Category Archives: iyaRpA

thiruviruththam – 71 – UzhigaLAy

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avathArikai (Introduction)

The nAyakan who had clandestinely united with the nAyaki and separated from her, sends a few persons to sell fruits to the place where the nAyaki resides. These fruits resemble the complexion of his divine form and would help her to lessen her distress in separation. Looking at those fruits, the nAyaki sustains herself. Her mother notices this and chides her. The nAyaki tells her friends about this excessive act of her mother’s.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

UzhigaLAy ulagEzhum uNdAn enRilam pazham kaNdu
Azhi kaLAm pazhavaNNam enRERku ahdhE koNdu annai
nAzhivaLO enRum gyAlam uNdAn vaNNam solliRu enRum
thOzhigaLO uraiyIr emmai ammanai sUzhginRavE

Word-by-Word Meanings

UzhigaLAy – being the controller of all the worlds ruled by time
Ezhu ulagum – (during deluge) all the seven worlds
uNdAn – ate (to keep them in his stomach and protect them)
enRilam – we did not say that
pazham kaNdu – looking at the fruit
kaLAppazha vaNNam – the colour of berry fruit
Azhi –like the colour of ocean
enRERku – to me who said so
ahdhE koNdu – presuming another meaning for that word
annai – (my) mother
ivaL – this girl
nAzh – is clever
enRum – saying so
gyAlam – earth
uNdAn – one who swallowed
vaNNam – complexion
solliRRu – said
enRum – saying so
thOzhigaLO – Oh my friends!
emmai – regarding me
ammanai – mother
sUzhginRa – saying it repeatedly
(remedy for this)
uraiyIr – please tell

Simple Translation

Oh friends! I had not revealed the name of my nAyakan explicitly by saying “He is the lord of all the worlds ruled by time and he protected the seven worlds in his stomach during deluge”. Instead, looking at the colour of berry fruits, I had said “The colour of ocean is the colour of this fruit”. My mother, who listened to my words, said “This girl is very clever! She is referring to the complexion of the one who swallowed all the worlds” Please tell me a remedy since my mother is accusing me repeatedly and hurting me.

vyAkyAnam

UzhigaLAy Ezhulagum uNDAn enRilam – Had I said “During deluge, he swallowed and protected the seven worlds”, I could be accused of talking about him (sarvESvaran). However, I had not said “He is the controller of all entities such as time etc; he is the great benefactor who swallowed all these entities during deluge”. Those who say that sarvESvaran does not have auspicious qualities will give a different meaning to the words sathyam, gyAnam etc which are mentioned in thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavallee “sathyam gyAnam anantham brahma” (the supreme entity is permanent, omniscient and unlimited). In the same way, the nAyaki too feels happy to praise the greatness of his auspicious qualities by saying indirectly about his complexion etc. She has a right to say this. Her mother too has a right to deny what the nAyaki had meant. The right for the nAyaki comes from the basis that she cannot remain quiet about someone who has carried out a beneficial act for her; one with intellect cannot keep quiet. Her mother, on the other hand, felt that the nAyaki’s thoughts would torment her later.  She thought that deep involvement with the qualities of a person would lead to worries later on.

pazham kaNdu – when one looks at an entity in this world, it is natural to identify it by its name. Whether it is ghatam (pot) or patam (cloth), it is called by its name. Is identifying a material by its name, an offence?

Azhi kaLAm pazhavaNNam enRERku – I merely said that the colour of the berry fruit is similar to the colour of the ocean. However, my mother presumed “She is talking about the one who has the complexion of ocean [sarvESvaran]”

ahdhE koNdu – Instead of accepting what I had said, she thought that there was an inner meaning to it.

annai – was she a mother right from the time of her birth? It appears that she had not grown up to the stage of a young girl (before becoming a mother). If there is a fault, it could be chided. But when there is no fault, is it proper to see as to who is controlling and who is being controlled?

nAzhivaLO enRum – we are seeing the fruits and speaking about them. Does she not understand what I am saying? Why is she taking a different meaning for it? Is she having a skill in talking meaninglessly? nAzh refers to skill.

What is the greatness of the nAyaki?

gyAlam uNdAn vaNNam solliRRu ennum – sarvESvaran had kept all the worlds during the time of deluge, inside his stomach to protect them. Reminiscing that quality, my daughter could not bear separation from that sarvESvaran.

thOzhigaLO uraiyIr – Oh friends! Don’t you stand with me in my happy moments and sad moments? You are not like my mother.

emmai ammanai sUzhginRavE – just like a snake in the house will torment even when it is not biting, whenever someone comes into the house or leaves the house, my mother is tormenting me.

sUzhginRa – my mother is exaggerating things three times. While I am seeing something and speaking about the same thing, my mother torments me saying that there is some other meaning to what I am saying. Only you have to offer me a remedy for this.

