madhava.  Sri means Periya Pirattiyar. The attributes of divine beauty, fragrance, tenderness etc., the attribute of soul‘s great kindness, simplicity and mercy, among these taking vows to safeguard the devotees – with all these greatnesses Sriman Narayana is equal to Periya Pirattiyar. In other words, by adding the word Sri to the feet of Madhava, where Piratti is living at His feet. In such a case, Lord’s feet which are adorned by Piratti, similar to Selvappillai in Melkote. Here the commentator reminds Kuresa’s Sundarabhahustavam Sloka 1 version – Srimanthow Haricharanow Samasrithoham  – which means that “Hari who is having eternal relationship with Piratti, such feet I approach as a means”. Nammalvar much desired to do service to Krishna. Nammalvar could not do direct kainkaryam to Krishna and he intended to perform madalural, which means to ride a horse made of palmyra stems, as a disgruntled lover to proclaim his grief and win  Lord’s love. Such intention in the mind of Nammalvar was perceived by Mamunigal and this comes in the Sloka as “Madhavangri jalajathvaya nitya seva premavilasaya Parankusa”. Emberumanar had great devotion at Nammalvar’s feet. Tiruvarangaththamudanar in his Prabandham also says “Maran Adipanindu uyyindavan – Ramanusan”. Following him, Mamunigal said  “Parankusa pada bhaktam ramanujam”. Para  means religions like Jainism, bhuddism etc. and all those that does not accept Veda as a pramana and Advaitas who are misinterpreting Vedas, otherwise metaphor as  elephants. Parankusa means that Nammalvar is the hook like controller of such elephants and hence called Parankusa. One can read the commentary of Tiruvoymozhi of Nammalvar in the decad 4.10 about this.

The word Ramanuja means that since He is the reincarnation  of Lakshmana, who is the brother of  Sri Rama. The Avataras of ten Alwars were considered as Abhinava Dasavatara.  Among these, Nammalvar is the incarnation of Ramavatara. Hence, Sri Annappangar Swami considered that Sri  Ramanuja is the reincarnation of Lakshmana, the parama bhakti for Sri Ramanuja is unquestionable.  Further, Sri Ramanuja is a Chief Sage who controlled the mind,  and he has the capacity to eradicate love, anger, greed etc. of those who approach him. This means that one who controls one’s mind will eradicate other’s flaws. Since the feet of Madhava is compared with that of a lotus which is fresh, softness etc.,  Nammalvar derived the devotion and attributes at the feet of Madhava. Since, the feet of Nammalvar is not compared with that of lotus, the devotion derived for Sri Ramanuja is natural, as he is the disciple whose nature is to be devoted to his Acharya. That is applicable here. Naturally derived devotion on Acharya as stated in Sastra is greater than the devotion derived by the attributes of Lord.

It is to be noted that Mamunigal praises Sri Ramanuja by saying ‘Parankusa pada bhaktam yatipatim Ramanujam’. Here Mamunigal says that the reason for devotion on Sri Ramanuja, who is Acharya for him, is that he has devotion on his Acharya, also a Chief Sage, Nammalvar and hence he is called Parankusa pada bhakta and Yathiraja respectively. The word Yathipati has two meanings.  In primitive terms ( Yatinam Patihi Yatipatihi)  Pati means that He is Seshi (who is Chief to accept the service of disciple) and in derivative name Paati (Pati Iti Patihi), means that he is the protector. Since Sri Ramanuja is Chief and Protector for the saints, He is also the happiest to accept the service. Actually Tirumantra which has three words give these meanings: Acharya is the Chief, Acharya is the Protector and Happiest person to accept the service. Such greatness is attriubuted to Sri Ramanuja in Yatiraja Vimsati composed by Mamunigal.

