srImathE satakOpAya nama:
srImathE rAmAnujAya nama:
srImath varavaramunayE nama:
Introduction for this pAsuram
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
No specific introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
In the end, nammAzhwAr concludes that these 10 pAsurams are offered as devotional service at the lotus feet of emperumAn who is explained in the 10 pAsurams in great detail (same is explained in nampiLLai‘s introduction).
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
Similar to nanjIyar‘s introduction.
- In the first pAsuram, bhagavAn having auspicious qualities, being the master of nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm) and having beautiful and distinct form are explained.
- In the second pAsuram, bhagavAn‘s svarUpam (true nature) – the abode of the previously said aspects (auspicious qualities, being with spiritual realm and having divine body) – is explained as distinct from chith and achith.
- In the third pAsuram, AzhwAr enjoys the leelA vibhUthi (material realm) which is similar to nithya vibhUthi in the sense that both are owned/controlled by him.
- In the fourth pAsuram, AzhwAr says that the leelA vibhUthi’s svarUpam (true nature) is under bhagavAn‘s control.
- In the fifth pAsuram, AzhwAr says that the existence of the material realm is also under bhagavAn‘s control.
- In the sixth pAsuram, AzhwAr says that action and inaction are under bhagavAn’s control.
- In the seventh pAsuram AzhwAr says that since jagath (material realm) and Iswara share body and soul relationship, the aikyam (union) explained between jagath and Iswara is based on sarIra-Athma bhAvam.
- In the eighth pAsuram, AzhwAr refutes kudhrushtis (ones who misinterpret vEdham).
- In the ninth pAsuram, AzhwAr refutes sUnyavAdhis (ones who reject vEdham and say that everything is void).
- In the tenth pAsuram, AzhwAr explains the convenient nature of emperumAn‘s vyApthi (omni-presence).
Thus, bhagavAn‘s parathvam (supremacy) is elaborately established by AzhwAr previously. In this pAsuram, AzhwAr says that ones who engage in this decad, gets the same result (bhagavath kainkarya mOksham) as he (AzhwAr) had got.
கர விசும்பு எரி வளி நீர் நிலம் இவை மிசை
வரனவில் திறல்வலி யளி பொறை யாய் நின்ற
பரன் அடி மேல் குருகூர்ச் சடகோபன் சொல்
நிரனிறை ஆயிரத்து இவை பத்தும் வீடே
kara visumbu eri vaLi nIr nilam ivai misai
varanavil thiRalvali aLi poRai Ay ninRa
paran adi mEl kurukUrch chatakOpan sol
niraniRai Ayiraththu ivai paththum vIdE
Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
kara – since AkAsam is more sUbtle than others, it is said as invisible or strong
visumbu – AkAsam – ether
eri – agni – fire
vaLi – vAyu – air
nIr – jalam – water
nilam – bhUmi – earth
ivai misai – being the abode or having them as attributes
varan – best
navil – sabdham – words (attribute of ether)
thiRal – heat (attribute of fire)
vali – bhalam – strength (attribute of air)
aLi – coolness (attribute of water)
poRai – forbearance (attribute of earth)
Ay ninRa – being these dharmi (elements) and dharmams (their attributes)
paran – the most supreme
adi mEl – on the lotus feet (which removes sorrows)
kUrukUrch chatakOpan – one who is born in AzhwArthirunagari and one who wins over bhAhyas and kudhrushtis who are identified by sata (ignorance, etc)
sol – mercifully spoken
niraniRai Ayiraththu – enriched/complete due to the words, meanings, tunes, music etc coming together
ivai paththum – these 10 pAsurams which reveal his supremacy
vIdE – (vidappattana – submitted) offered to the lotus feet of emperumAn. Since these 10 pAsurams lead one to mOksham, vIdE (vIdu = mOksham in thamizh) can also be taken as indicating the ultimate result.,
Simple transalation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
These 10 pAsurams (which are mercifully spoken and which are most enriching/complete) are offered by nammAzhwAr (who is born in AzhwArthirunagari) at the lotus feet of emperumAn who is the supreme lord and is the abode of pancha bhUtham (AkAsa, vAyu, agni, jalam and bhUmi) and their respective qualities (sound, strength, heat, coolness and forbearance) or has them as his attributes. Just like vAlmIki is glorified in srI rAmAyaNam bAla kaNtam 4.1 for his trustworthy nature, here AzhwAr ‘s trustworthy nature is highlighted. Since the count 1000 is highlighted, bhagavAn who is the divine force behind these pAsurams is established. This padhgam (decad) falls under the thamizh poem category of “kali viruththam“.
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam
This thiruvAimozhi (padhigam/decad) explains emperumAn who has two vibhUthis – nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm – bhOga upakaraNa – tool for his joy) and leelA vibhUthi (material realm – leelA upakaraNa – tool for his sport). AzhwAr focusses this on his lotus feet since it is the most suitable object of worship. Looking at the beauty of the words, meaning, tune, truthful nature of the pAsurams etc AzhwAr desires that 1000 such pAsurams are sung to glorify emperumAn.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam
Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam
Similar to nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
- kara visumbu … ivai misai … poRai Ay ninRa – By explaining the five elements and their qualities – leelA vibhUthi is explained. leelA vibhUthi is explained as upalakshaNam (a sample) for nithy vihUthi. Thus, the supreme lord who is the master of both realms.
- kurukUrch chatakOpan – As said in srI rAmAyaNam bAla kANtam 4.1 “vAlmIkir bhagavAn rushi:” (the most knowledgable sage vAlmIki), here AzhwAr‘s name is revealed to highlight his trustworthy nature.
- nira niRai – Can be “niral niRai” (made of best words and filled with great meanings) or “niran niRai” (Having 4 lines where line is similarly composed and matching the tunes of music etc in proper andhAdhi (last word/letter in one pAsuram matching next pAsuram’s first word, letter etc.,) format as explained for srI rAmAyaNam slOkams).
- Ayiram – Similar to srI rAmAyaNam bAla kANtam 2.41 “…kAvyam rAmAyaNam kruthsnamIdhrusai: karavANyaham” (Let me compose this epic called srI rAmAyaNm in such manner) which was composed by vAlmIki (by the blessings of brahmA), AzhwAr who was fully blessed by emperumAn with blemishless knowledge declares that he is going to compile these pAsurams. Also, since his experiences cannot be revealed at once, he says he will reveal them in 1000 pAsurams in sequence. Also, it can be said that, since bhagavAn‘s greatness cannot be explained in a few words, AzhwAr says he will explain them over 1000 pAsurams.
- ivai paththum vIdE – These are offered at the lotus feet of emperumAn. It can also be explained as – Just like when one looks at a field that has paddy crop and says “this field is filled with paddy” (even when it is not grown, yet indicating the result will be paddy), here, AzhwAr says these 10 pAsurams will lead to vIdu (mOksham).
- AzhwAr mercifully explains that bhagavAn‘s mercy gave him blemishless knowledge, that knowledge leads him to mOksham and one who engages in this prabandham in any manner, will also get the same benefit.
Thus ends the English translation for thiruvAimozhi 1st centum 1st decad.
AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE charaNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE charaNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE charaNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE charaNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE charaNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE charaNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE charaNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE charaNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE charaNam
In the next article we will see the next padhigam (decad).
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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