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): this pAsuram says that it is not possible to sustain oneself without looking at entities which are equivalent to sarvESvaran and that it is not possible to redeem someone who is having overflowing affection towards sarvESvaran.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 70 – vaLai vAy

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avathArikai (Introduction)

Due to the craving arising out of the desire of obtaining the garland of thuLasi which had been worn by SrIvaikuNanAthan [sarvESvaran], this pAsuram narrates the difficulty in spending time.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

vaLaivAyth thiruchchakkaraththu engaL vAnavanAr mudimEl
thaLaivAy narungaNNith thaNNandhuzhAykku vaNNam payalai
viLaivAn miga vandhu nAL thingaL ANdu Uzhi niRka emmai
uLaivAn pugundhu idhuvOr kangul Ayiram UzhigaLE

Word-by-Word Meanings

vaLai – being bent
vAy – having mouth
thiruchchakaraththu – having the divine disc
engaL – being our swAmy
vAnavanAr – sarvESvaran, who is the controller of paramapadham, his
mudimEl  – donned atop his divine crown
thaLaivAy – having the opportunity
naRu – having fragrance
thaN – being cool
am – being beautiful
kaNNI – strung as a garland
thuzhAykku – for the divine thuLasi
(desired by me, but feeling sad since it is not available)
vaNNamcolour
payalai viLaivAn – to make it become pale (losing colour)
idhu – this
Or – one
kangul – night
nAL – as a day
thingaL – as a month
ANdu – as a year
Uzhi niRka – as a kalpam (life time of brahmA), apart from transforming
emmai – us
uLaivAN – to trouble
migavandhu – increasing repeatedly
pugundhu – entering
Ayiram – many
UzhigaL – increased as kalpams

Simple Translation

I desired the cool, beautiful thuLasi garland which is fragrant and has the nice opportunity of decorating the divine crown of our lord sarvESvaran, who has the divine discus which has curved mouth and who is the controller of paramapadham. As a result of this, in order for the complexion in my form to lose its colour and become pale, this one night appears to extend beyond one day, one month, one year and many kalpams, troubling me.

vyAkyAnam

vaLaivAy thiruchchakaraththu – divine disc which has a bent mouth. Alternatively, one who has vaLai – SrI pAnchajanyam (divine conch) and vAy – divine disc which has mouth. Reference is made to SrI rAmAyaNa SlOkam yudhdha kANdam “thamasa: paramOdhAthA Sanka chakra gadhAdhara:” (one who is beyond the darkness of ignorance, one who is supreme and who adorns the divne weapons of conch, disc, mace etc).

engaL vAnavanAr mudimEl – having the opportunity of donning the divine crown of SrIvaikuNtanAthan who is having divine weapons, divine garlands and who is the lord of thripAdhvibhUthi (nithyavibhUthi, the spiritual realm) which is three times larger than leelA vibhUthi (materialistic realm); the garland has been strung by nithyasUris such as AdhiSEshan, garudan et al.

naRungaNNith thaNNandhuzhAykku – the divine garland of divine thuLasi which is fresh.

vaNNam . . . – desiring that divine garland, and becoming pale since it has not been obtained; losing colour.

miga vandhu . . . – the night which came, first became a day; that day then became a month; that month became a year; that year became a kalpam. Thus a single night extended to several kalpams, in order to torment me.

miga vandhu – each part came, getting worse than the previous. Thus, several nights came this way. How one night turned out to be!

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): this pAsuram explains the benefit that AzhwAr desired similar to the benefit which sIthAppirAtti attained in SrI rAmAyaNam as mentioned in ayOdhyA kANdam 16-21 “pathi sammAnithA sIthA” (sIthAppirAtti who was given a happy message by her husband) and how it became extremely difficult to spend time on not attaining that benefit.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 69 – kArERRiruL

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avathArikai (Introduction)

Next, dusk came and started tormenting her. Since the time after dusk is the happy time of night, and since the nAyakan had not come there to be with her, the nAyaki feels distressed. Her friend tells her “This is  not dusk. Two bulls are raring to fight with each other”, making her feel bewildered about time and trying to console her.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kArERRiruL segilERRin sudarukku uLaindhu velvAn
pOrERRu edhirndhadhu punthalai mAlai bhuvaniyellAm
nIrERRaLandha nediya pirAn aruLAvidumE
vARERRiLa mulaiyAy varundhEl un vaLaiththiRamE

Word-by-Word Meanings

iruL darkness
kAr – black
ERu – bull
segil – reddish
ERRin – bull (refers to sUriyan (sUrya))
sudarukku – effulgence
uLaindhu – losing out
(hiding all along, now)
velvAn – to win (against that bull)
pOr – battle
ERRu – accepting that
pul – negligible
thalai – duration
mAlai – in the evening time (dusk)
edhirndhadhu – fought
bhuvaniyellAm – throughout the earth
nIr ERRu – accepting water (given as sign of giving alms, from mahAbali)
aLandha – one who seized
nediya – one who had unlimited friendliness
pirAn – sarvESvaran, the benefactor
aruLAvidumE – will he not shower his mercy?
vAr – with bodice
ERRu – being held
iLa mulaiyAy – Oh one who has youthful bosoms!
un vaLaiththiRam – regarding your bangles
varundhEl – do not grieve

Simple Translation

The bull of darkness had lost out to the bull of reddishly splendrous sUriyan. However, in order to win against that bull, it came during dusk, which lasts only briefly. Will sarvESvaran, who had accepted water, as a sign of receing alms from mahAbali, and measured all the worlds, not show his mercy on you at this time of dusk? Oh one has held her bosoms in a bodice! You need not grieve regarding your bangles.

vyAkyAnam

kArERRiruL – darkness looks like a black bull.

segilERRin sudarukku uLaindhu – surrendered to the rays of reddish bull, called as sUriyan, after losing to it. That dark bull told itself “Should we lose like this such that we would perish? We should also win once” and waged a fight with the reddish bull, donning the garland (or evening) [In thamizh language, both garland and evening are referred to by the same word, mAlai].