 

Translation by Sri U.Ve.Dr.M.Varadarajan Swami, MA, MA, PhD

Source: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/10/yathiraja-vimsathi-tamil-slokam-1/

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yathirAja vimSathi – thaniyan

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Introduction

Thus, Erumbiappa experienced the daily rituals like Abigamanam, Upadanam and Ejjyai of his Acharya Manavala Mamunigal in Purva Dinacharyai.

Now, he experiences the fourth ritual of Svadhyaya of Mamunigal. Among the several Svadhyayas, one type is discoursing Purvacharya’s granthas to the disciples. This is being mentioned in Uttara Dinacharyai Sloka 1 Vakyalankruti Vakyanam Vyakyadaram. But thinking about the newly written Stotra called Yathiraja Vimsati, which speaks the devotion on Emberumanar, who is an Acharya to Mamunigal, Erumbiappa repeats the Stotra.

Nammalvar is called Prapannajanakutastha, which means that Nammalvar is the Mula purusha, the primordial one, in the practice of  Prapatti which speaks that Bhagavan is the only means to give liberation. Manavala Mamunigal, who is worshipped by all, got Upadesa on the chronology of Acharyas starting from Nammalvar down to his Acharya Tiruvoymozhi Pillai. The gist of three rahasyas viz.Tirumantra, Dvaya and Charama Sloka, mainly speaks that Bhagavat Ramanuja is a means to attain liberation and he is the only to be attained. With such constant bhakti and grace, Mamunigal desired to liberate the people from the cycle of birth, wrote a Stotra called  Yathiraja Vimsati. With a view to  bless him with no interruptions while writing Stotra, he prayed in the first two Slokas worshipping Yathiraja.

This text reveals the gist of Rahasyas. Sri Annaappangar Swami, the commentator of this text says the words of three Rahasyas combined with 20 in number is accepted in this text. One can notice that Yatiraja Vimsati Stotra is the collection of twenty words  –  three words on Tirumantra, six words on Dvaya and eleven words on Charama Sloka. The word Vimsati means twenty.

Thaniyan

    Yah stutim Yathipati prasadineem vyajahara Yathiraja Vimsatim /
   Tam prapannajana chatakambujam nowmi sowmya Varayogi pungavam //

(w to w) Yah  – whoever, Yathipati prasadineem  – pleads Yatiraja to shower his grace, Yathiraja Vimsatim  – the matter that pertains to Yatiraja in twenty Slokas, which is called Yatiraja Vimsati,  stutim  – that Stotra, vyajahara – wrote, prapanna jana chatakambujam  – Like skylark which gives water to skylarks drawn from the cloud, Mamunigal is helping the people who did prapatti,  Tam Varayogi pungavam  – that beautiful Alagiya Manavala Mamunigal, a great saint, nowmi  – worshipping.

This Taniyan was written by Erumbiappa.  The word Yathipati prasadinee means that this Stotra will have effect in getting the grace of Emberumanar for those who recites this.  The word prapannajana chatakambuda means like Emberumanar is like cloud which showers water for the living of a skylark, Emberumanar is helping the people who did prapatti. The word Yogipungavaha refers to Mahamuni.

Translation by Sri U.Ve.Dr.M.Varadarajan Swami, MA, MA, PhD

Source: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/10/yathiraja-vimsathi-tamil-thaniyan/

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yathirAja vimSathi

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ramanujar-alwaiemperumAnArAzhwArthirunagari bhavishyadhAchAryan sannidhi

mamunigal-srirangammAmunigaL – SrIrangam

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Preface

mannuyirgAL ingE maNavALa mAmunivan
ponnadiyAm sengamalap pOdhugaLai – unnich
chiraththAlE thINdil amAnavanum nammaik
karaththAlE thINdal kadan [UpadhESa raththina mAlai 74]

