SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
Introduction for this pAsuram
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
No specific introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
In first pAsuram, AzhwAr, in line with mahOpanishath statement “EkOhavai nArAyaNa AsIth” (Only nArAyaNa existed before creation), says “when the kAryarUpaprapancham (the universe in the form of effect) was completely non-existing, sarvESvaran who is the cause of the universe, created the universe through chathurmukha (four-headed) brahmA; such emperumAn is mercifully standing to be seen and surrendered by you all in [AzhwAr]thirunagari which has mountain like tall mansions; instead of taking shelter of him, you are searching for other dependable dhEvathAs”, and condemns them.
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
Subsequently, AzhwAr in line with statements which establish emperumAn’s causal nature, asks [the materialistic people] “while sarvESvaran who is the cause for everything is present, which other dhEvathA are you searching for?”.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
See nanjIyar‘s introduction.
onRum dhEvum ulagum uyirum maRRum yAdhum illA
anRu nAnmugan thannodu dhEvar ulagOdu uyir padaiththAn
kunRam pOl maNi mAda nIdu thirukkurugUr adhanuL
ninRa Adhip pirAn niRka maRRaith theyvam nAdudhirE
Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
onRum – (as said in “thama: EkI bhavathi“, in his nature) became subdued,
dhEvum – dhEva (celestial) species
ulagum – the world (where they reside)
uyirum – other species (such as manushya (human) etc)
maRRum – all entities (mahath etc, which are in samashti (collective) form)
(as said in “nEmEdhyAvA pruthivI na nakshathrANi“, irrespective of the differences by name and form)
yAdhum – all entities
illA anRu – when they were annihilated
(being kind-hearted, thinking about re-creating them)
nAnmugan thannodu – with brahmA who is the samashti purusha (one who is created at the end of samashti srushti (creation up to five great elements))
dhEvar – dhEvathAs
ulagu – world
uyir – other different species
padaiththAn – having created (to have them accept his refuge)
kunRam pOl – like mountains
maNi – with abundance of precious stones
mAdam – mansions
nIdu – tall
thirukkurugUr adhanuL – in [AzhwAr]thirunagari
ninRa – standing (in an easily approachable manner for those who want to surrender unto him)
Adhi – the cause of everything
pirAn – great benefactor
niRka – when he is present well
maRRai – those who are affected by creation and annihilation
dheyvam – dhEvathAs
nAdudhirE – you are approaching (as shelter).
Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
When dhEva species, their world, other species, all entities (in collective form or in no name/form) were all annihilated and became subdued [in bhagavAn], emperumAn created brahmA who is the samashti purusha, dhEvathAs, their world and other different species; when such emperumAn is standing well in AzhwArthirunagari that is having tall mountain like mansions, he being the cause of everything and the great benefactor, you are approaching these dhEvathAs who are [also] affected by creation and annihilation.
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam
piLLAn gives an elaborate list of pramANams from SAsthram citing emperumAn‘s supremacy. Please refer to the original commentary for the same.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
- onRum dhEvum … – dhEvathAs and their worlds, AthmAs who have assumed forms such as manushya (human) etc, mahath etc which are causes for oval shaped universes, and all others – at the time when they were not present – “onRum” (none of these) is recited at the end of this section. Alternative explanation – since effect becomes subdued in cause [during deluge], as bhagavAn is the cause, dhEvas, worlds, and all other entities are subdued in him and are thus not visibly present. It is said in chAndhOgya upanishath “sadhEva” (only sath remained).
- nAnmugan … – When others set out to protect/help the rest, they will see some reason and think “there will be some use by them some day” and then only help; sarvESvaran is the only one who protects without expecting anything from anyone.
- nAnmugan thannodu dhEvar ulagOdu uyir padaiththAn – Through chathurmukha (four-headed) brahmA, emperumAn created their worlds and the different forms accepted by chEthanas (sentient beings). sarvESvara created chathurmukha (four headed brahmA); chathurmukha created panchamukha (five headed rudhra); panchamukha created shaNmukha (six headed skandha) – this way creation became variegated. Though worldly people give great importance to rudhra and become confused, since AzhwAr did not see anything special in rudhra, instead cites brahmA who was born directly from the divine naval lotus of bhagavAn and includes rudhra in the group of [remaining] dhEvathAs. In samhAram (annihilation), AzhwAr cited mahath thathvam etc; in srushti (creation), he cited brahmA; the reason for this is – no one considers mahath to be supreme; but common people consider brahmA as supreme – so, to eliminate such doubts, AzhwAr cites brahmA and discards him saying he is also part of the created entourage. emperumAn created without any difference, brahmA who creates the 14 layered oval shaped universe, the ten prajApathis (progenitors) who are created by brahmA to manage routine/subsequent creation, the worlds which are the abodes for their enjoyment, the citizens of such worlds etc; he also bestowed them body and senses, to let them seek enjoyment and liberation.
- kunRam … – Such emperumAn, after creating these, instead of being away from those created places, stood in AzhwArthirunagari which has tall mansions which appear like mountains that are filled with precious stones. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 50.3 “ASayAyadhivArAma: punaSSabdhApayEthithi” (sumanthra said – I waited along with guha there with the desire of SrI rAma calling for me again), emperumAn is waiting there thinking “with the body and senses I have given them, would they come to me instead of saying ‘na namEyam‘ (I will not worship him)”. Alternative explanation – emperumAn waiting there thinking “even if I myself tried to accept them, would they at least not reject me?”. There [in SrI rAmAyaNam], the SEshabhUtha (servitor) waited to be accepted by SEshi (the lord); here the lord is waiting to be accepted by the servitors.
- Adhip pirAn niRka – Giving up such emperumAn who has arrived with affection towards you all and reside permanently in thirunagari.
- maRRaith theyvam nAdudhirE – You can only search for other dhEvathAs but cannot find the proper refuge. As said in “vAsudhEvam parithyajya yOnyam dhEvamupAsathE | thrushithO jAhnavIthIrE kUpamganathidhurmathi: ||” (one who leaves aside krishNa, who is the son of vasudhEva, and worships other dhEvathAs, that fool is like a thirsty person who is digging a well at the banks of river gangA), [one who is seeking other dhEvathAs is like ] a thirsty person, while river gangA is flowing nicely, instead of drinking water directly from that and quenching his thirst, is digging a well to quench his thirst; AzhwAr is condemning those who are giving up emperumAn who is natural/apt lord, easily approachable, easily worshippable and with great qualities, and are seeking out other dhEvathAs who are inapt, difficult to attain, difficult to worship and with no great qualities, and even if worshipped, it is as said in thirumAlai 10 “sEttai than madi agaththu selvam pARththu” (trying to get wealth from the inauspicious mUdhEvi deity), those dhEvathAs who are lacking SrI mahAlakshmi in them.
In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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