pun thalai mAlaisandhyA (dusk) time which lasts only briefly; dusk which has minute buds of embers of darkness. Is it possible to ascribe buds to evening? Just as it has been mentioned in the saying nakanibhasunjathiyAnthamOvallaya: where darkness is compared to a creeper, it is acceptable to say that darkness has buds.

bhuvani . . . – shouldn’t one, who knows sarvESvaran’s qualities, remain patiently? Is he not one who kept his divine foot, which are like the flowers for nithyasUris, on everyone’s head, without any reason, treating indhra as the cause for doing that way? Will he, who is the benefactor for all, leave you behind? Would one, who comes and helps entities who are engulfed by thamas (ignorance) and complain to him [reference is to indhra et al], remain idly when thamas (darkness) spreads in the world (during dusk)? Would one, who comes seeking alms to reclaim land which others claim as their own [mahAbali] leave you, who are his wealth, and that too when he does not have to seek alms? Would one, who does not let go of anything on this earth which is full of forests and highlands, let you to suffer? Would one, who hastened when the earth was in trouble, remain patiently when a lady is in trouble?

vArERRu iLa mulaiyAy – would he, who keeps his divine feet on forests and highlands, not keep them on your bosoms?

aruLAvidumE – would one, who transforms himself to help those who have the quality of sathvam (goodness) occasionally, not help you who is full of Sudhdha sathvam (pure goodness)?

bhuvani . . . – he is the great benefactor who feels that he has not done anything even after keeping his divine feet on the heads of everyone, when he measured the earth consequent to accepting water as a sign of taking alms.

aruLAvidumE – even if his affection for you is lost, would even his mercy, which is a corollary of his true nature, not be showered on you?

vArERRu iLamulaiyAy – oh one who has bosoms which have to be held by a bodice! Would he allow you to bear your bosoms which are to be borne either by the bodice or by him?

iLa mulaiyAy – though you have not reached adulthood, your bosoms are such that they have to be sustained by bodice. Just as children cry out for food during times of hunger, your bosoms are heaving, crying out for worldly pleasures.

varundhEl un vaLaiththiRamE – you do not have to grieve for the bangles slipping out of your hands. If you wish, you could grieve for entities on his hands slipping out. Just as it has been said in thiruppallANdu 2 “appAnchasanniyamum pallANdu” (long live that conch, pAnchajanyam), praise his conch [our bangles are representative of the conch since they are made of conch].

In the previous pAsuram, how AzhwAr sustained himself through the knowledge of sarvESvaran’s auspicious qualities and through sarvESvaran entering his mind, was mentioned. In this pAsuram he says that even that is not required; mere knowledge that he is the protector and we are the entities to be protected is sufficient. varundhEl un vaLaiththiRamE – this is similar to the saying in bhagavath gIthA 18-66 SlOkam “mA Sucha:” (do not grieve). Through the words aham thvA, the true nature of both (sarvESvaran and AzhwAr) has been explained and only after that has mA Sucha: been said.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 68 – malarndhE ozhindhila

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avathArikai (Introduction)

The nAyakan, who had united and later separated from the nAyaki, told her before leaving “I will come when the konRai flowers blossom (konRai is a tree belonging to the legume family, with elongated clusters of yellow flowers)” The konRai flowers started blossoming with the arrival of that season. Since the nAyakan had not returned, the nAyaki felt distressed. Her friend sees the flowers, knows that the season has arrived, but still tells her “They are only in the process of blossoming but have not blossomed yet. He will certainly return at the correct time; do not worry”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

malarndhE ozhindhila mAlaiyum mAlaippon vAsigaiyum
pulandhOy thazhaippandhal thaNduRa nARRip poru kadal sUzh
nilandhAviya emperumAn thanadhu vaigundham annAy
kalandhAr varavedhirkoNdu van konRaigaL kArththanavE

Word-by-Word Meanings

poru – agitating
kadal – ocean
sUzh – surrounded by
nilam – bhUmi (earth)
thAviya – one who measured
emperumAn thanadhu – sarvESvaran’s
vaigundham annAy – one who is (enjoyable) like SrIvaikuNtam!
van – being cruel
konRaigaL – konRai trees
kalandhAr – sarvESvaran who united (with you)
varavu – arrival
edhir koNdu – expecting
kArththana – are forming buds
mAlaiyum – as garlands (string)
mAlai – made as garland
pon vAsigaiyum – golden strings
pulam – on the earth
thOy – falling
thazhai – well grown
pandhal – as a bower
thaNdu – in the branches
uRa – fitting
nARRi – making it to hang
malarndhEyozhindhila – have not blossomed fully

Simple Translation

Oh one who gives joy like SrIvaikuNtam which belongs to sarvESvaran, who had measured this earth surrounded by agitating oceans! The cruel konRai trees are waiting with buds, for the arrival of sarvESvaran who had united with you. They are not seen with blossomed flowers on their branches which come down like strings of garlands or garlands with golden strings, to the ground from the bower on which they have spread.

vyAkyAnam

malarndhE ozhindhila – the friend tells nAyaki “This is not the season when he said he would return” The nAyaki tells her “How do you say so even after seeing that the flowers have blossomed?” The friend says “You could only see them trying to blossom; they have not blossomed fully”

mAlai . . . – only if they come down in strings as garlands or as golden strings through those garlands, could one say that they have blossomed. They should come down to the earth in such a way that those who see them would have their sensory organs stolen by them.

poru kadal – [friend’s words] aren’t you matching his indestructible nithyavibhUthi (spiritual realm)? Will he allow you to get destroyed? He has one vibhUthi (leelA vibhUthi) which keeps getting formed and destroyed repeatedly and one vibhUthi (nithya vibhUthi) which is indestructible.  Measuring this earth which is surrounded by ocean, he is the lord who brought all the worlds under him.