The pUrvAchArya paramparai which saw many AchAryas incarnating in this world, concludes with maNAvALa mAmunigaL.  Our elders consider that the guru paramparai completed with mAmunigaL though many great AchAryas appeared even after him since SrIranganAtha himself became the Sishya of mAmunigaL who had all the qualities required for an AchArya in the fullest manner. Born in AzhwArthirunagari which is glorified as “nallAr navil kurugUr“, as the divine son of the great AchArya named thirunAvIrudaiya pirAn thAdhar aNNan in the sAdhAraNa year, aippasi month and thirumUlam star. His AchArya is thiruvAimozhip piLLai.

thiruvAimozhip piLLai was once meditating upon the auspicious qualities of emperumAnAr. Remembering emperumAnAr being glorified as “mARan adi paNindhu uyndhavan” (uplifted after surrendering at the lotus feet of nammAzhwAr) and his great attachment toward AzhwAr’s divine feet and dhivya prabandhams, he mercifully ordered his Sishyas to establish a separate temple for emperumAnAr.

nAyanAr (mAmunigaL in his pUrvASramam) too had great devotion at the divine feet of udaiyavar and was performing kainkaryams at the temple there. As per his AchArya’s orders he compiled this yathirAja vimSathi in glorification of the lotus feet of udaiyavar. The sweetness of this yathirAja vimSathi is nicely spoken by prathivAdhi bhayankaram aNNan in his varavaramuni Sathakam.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

SlOkams Translation by Sri U.Ve.Dr.M.Varadarajan Swami, MA, MA, PhD

Preface is written based on SrI u vE P B aNNangarAchArya swAmy’s article in SrIrAmAnujan magazine dated 3-11-1970 which is archived in http://acharya.org/d.html.

Source: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/10/yathiraja-vimsathi-tamil/

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thirumAlai – 2 – pachchai mA malai – Part 2

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periyaperumal

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In the earlier part we had seen how thoNdaradippodi AzhwAr enjoyed the whole thirumEni (pachchai mA malai pOl mEni) of emperumAn and certain divine parts of his thirumEni such as “pavaLa vAi” and “kamala chengaN”. He then called him as “achchuthA” to denote that he is unchanging. We shall continue from there.

amararERE – this refers to those who constantly enjoy the above-mentioned beauty of emperumAn (“amarar” here refers to nithyasUris – those who dwell in SrIvaikuNtam always). Even though they constantly keep having dharSan (audience) of bhagavAn, they have not seen the end of that experience – i.e. they have not got full satisfaction of having ‘seen’ him fully. If they are able to have this experience of enjoying him, viz. experiencing him fully, they may not exist anymore. Hence they are called as “amarars” – those without an experiential end. emperumAn is their Lord (ERu – master or Lord). Both rig vEdha and sAma vEdha say “sadhA paSyanthi sUraya:” (the nithyasUris see [experience] him always).

Is it that he is fit to be experienced only by pirAtti (SrI  mahAlakshmi, bhUdhEvi, neeLA dhEvi), vishvaksEnar, thiruvananthan, garudan et al? [vishvaksEnar is head of his army, thiruvananthan is his serpent-bed, garudan is his vAhanam (vehicle) – they are the primary members among his nithyasUris]. No……..he is also experienced by …

Ayar tham kozhundhE – Just as he is the controller of those who are taken as the limiting boundary for all that is great and superior, he is also easily accessible to the cowherds and cows themselves [at the other end of the spectrum]. In other words, while the first quality (guNa) of his is called as “parathvam” (greatness), the second quality (when he is accessible to cows and cowherds) is called as “souSeelyam” (simplicity). Thus by describing his beauty (kamalachchengaN, achchuthA), his greatness (amararERE) and his simplicity (Ayar tham kozhundhE), AzhwAr confirms that the entity who is amidst cows is indeed the paramAthmA [among several auspicious qualities which are exhibited by parmAthmA are soundharyam, parathvam and  souSeelyam- beauty, greatness and simplicity respectively]

ennum – emperumAn asked AzhwAr whether he derived sweetness by looking at his thirumEni (physical form) and thinking of his auspicious qualities. AzhwAr replied that this was not the reason for deriving sweetness; it was by merely pronouncing his divine names that he got the sweetness. The word “ennum” should be added to each of the qualities mentioned earlier such as “pachchai mA malai pOl mEni ennum”, “pavaLa vAi ennum”, “kamalachchengaN ennum”, “achchuthA ennum”, “amararERE ennum” , “Ayar tham kozhundhE ennum” to get the full meaning of the qualities described. It is by saying each of these that AzhwAr derived the sweet taste that he is going to speak of, next.