thanadhu vaigundham annAy – is it possible for you not to have svarUpa gyAnam (knowledge about your true nature)? Aren’t you matching his nithyavibhUthi? Only if he gives up that nithyavibhIUthi, would he give you up too. Will he allow you to get distressed?

kalandhAr – even if he does not know your true nature, will he not know his true nature? Would he, who had united with you and knows your importance, let go of you? Know well that his identity is that he is kalandhAr (one who united with you).

varavedhir koNdu – even plants which do not know any distinction between correct and incorrect, were ready to blossom as mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam SlOkam “akAlapalinO vrukshA” (thought it was not the season, trees blossomed flowers). Thus, when these flowers are waiting for the arrival of nAyakan to blossom, why are you upset?

van konRaigaL – the konRai trees were anxiously waiting, deciding to blossom only when he comes and not otherwise

kArththana – they formed buds. When the embryo is formed, it would change colour. This indicates that. It could also be taken to refer to rainy season.

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): this pAsuram states how those who were nearby comforted AzhwAr, saying that due to his knowledge of sarvESvaran’s auspicious qualities and due to the fact that sarvESvaran had entered his mind, sarvESvaran will not remain without coming during the time which is apt for enjoyment.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 67 – kAviyum neelamum

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avathArikai (Introduction)

In this pAsuram too, the nAyakan keeps talking about the beauty of her eyes.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kAviyum neelamum vElum kayalum palapalavenRu
Aviyin thanmai aLavalla pArippu asuraichcheRRa
mAviyam puL valla mAdhavan gOvindhan vEngadam sEr
thUviyam pEdai annAL kaNgaLAya thuNai malarE

Word-by-Word Meanings

asurai – demons
seRRa – one who annihilated
mA – having greatness
viyam – having amazing activities
puL – garuda
valla – capable of conducting (as his vehicle)
mAdhavan – Sriya:pathi (consort of SrI mahAlakshmi)
gOvindhan – sarvESvaran, who tends to cows, his
vEngadam – in his divine abode of thiruvEngadam
sEr – living permanently
am – beautiful
thUvi – having wings
pEdai annALnAyaki who is like a female swan
kaNgaLAya – called as eyes
thuNai – together
malar – like flowers (these)
pArippu – spread
kAviyum – red lily
neelamum – blue lily
vElum – spear
kayalum – fish
palapala – and various other entities
venRu – emerging victorious
Aviyin – AthmA’s
thanmai – svabhAvam (true nature)
aLavalla – cannot be contained (it will go beyond)

Simple Translation

This nAyaki is like a female swan which is permanently residing in thiruvEngadam. This is the abode of sarvESvaran, who conducts garuda who annihilates demons. He has great eminence and has amazing activities, who has SrI mahAlakshmi constantly on his chest and who tends to cows. Such nAyaki’s eyes are like flowers which match each other well. Their expansive nature wins over many entities such as red lily, blue lily, spear, fish etc and are beyond the nature of AthmA.

vyAkyAnam

kAviyum . . . – If one were to look for an entity which matches her eyes, one has to refer to SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1-18 “vishNunA sadhruSA: vIryE sOmavath priya dharSana: kAla agni sadhruSA: krOdha kshamayA prithvI samA:” (matching SrI mahAvishNu in valour, chandhiran (chandhra – moon) in attracting others, agni in anger, bhUmi (earth) in patience); as mentioned in this SlOkam, in each attribute, one has to compare with several entities and even then, one will have a doubt whether these would be an exact match for that attribute. In this SlOkam, in the verse vishNunA sadhrusO vIryE he compared parathvam (supreme) only to the quality of valour. Here, it is not so. By its [eye’s] reddish colour it was superior to red lily, by its dark colour it was superior to blue lily, by its sharpness it was superior to a spear and by its innocence it was superior to fish; thus it was superior to several entities.

Aviyin thanmai aLavalla pArippu – is destroying entities such as flowers etc, which will in any case get destroyed in course of time, a sign of victory? The eyes are capable of destroying even AthmA which is indestructible.

Aviyin thanmai aLavalla – not stopping merely with the entity of AthmA, going towards the entity which is the sustaining force for it – in other words, her limbs are capable of bewildering even sarvESvaran.

asurai . . . – one who is capable of conducting garuda who destroys the demons along with their clan, who is  great and is equivalent to emperumAn himself, having amazing activities.

mAdhavan – more than the greatness of being the conductor of garuda, sarvESvaran has the greatness of being the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi.

gOvindhan – due to that union with SrI mahAlakshmi, he is simple to attain; that simplicity made him come down to thirumalai and be easily approachable to his followers, making that easy approachability as a sign of supremacy. The nAyaki is like thUviyampEdai  – the female swan which has beautiful wings, which will live only in that thiruvEngadam, belonging to gOvindhan and not in any other place. Alternatively, thUviyampEdai could refer to SrI mahAlakshmi, and in this case, nAyaki is similar to SrI mahAlakshmi. What is the necessity to speak about garudavAhanan, lakshminAthan et al? He wanted to talk about sarvESvaran’s easy approachability, spoke about supremacy which is the basis for the quality of easy approachability and finally he came into the  boundary of simplicity.

kaNgaLAya thuNai malarE – being referred to as eyes, they became two flowers which matched each other.

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): AzhwAr is enjoying the pAsuram of SrivaishNavAs who say that as per AzhwAr there is no limit to those who enjoy the simplicity of one who stands in thirumalai [sarvESvaran].

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 66 – uNNAdhu uRangAdhu

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avathArikai (Introduction)

This pAsuram also reveals the words spoken by the nAyakan who is engaged with the beauty of the nAyaki’s eyes.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

uNNAdhu uRangAdhu uNarvuRum eththanai yOgiyarkkum
eNNAy miLirum iyalvinavAm eri nIr vaLi vAn
maNNAgiya emperumAn thanadhu vaigundhamannAL
kANNAy aruvinaiyEn uyirAyina kAvigaLE

Word-by-Word Meanings

eri – for fire
nIr – for water
vaLi – for air
vAn – for sky
maN – for earth
Agiya – as indwelling soul
emperumAn thanadhu – for emperumAn who is my benefactor, his wealth
vaigundham annAL – she, who is like SrIvaikuNtam (having enjoyability)
kaNNAy – being called as eyes
aru – cruel
vinaiyEn – I, having sins
uyirAyina – life-giving airs
kAvigaL – red water lily
uNNadhu – foregoing food
uRangAdhu – foregoing sleep
uNarvu – knowledge (about true nature of AthmA)
uRum – those who have attained
eththanai yOgiyarkkum – for even the distinguished people who carry out meditation
eNNAy – to think about
miLirum – being radiant
iyalvinavAm – they have that nature

Simple Translation

She is like SrIvaikuNtam, which is the abode of sarvESvaran who remains as the indwelling soul of the five elements, fire, water, air, sky and earth.Her two eyes are like red water lily and are the life sustaining airs for me.  Her eyes, which are radiant, are such that even great yOgis, who keep constantly meditating on sarvESvaran, foregoing their food and sleep, would keep thinking of.

vyAkyAnam

uNNadhu . . . – unable to sustain themselves through the pleasures available in this world, with the intellect that this world and its materials are to be renounced, being firm in their minds that only the AthmA which is the goal to be attained is apt, considering that even that entity AthmA is not independent but a conduit for obtaining knowledge about sarvESvaran – even for such yOgis

eNNAy miLirum iyalvinavAm – if such people, as described above, were to become the target of these eyes, even they will discard the supreme entity who they can attain as their nature, and consider these eyes as eminent.

eri . . . – the causal factors of the five elements are representative of the effect factors too [whatever is enjoyed through these five entities]. sarvESvaran has all these as his wealth.

emperumAn – sarvESvaran’s vibhUthis (spiritual and materialistic realms) are the benefits for one. Apart from his auspicious qualities, his vibhUthis are also apt for him.

thanadhu vaigundham annAL – unlike the materialistic realm which is created and destroyed repeatedly, she is like his nithyavibhUthi (SrivaikuNtam) which is never destroyed and which is his natural abode as well as confidential to him.

kaNNay . . . – when such a lady came near me, her eyes, which are the most important limb in her form, which are like the entity AthmA which does not change or does not get destroyed, and which, unlike the AthmA, remain independent and cause harm, indeed harmed me.

aruvinaiyEn – I have carried out such sinful activities that the entity which should protect me, is harming me.

uyirAyina kAvigaLE – when they are with her, they remain as her eyes; when she comes near me, they are like my life.

uyirAyina kAvigaLE – it appeared as if life took a form to harm me.

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): Thus, for the SrIvaishNavas who are enjoying the SrIvaishNavaSrI  (wealth of service to sarvESvaran) of AzhwAr, this gives their position of dhEvum maRRaRiyEn (we do not know of any other deity). They cherish him because of connection with sarvESvaran. This states how his SrIvaishNavaSrI is so complete that they do not cherish sarvESvaran but cherish him. Those who are engaging with charamAvathi (ultimate position) will not engage with prathamAvathi (primary position) [in other words, AchAryan takes precedence over sarvESvaran, which is the underlying principle of SrIvaishNavam]

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 65 – kaRRuppiNai

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avathArikai (Introduction)

The nAyakan, caught in the glance of nAyaki, narrates how her eyes harmed him.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kaRRuppiNai malarkkaNNin kulam venRu OrOkarumam
uRRuppayinRu seviyodusAvi ulagamellAm
muRRum vizhungi umizhndha pirAnAr thiruvadikkIzh
uRRumuRAdhum miLirndha kaNNAy emmai uNginRavE

Word-by-Word Meanings

kanRu – being youthful
piNai – doe’s [female deer’s]
malarndha – blossomed
kaNNin – eyes’
kulam – gathering
venRu – being victorious
OrO karumam – one task
uRRu – determining
payinRu – attempting (to do that)
seviyodu – with ears
usAvi – discussing (that task)
ulagamellAm – all the worlds
muRRum – completely
vizhungi – swallowing (during the time of deluge)
umizhndhu – spitting out (during the time of creation)
pirAnAr – benefactor, sarvESvaran’s
thiruvadikkIzh – under his divine feet
uRRum – fitting (with me)
uRAdhum – not fitting
miLirndha – looking radiantly
kaNNAy – having the name ‘eyes’
emmai – us
uNginRa – (two entities) are harming me

Simple Translation

The eyes of the nAyaki, emerging victorious over the eyes of a rangale of deer [a herd of deer], determining to carry out a job and attempting to carry it out, engaged in a discussion with her ears. Despite being present under the divine feet of sarvESvaran who benefitted the worlds by swallowing them (during the time of deluge) and by spitting them out (during the time of creation), the two entities of the nAyaki, called as eyes, are engaging and disengaging with me, harming me in the bargain.

vyAkyAnam

kaRRuppiNaimalar – deer which is young; the eyes of such a young deer.

malarkkaN – eyes which are like flowers, viz. well opened eyes.

kulam venRu – being victorious over the eyes of all young deer.