ichchuvai thavira – leaving aside this elixir. chuvai – elixir. Instead of enjoying this elixir (of reciting his divine names) is there any point in looking for some other taste? AzhwAr tells emperumAn that he has to elucidate about the divine names of emperumAn only because emperumAn has never pronounced them himself [He has only heard them from his followers and not pronounced them himself and hence does not know how sweet they are].

yAn – I, who has a tongue suited to reciting your divine names. Another meaning – I, who does not have the patience to wait for a delay in going to SrIvaikuNtam.

pOi – to go. Instead of enjoying here, at SrIrangam, itself or any dhivyadhEsam close to SrIrangam, you are asking me to go to some place which is so far away, tells AzhwAr.

indhiralOgam – SrIvaikuNtam. The land of one with unlimited wealth. Here the word “indhira” does not refer to the head of swargam, but to emperumAn. Moreover any word that we pronounce ultimately points to SrIman nArAyaNan only, as per vEdhas and hence “indhira” refers to emperumAn only.

ALum – rule. AzhwAr is being invited by emperumAn to do as he pleases at SrIvaikuNtam. He can be the king there. But even then…..

achchuvai – ichchuvai – achchuvai (SrIvaikuNtam) refers to something which is to be learnt through vEdhas only whereas ichchuvai (reciting emperumAn’s divine names) refers to something which is evidently clear to AzhwAr. That has to be heard from someone else whereas this is right in one’s hands.

peRinum vENdEn – even if I get, I will not take it. emperumAn tells Azhwar “now you would say that you don’t want it, because you have not got it. But if you were to get it, you would change your mind”, to which AzhwAr responds, “ why don’t you give it to me? Then you will realise whether I desire it or not”.  This is why AzhwAr says “even if I get it” (peRinum).

Again, AzhwAr says “vENdEn” (don’t want it) instead of saying “uRAdhu” (not superior). If he had said “uRAdhu” he would have belittled the enjoyment of those who are superior (such as nithyasUris, the dwellers of SrIvaikuNtam) who enjoy emperumAn constantly. He would also be rejecting the pramANams (proof or evidence) about the superiority of SrIvaikuNtam. (one proof quoted is from SrIvishNu purANam which says

nirasthAthiSaya AhlAdha sukha bhAvaika lakshaNA I
bhEshajam bhagavathprApthirEkAnthAthyanthikI mathA II

(That which does not have in terms of joy anything superior to it, that which is full of mirth, that which has enjoyment as its identity, that which does not have anything sorrowful, that which is endless – attaining bhagavAn is thought to be the antidote (to samsAram))

If someone says that milk is sour or it is bitter, one can argue with that person. But if the person says that he does not want milk, there is nothing that can be done. AzhwAr says in the same way that he does not want indhira lOgam (SrIvaikuNtam).

Is there anyone who said that he does not want SrIvaikuNtam, asks the vyAkhyAthA, and gives the answer himself that hanuman had refused it when offered by SrI rAma (….bhAvO nAnyathra gachchathi) […my thought will not be with SrIvaikuNtanAthan].

emperumAn asks him, “you are saying that you do not want paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam). What is the good thing that you have here?

arangamA nagaruLAnE – AzhwAr responds saying “ you have left paramapadham experience and have come down here so that the inferior people (samsAris) can enjoy your beauty (pachchai mA malai pOl mEni, pavaLa vAi,kamalachchengaN) and your simplicity (Ayar tham kozhundhE). Is this not enough for me to stay back here? Moreover, the nithyasUris are coming here to experience the quality that you are displaying here (to allow the inferior samsAris to have your dharshan). So, why do you want to somehow take me there?”