OrO karumam . . . – thinking of a specific task only, and discussing with ears on that specific task. Instead of engaging with several tasks at the same time, without attachment with any of those, thinking intently about one task alone; just as it has been mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 10-9bOdhayantha: parasparam” (discussing with each other), glancing at only the nAyakan. When he looks at her, she will change her glance and appear to look elsewhere, just as it has been mentioned in thirukkuRaL 1094 “yAnOkkungAlai nilan nOkkum nOkkAkAl thAn nOkki mella nagum” (when I look at her, she will avoid my look and look at the ground below; when I am not looking at her, she will look at me and smile gently).

ulagamellAm . . . – despite being under the divine feet of the protector of all the worlds. The eyes will cause harm in spite of being under his boundary.

uRRum uRAdhum miLirndha – the eyes will look at him, questioningly. If he looks at her with ecstasy, they [the eyes] will change their glance to some other direction and shine lustrously.

kaNNay emmai uNginRavE – A harmful object, allegedly called as eyes, will harm me.

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): This is the situation of SrivaishNavas who are looking at AzhwAr’s situation. The verse kaRRuppiNaimalarkkaNNin kulam venRu refers to innocence regarding what is to be done. OrO karumam uRRup payinRu refers to prapaththi (SaraNAgathi, the act of surrendering to sarvESvaran). Is this not related to knowledge? How is there a connection with the previously stated innocence? Even though prapaththi is manifestation of knowledge, there is a lack of focus in it, due to innocence. The act of prapaththi arises out of one’s true nature as a jIvAthmA and is not to be considered as an effort taken by the jIvAthmA to attain the means.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 64 – irukkAr mozhiyAl

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avathArikai (Introduction)

In the earlier pAsuram AzhwAr had said that sarvESvaran had glanced at him with his divine eyes and showered his mercy on him. He analysed this saying “Why did he glance at me with his divine eyes instead of at his favourable ones?” He concludes saying “I had recited his divine names superficially and not even wholeheartedly. It could be because of this”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

irukkAr mozhiyAl neRi izhukkAmai ulagaLandha
thiruththALiNai nilaththEvar vaNanguvar yAmum avA
orukkA vinaiyodum emmodum nondhu kaniyinmaiyil
karukkAy kadippavar pOl thirunAmachchol kaRRanamE

Word-by-Word Meanings

irukku – being mentioned in rig vEdham (one of the four parts of sacred texts)
Ar – completely (explaining the true nature of supreme entity)
mozhiyAl – with purusha sUktham
neRi – the supreme path of worshipping supreme entity
izhukkAmai – without mistake
nilaththEvar – SrIvaishNavas, who are referred to as the dhEvathAs (celestial entities) of earth
ulagu – world
aLandha – one  which measured
thiruththALiNai – divine feet
vaNanguvar – will worship [and attain]
yAmum – we too
avA – desire
orukkA – not allowing to reach
vinaiyodum – with sins
emmodum – and with us
(looking at these two true natures)
nondhu – grieving
kani inmaiyil – due to absence of fruit
karukkAy – unripened fruit
kadippavar pOl – those who eat
thirunAmachchol – divine names without following the meanings
kaRRanamE – learnt

Simple Translation

brAhmaNas who are referred to as celestial entities on earth, keep worshipping the two divine feet [of  sarvESvaran] which measured all the worlds, through purusha sUktham seen in rig vEdham, which explains the true nature of the supreme entity, without transgressing from the path of righteousness. We grieve at our sins and our nature which are a hurdle to realise our desire of worshipping in a similar way. Consequently, we learnt only to recite the divine names of sarvESvaran, just as those who eat only unripened fruit since ripened fruit is not available.

vyAkyAnam

irukkAr mozhiyAl – Due to the distinguished knowledge of those who had carried out prapaththi (SaraNAgathi, or act of surrendering) to SarvESvaran, through the lines mentioned in rig vEdham, the lands where crops grow to a meagre extent as well as arid lands became fully grown lands. The vyAkyAthA says that there is no need to feel bewildered that in vEdhams, terms such as Sambhu et al denote rudhra, brahmA et al as eminent entities. This is because the distinguished divine word of nArAyaNan as mentioned in places describing sarvESvaran’s svarUpam, rUpam, guNam, vibhUthi (true nature, divine form, auspicious qualities and wealth respectively) is superior to everything else. In other words, he says that in nArAyaNa anuvAkam, only sarvESvaran is spoken of. In yajur AraNyakam, the verse sarvE vEdhA yathraikambhavathi refers to the fact that only nArAyaNan is being recited in everything [including the defining names of all entities]. Since all the terms which refer to eminent entities in this nArAyaNa anuvAkam speak only about nArAyaNan, it should be considered that all the terms refer only to him.

neRi izhukkAmai – not deviating from bhagavath ArAdhanam (worshipping of sarvESvaran), which is the path of righteousness,

ulagaLandha thiruththAliNai – his nature is such that he would say “Whether these entities (both sentient and insentient) do or do not know, these are all my property; I will not let go of them”. When all the entities were not even aware of, did he not redeem them all, by measuring everyone and everything?

nilaththEvar vaNanguvar – though the brAhmaNAs are living in this samsAram  (materialistic world), just as they have been referred to in thiruviruththam 79 viNNuLArilum sIriyar (they are more eminent than nithyasUris), they are considered as dhEvathAs [celestial entities] on earth.

yAmum – I, who am not having knowledge on SAsthrams just like they have

avA orukkAvinaiyodum emmodum – my sins prevent me from engaging with matters related to sarvESvaran with the same desire which I have towards worldly matters. I am grieving about those sins and about me, who is having those sins. Grieving because of the fact that these are there and I am there, carrying on with these sins.

kani inmaiyil karukkAy kadippavar pOl – even though I do not have the qualification which they have in worshipping, without deviating from the path of righteousness, I recited only the divine names, just as one who does not have access to fruits, eats only the unripened ones.

thirunAmachchol kaRRanamE – even when I recited those divine names, I did so without knowing their meanings. I had not even known their greatness. However, sarvESvaran showered his mercy upon me, without any reason.

Alternative explanation:

avA . . . – there is a sin which enables the desire which is there for worldly matters to be diverted towards matters related to sarvESvaran. It is referred to as bhakthi [devotion]. Could bhakthi be termed as sin? Since it is the cause for suffering when one does not attain bhagavAn, it can be termed as a sin.

kani inmaiyil karukkAy kadippavar pOl – just as those who eat the unripened fruit when ripened ones are not available, AzhwAr had to make do with reciting divine names. He wanted to see sarvESvaran with his eyes and embrace him with his hands.  In such a situation, what could he do with only reciting of divine names?  There is another interpretation for the word kani inmai. Just as people would eat an unripened fruit before it becomes ripened, before nithyasUris could enjoy him [sarvESvaran], AzhwAr destroyed him by only speaking about him.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 63 – vaNNam sivandhuLa

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avathArikai (Introduction)

She had asked him whether it was correct (muRaiyO?) in the previous pAsuram. The nAyakan came immediately and looked at her with comforting eyes.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

vaNNam sivandhuLa vAnAdamarum kuLir vizhiya
thaNmen kamalaththadam pOl polindhana thAm ivaiyO
kaNNan thirumAL thirumugam thannOdum kAdhal seydhERku
eNNam pugundhu adiyEnOdu ikkAlam irukkinRavE

Word-by-Word Meanings

vaNNam – due to colour
sivandhuLa – becoming red
vAn nAdu – nithyasUris who are in paramAkASam (SrIvaikuNtam)
amarum – to sustain
kuLir – refreshing
vizhiya – having glance
thaN – being cool
mel – being soft
kamalam – lotus flowers which have blossomed
thadam pOla – like a pond
polindhana – being splendorous
ivaidham – these divine eyes
thirumAL – being SrIya:pathi (consort of SrI mahAlakshmi)
kaNNan – purushOththaman (best among all chEthanas), who is obedient to his followers
thirumugam thannOdu – with the divine face
(in that matter)
kAdhal seydhERku – one who is desirous, my
eNNam – with that intention
pugundhu –  entered [on their own]
adiyEnodu – with me, the servitor
ikkAlam – during the present time
irukkinRavE – are present

Simple Translation

The eyes [of sarvESvaran] are reddish in colour, are the sustaining force for nithyasUris who are in SrIvaikuNtam due to their refreshingly cool glance and are splendorous like cool, soft lotus flowers which have blossomed in a pond. These eyes entered my heart on their own, when I was with the intention of desiring the divine face of Sriya:pathi, the obedient kaNNan, and are present without leaving me.

vyAkyAnam

vaNNam sivandhuLa – the divine eyes of sarvESvaran are reddish as a natural corollary of not having seen AzhwAr. With this term vaNNam sivandhuLa, it is opined that these were like this even earlier. The distress of separation is similar to what SrI rAma had said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 66-10 “najIvEyam kshaNamapi” (I cannot live even for a moment (without sIthAppirAtti)). The implication is that the reddishness in the eyes which happened due to not seeing AzhwAr, has now gone.

vAnAdu amarum kuLir vizhiya – those in thripAdhvibhUthi (SrIvaikuNtam which is three times bigger than leelAvibhUthi, the materialistic realm) sustain themselves through these divine eyes. The divine eyes are cool, so that they [nithyasUris] could sustain themselves. Sustenance for them is through eating, dressing and living, because of the divine eyes. They are dhArakam, pOshakam and bhOgyam (water as sustaining material, food as nourishment and betel leaves as enjoyment) for nithyasUris.

 thaN . . . – the divine eyes appear like a pond whose surface is full of just blossomed lotus flowers which are cool and soft.

thAmivaiyO – just as it has been mentioned in chAndhOgya upanishath 1-6-7 “thasya yathA kapyAsam puNdarIkam Evam akshiNI”, we have heard through those who recite vEdhams that sarvESvaran’s divine eyes are like just blossomed lotus flowers. Would they be like these?

kaNNan thirumAL – should be rearranged as thirumAL kaNNan – Sriya:pathi, the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, who is like an obedient attendant of his followers.

thirumugam thannOdum kAdhal seydhERku – for me who had desired that such nAyakan should come with his beautiful, divine face and glance at me with his cool divine eyes.

eNNam pugundhu – entering, as I had intended. Alternatively, considering my desire as his own.