In summary, even paramapadha anubhavam (the enjoyment in SrIvaikuNtam) is not equivalent to enjoying your divine names here. Your divine names are that sweet.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.3.1 – ozhivil kAlam

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Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In first pAsuram – AzhwAr says “should engage in all types of kainkaryams to thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn“.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In first pAsuram – AzhwAr longs along with those who are related to him to engage in all types of services to thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn who is the lord and greater than all.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

In first pAsuram – AzhwAr says “At all places all times and in all forms, should engage in service at the divine feet of thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn”.

pAsuram

ozhivil kAlam ellAm udanAy manni
vazhuvilA adimai seyya vENdunAm
thezhikural aruvith thiruvEnkataththu
ezhilkoL sOdhi endhai thandhai thandhaikkE

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

thezhikural – making great noise
aruvi – having waterfalls
thiruvEnkataththu – in thirumalA thiruvEnkatam
ezhil – beauty
koL – having
sOdhi – having fully radiant form
endhai thandhai thandhaikku – to the leader of our clan of successive ancestors
nAm – we (who are distinguished servants)
ozhivil – without break/rest
kAlamellAm – all times
udanAy – being together (in all places)
manni – being inseparable (in all forms)
vazhuvilA – without leaving anything
adimai – all types of services
seyya vENdum – should perform