adiyEnodu – AzhwAr says as in jithanthE SlOkam 1 “jitham” (success to you). The true nature of the word aham (I) appears to be adiyEn (your servitor). The term adiyEn has two meanings: AzhwAr says that he has lost out to the beauty of the divine eyes and has become a servant. adiyEn also refers to the natural servitude (of jIvAthmA). What is the pramANam (authentic source) for saying that servitude is the natural quality of jIvAthma? thaiththirIya upanishath nArAyaNavalli 5-1 says “OmithyAthmAnam yunjItha” (one should meditate on AthmA, by reciting the praNava manthram, Om) as well as in the vEdhic saying OnkArO bhagavAn vishNu – vishNu is identified by the manthram Om.

ikkAlam – I do not know if the reason for the benefit that I had attained [of his divine eyes entering me] had happened earlier.

irukkinRavE – just as it has been said in chAdhOgya upanishath 8-15 “na cha punarAvarthathE ” (those who reach SrIvaikuNtam do not return), it appears as if mOksham has been attained. It appeared that he would not separate again from her. It appeared that he had come right in front of her.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – 62 – iRaiyO irakkinum

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avathArikai (Introduction)

In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr was reminiscing about krishNavathAram. He felt saddened that he had not been born in this world, during that time. Due to the pain of this separation, he returned to his earlier feminine mood (as nAyaki). Her mother says that the sounds of the ocean aggravated her distress of separation.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

iRaiyO irakkinum IngOr peNpAl enavum irangAdhu
aRaiyO ena ninRu adhirum karungadal IngivaL than
niRaiyO ini un thiruvaruLAl anRik kApparidhAl
muRaiyO aravaNaimEl paLLi koNda mugil vaNNanE

Word-by-Word Meanings

karum kadal ocean which has a dark complexion
irakkinum – even if beseeched
Or – without any support
peNpAl enavum – even if the person happens to be a lady
Ingu – in her matters
iRai – even a little bit
irangAdhu – is not taking pity
aRaiyO ena – like those who make a huge noise
ninRu – remaining firmly
adhirum – it is making a noise
O – Oh, how cruel!
aravaNai mEl – on top of the mattress, AdhiSEshan
paLLikoNda – one who has reclined
mugil vaNNanE – Oh lord, who has the complexion of cloud!
Ingu – at this place
ivaL than – her
niRaiyO – modesty
ini – henceforth
un thiruvaruLAl anRi – other than by your mercy (with any other entity)
kAppu aridhu – difficult to protect
muRaiyO – (is this) apt?

Simple Translation

The dark ocean, despite being beseeched by her, is not taking any pity on her, even though she is without any support. The ocean is like those who are making a war-cry, being very firm. How cruel is this! Oh lord, who is having the complexion of cloud and who is reclining on the mattress, AdhiSEshan! Her situation is such that she cannot be protected by anything other than your mercy, henceforth. Is her condition proper?

vyAkyAnam

irakkinum IngOr peNpAl enavum iRaiyO irangAdhu – this ocean is not taking even a little bit of pity on her despite her falling at its feet, saying “taking refuge is indeed a great act which manifests her state”, despite hinting “she is without any help and has no other refuge”. This is similar to revealing our weakness to those who harm us, thus giving them an opportunity to harm us even more. vyAkyAthA cites SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam SlOkam 21-8 “adhya mE maraNam vAtha tharaNam sAgarasya vA” (Sri rAma says that today either he should cross the ocean or die). Even after SrI rAma performed SaraNAgathi (surrendered) to the king of ocean, he did not come. However, the moment he strung the arrow on his bow, he came helter-skelter. Thus, the ocean will not take pity for SaraNAgathi, but will, for the arrow. It will not consider SaraNAgathi but will take pity when faced with death.

aRaiyO ena ninRu adhirum kadal – the ocean behaved like sugrIva who sounded the war-cry on vAli saying “Will you come out of your hiding to fight with me?”

karum kadal – the ocean appears as if its anger inside is visible on its surface. Just as the saying goes “sivappum karuppum sinam” (red and black colours are manifestation of anger)

Ingu . . . – the modesty of this girl who is in such a distressed state.

un thiruvaruL anRik kApparidhAl – she has lost her senses due to her deep love for you; without your mercy, which is the manifestation of your true nature, she will not revive. She has crossed the stage when she could have corrected herself, due to fear of being ridiculed by the people of the town.

muRaiyO – SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 39-30 says “thath thasya sadhruSam bhavEth” ((sIthAppirAtti tells hanuman) if SrI rAma comes here and takes me with him after destroying lankA, it will be appropriate for his valour). Instead of waiting like that for him, here, the nAyaki is calling out to him to protect her; this is her situation now.

aravaNai . . . – her beauty and the arrangement of the mattress are such that even if she had dressed herself in saffron robe (indicating renunciation) she should have been accepted.

aravaNai mEl – while she is lying on the hard floor, you are looking out for a soft mattress.

mugil vaNNanE – when a person was reading out this line, embAr (disciple and successor of ramAnujar) [sarcastically] told him “even after she has called out so much, if he is not going to turn in her direction, he should be a great sage. Hence, instead of saying mugil vaNNan, call him as mugil vaNNar (the end syllable ar in vaNNar is an honorific term, indicating respect while the end syllable an in vaNNan indicates someone who is of same status or lower status). Even if one gets hit with stick, the person who is hitting should be addressed respectfully” embAr is one who takes delight in the togetherness of perumAL and pirAtti; here, he takes the side of pirAtti when they are separated [and shows his anger on perumAL who is delaying in uniting with pirAtti].

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): This pAsuram illustrates how the distress in separation makes one to destroy one’s svarUpam (true nature) to attain the end benefit, instead of waiting for the appropriate time, in line with one’s svarUpam.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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