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

We should perform all types of services without leaving anything at all times without break/rest, being together (in all places), being inseparable (in all forms) to the leader of our clan of successive ancestors, that is, thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn (SrInivAsan) who is having a fully radiant form and is beautiful due to being present in thirumalA thiruvEnkatam which is having waterfalls that are making great noise.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • ozhivil kAlamellAm – endless time [i.e., for eternity]. Some would extrapolate “ozhivil kAlamellAm” as “AzhwAr desiring for even the past times”. That is – there is no way lost time can be retrieved.  The only possible option is to make one forget about what has happened in the past as said in chAndhOgya upanishath “nOpajanam smaran” (AthmA will not contemplate about the material realm after reaching the spiritual realm). Also seen in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 5.5 “na mE dhukkam … vayOsyA hyathivarthathE” (My biggest sorrow is … sIthA’s age is passing by without being enjoyed [by me (SrI rAma)]) etc. Thus, this should be understood as all times in the future. [this highlights service at all times]
  • udanAy – Like he desired to be present at all times, he also desires to be present at all places. Like iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) served [sIthA – rAma] in the palace as well as forest. [this highlights service in all places]
  • manni – Even when sarvESvaran and pirAtti (SrI mahAlakshmi) draw down their curtains and enjoy in private, one should desire to be in the form of a vessel, lamp etc that are engaged in their confidential service. In this – service in all forms/states is highlighted. It is said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1.31 “ramamANA vanE thraya:” (all 3 – SrI rAma, sIthA and lakshmaNa enjoyed together in the forest); Why is lakshmaNa associated with a share of the enjoyment, when it was really sIthA and SrI rAma enjoyed? It is because, whatever joy they get by enjoying together, one who witnesses that would also acquire the same joy.
  • ozhivil kAlam … – This speaks about sarva kAlam (all times), sarva dhESam (all places) and sarva avasthA (all forms/states). Whenever AzhwAr thiruvarangapperumAL araiyar starts singing this pAsuram, he would keep singing “ozhivil kAlamellAm, kAlamellAm, kAlamellAm” and would stop at that [being overwhelmed with emotions].
  • vazhuvilA adimai seyya vENdum – one’s service cannot be shared with others. Should serve like iLaiya perumAL (lakshamaNa) who went along with SrI rAma and served him in the forest without separating; should also perform the kainkaryams done by SrI bharathAzhwAn who stayed behind in the capital (ayOdhyA). When kaikEyi called SrI bharathAzhwAn [in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 72.24] as “rAjan” (Oh king), he was unable to bear it, became completely broken and cried out [in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 82.11 “vilalApa” (cried out); for those who understand the flavour of pArathanthriyam (total subservience), svAthanthriyam (independence) would feel like disaster. nampiLLai beautifully explains SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 101.12 here.
    • EpiScha sachivaissArdham” (with these ministers who are here … I (bharatha) pray unto you (SrI rAma) …) – there were many along with bharatha who were more anguished than him. He brought along many who were grieving like him. He thought “If it was just me, he could think ‘he is my brother only’ and exercise his independence. But with them, he cannot simply do that. For such elders, he needs to obey their orders. If they themselves enquired what happened and suggested him solution “you do this”, he will have no choice. If bharatha wanted to highlight his suffering in separation from SrI rAma, he could have gone alone. Why did he bring everyone along? bharatha thinks “If he does not return to ayOdhyA seeing the tears in my eyes, he may at least return on seeing the tears of everyone assembled here”. Like a person who goes to battle, would bring along elephants, horses etc., bharatha too brought them along, since they too feel the anguish in separation from SrI rAma.
    • SirasA yAchitha: – SrI rAma is the one who tries hard to help me. In such case, if I bow down and beg him, would he refuse?
    • mayA – If the roles are reversed (as explained in previous phrase), would he not help me?
    • bhrAthu: – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 97.8 “… bhasmAthkuruthAm SikI” (SrI rAma saying – If I get even little pleasure without bharatha, you (lakshmaNa) and Sathrugna, let that pleasure be burnt by fire), am I not born after him? He himself said “let my properties that are not useful for my brothers be burnt down to ashes”.
    • Sishyasya – Am I laying my claim for the throne citing that I am his brother? Did I not learn all the confidential meanings from you [as a disciple would learn from his teacher]?
    • dhAsasya – Did I just stay as a disciple? Did I not commit myself as a full servitor so that you can even sell me? This being the case, would he refuse my request? This is the state of those who are desirous of kainkaryam.
  • vazhuvilA adimai – Even if he missed out on a single service, that will reflect on his physical form [i.e., the grief would reflect on his body].
  • seyya – Even previously he had such desire [which were reflected in many pAsurams previously]. But now, it cannot just stop with the desire. He needs to practically engage in service now.
  • adimai seyya vENdumAzhwAr‘s desire for service itself is part of the goal for AzhwAr. When set out to enjoy “sensual pleasures” in this world, a mutually enjoyable aspect would be identified for both parties, the aspect would be enjoyed until the particular time and once done, the aspect will be discarded [the enjoyable aspects are temporary]. When set out to enjoy “heavenly pleasures”, as said in SrIvishNu purANam 6.5.50 “svargE’pi pAthabhIthasya kshayishNOr nAsthi nirvruthi:” (Since even in heaven, there is the fear of falling down, there is no real joy); from there one can see others suffering in hell, so even while enjoying, one would not fully manifest the joy; also, the puNyam (virtues) that keeps one there, will reduce like water fetched from pot [which will eventually dry out], they too will be pushed down eventually; instead of these temporary pleasures which are the result of ahankAram (considering body as soul) and mamakAram (considering oneself to be independent) and are contrary to the nature of the AthmA, this [adimai – servitude, towards bhagavAn] is fitting to the true nature of the AthmA, the one who accepts such service [bhagavAn] is also eternal and the one serves [AthmA] is also eternal, time is also eternal, the place is also eternal (paramapadham which is indestructible), the result is apunarAvruththi mOksham (liberated state, from where there is no return to material realm), this is perfectly joyful unlike sensual pleasures which are mixed with pain.
  • nAmAzhwAr saying “nAm” in plural by including his heart along with him. It can also be explained that after “kESavan thamar“, he is not alone and is always with devotees of emperumAn, he is also including those devotees who are as dear as his own heart to him.
  • thezhi kural … – Further it is explained that – more than the excitement of AzhwAr who wants to serve, the excitement of emperumAn who is going to accept his service is greater. AzhwAr is desiring from wherever he is; but emperumAn gave up the great assembly in “kalangAp perunakaram” (the unshakable paramapadham)) and descended all the way down to thirumalA and exhibited his excitement by his actions.
  • thezhi kural … – The waterfalls that have a great sound. Because of the presence in this divine abode, even the sound of the waterfalls is pursuable for him. For AzhwAr, the sound resembles “those who are interested to serve, please come here”. Do we need to explain this sound being enjoyable for nammAzhwAr as thirumangai AzhwAr sang in periya thirumozhi 1.7.2 “silaikkai vEdar thezhipparAdha” (the abode where the sound of those hunters with bows never subsides) and enjoyed even those hunters who rob? Even the sounds of the robbing hunters are enjoyable, if it is present in the divine abodes.
  • thiruvEnkataththu ezhil koL sOdhi – This is the divine abode of emperumAn which he considers to be the apt place to accept service. It is the place where one can serve emperumAn the same service that is done after giving up one’s body, traveling in the archirAdhi gathi (the path of light) and reaching paramapadham (spiritual realm).
  • ezhil koL sOdhi – Even if he is not present in close proximity, his bodily beauty is so attracting that one will naturally fall in love with him.
  • vEnkataththu ezhil koL sOdhi – Differentiates “vAnAr sOdhi” (the radiant light in spiritual sky – paramapadham) and “neelAzhich chOdhi” (the radiant light in the milk ocean  – kshIrAbdhi). The light in spiritual sky is like a light in the midst of brightly illuminated day, The light in the milk ocean is consumed by the ocean. But the light in thiruvEnkatam is alike a lamp on the top of a hill which shines clearly everywhere. His beauty improved due to the contact with the divine hill.
  • endhai – The (fatherly) relationship is such that, even if he is ugly, we cannot leave him. Also explained that – emperumAn won over AzhwAr by showing his simplicity (by descending in thiruvEnkatam) and his beauty.
  • thandhai thandhaikkE – Supreme lord. In this pAsuram, thirumanthram (ashtAkshram) which is focussed on kainkaryam as the goal, is explained. chathurthi (Aya in thirumanthram, “adimai seyya vENdum“) explains the prayer/request. “nAm” explains jIvAthmA’s nature. “thezhi kural …” explains the meaning of the word “nArAyaNa”. The kainkaryam (service) that is done towards the apt entity is the goal. Now, saulabhyam (vEnkataththu), physical beauty (ezhil koL sOdhi), swAmithvam (endhai thandhai thandhai) explain the meaning of the word nArAyaNa [Note: all of these are explained as part of mumukshuppadi and other granthams which give detailed explanation for thirumanthram. It can be learned from elders precisely].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.3 – ozhivil

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Third Centum

Previous Decad

Audio

srinivasan -ahzwar

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In third decad –  AzhwAr prays to emperumAn “you should eliminate my material body which is a hurdle to experience you”; emperumAn replies “your body is not a hurdle, infact it is useful (being a tool) in our engagement; I have arrived here with great desire to accept your service with your present body” and shows AzhwAr how he who is fully known only by vEdham is mercifully standing in thirumalA (thiruvEnkatam); AzhwAr becomes very pleased on such sight and longs to perform all kinds of kainkaryams to his divine feet.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In third decad – AzhwAr prays that his bodily connections that are hurdles for his servitude, be eliminated and ISwaran manifests his presence in periya thirumalai (great thiruvEnkatam hill) saying “I am present here to accept the service of those nithyasUris who are free from hurdles”; AzhwAr establishes that performing all kinds of service to such emperumAn is the natural duty of a servitor (1st pAsuram) and wanting to engage in such service, highlights the following aspects:

  1. the supremacy of bhagavAn who is the recipient of such service
  2. such master’s distinguished qualities, forms etc
  3. the servitude of nithyasUris (eternal residents of paramapadham) towards such distinguished master
  4. such supreme lord’s simplicity
  5. such simple lord’s sweet/enjoyable nature
  6. he being easily approachable to achieve him and enjoy him
  7. that, the thirumalai, where he is standing (his abode), in itself can bestow sAmyApaththi mOksham [liberation where the jIvAthmA will acquire eight qualities of lord]
  8. that, by enjoying such thiruvEnkata hill, one’s hurdles will naturally disappear
  9. due to the relationship with the thirumalai, Iswaran who is the dhESika (one who shows the true path) becomes the remover of undesirable aspects
  10. thirumalai, his divine abode, is the ultimate goal

Mercifully explaining these, AzhwAr says that service towards emperumAn who is the resident of this divine abode is the naturally fulfilling goal for the jIvAthmA.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

AzhwAr, after saying “nilaippeRRu en nenjam peRRadhu nIduyir” (my broken heart stabilized and my AthmA became eternal) on approaching him established his own nature,  desires for the natural servitude that fits the nature of the AthmA, in this decad. AzhwAr worries, thinking upon the limitations of his senses due to his relationship with the material body and not being able to engage with emperumAn as he desired and says “Right in the beginning, emperumAn eliminated this bondage and provided many ways to engage with him. But I missed out on all of those ways. I missed the incarnations. I missed acknowledging and pursuing the in-dwelling super soul. Having lost all these options, is there anything like approaching him for me? I have lost it completely” and decides to give up. At that time, emperumAn manifests his presence in thirumalai and pacifies AzhwAr saying “Come on AzhwAr! I have descended to thirumalai just for you. I have come here to enjoy you with your present body. Whatever vision you would have in paramapadham, I am going to show you right here. Having said this, your body is not a hurdle for you in our engagement. If you are worried about the limitations of the senses, even those who have no such limitations (nithyasUris) would be bewildered when they experience me. This place is where even those nithyasUris would come and enjoy me. So, you too serve as you desire, with this present body itself”.

AzhwAr too becomes pacified and thinks “Since dharmi (the original entity – bhagavAn) is the same and all his manifestations being complete, if we can perform all kinds of services right here without any limitation as it can be done after reaching the distinguished abode of paramapadham, if my body is suitable for service instead of being a hurdle, if the auspicious qualities such as Seelam (simplicity) that are clearly manifested here and that are to be glorified/experienced in parampadham as said in thaiththiriya upanishath “sOSnuthE sarvAn kAmAn” (jIvAthmA enjoys all the auspicious qualities of bhagavAn, along with him), if those nithyasUris themselves come here to serve him, let us also go and serve him there”, greatly longs to serve emperumAn like a man [AzhwAr] who would long to eat [serve] if he is hungry [bhakthi], is having food [bhagavAn] right in front of him and there is nice water bodies and shade giving trees [thirumalai filled with gardens]. For those who are desirous to serve emperumAn, it is natural for them to crave for such kainkaryam before actually doing it. iLaiya perumAL’s (lakshmaNa) nature was as explained in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31.25 “aham sarvam karishyAmi” (Let me serve you in all ways). AzhwAr’s longing/craving for kainkaryam resembles a person who craves for a feast well ahead of time [arumpadham – a humorous incident is narrated – Once, a person went to a brAhmaNa’s house to invite him to partake the feast in a SrAdhdham [annual ritual done for departed persons]. Since the brAhmaNa was not present, the person informs his wife about the date of the event and leaves. The brAhmaNa’s wife completely forgets about it and just remembers about it at the morning of the event. She informs her husband at the last moment only. Hearing that, the brAhmaNa becomes very upset with his wife saying ‘Why did you inform so late? I would have meditated upon the grand feast all these days? How can I do that now?’ and becomes very sad.” – Here, it is explained that our service to emperumAn too should be meditated upon well ahead of time with great joy].

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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