Category Archives: iyaRpA

thiruviruththam – 43 – kaNNum sendhAmarai

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous

avathArikai (Introduction)

There is no avathArikai written by the vyAkyAthA for this pAsuram.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kaNNum sendhAmarai kaiyum avai adiyO avaiyE
vaNNam kariyadhOr mAl varai pOnRu madhi vigaRpAl
viNNum kadandhu umbar appal mikku maRReppAl yavarkkum
eNNum idaththadhuvO empirAnadhu ezhil niRamE

Word-by-Word Meanings

kaNNum – divine eyes too
sendhAmarai – are like reddish coloured lotus flower
kaiyum – divine hands too
avai – are like that lotus
adi – divine feet too
avai – are like that lotus
vaNNam – divine form
kariyadhu – being black
Or – unique
mAl – huge
varai pOnRu – like a mountain
empirAnadhu – sarvESvaran, our benefactor, his
ezhil – beautiful
niRam – complexion
madhi vigaRpAl – due to differences in intellect
viNNum – dwellers of svargam (heaven)
kadandhu – going past
umbar – brahmA et al, who live beyond these people
appAl – going further
mikku – going wondrously
maRRu – further
eppAl – pervading everywhere (through their knowledge)
yavarkkum – for nithyasUris too
eNNum – for thinking
idaththadhuvO – is it a matter?

Simple Translation

His divine eyes are like a reddish coloured lotus flower; his divine hands and divine feet are also like the lotus flower. His divine form is like a dark, huge mountain which is without any parallel. The beauty of such sarvESvaran, who is a benefactor for us all, is past the entities who are dwelling in svargam, past brahmA et al, who live beyond them, and is also past the knowledge of nithyasUris who pervade everywhere through their knowledge. Is his beauty a matter for them to think about!

vyAkyAnam

In the previous pAsuram, he enjoyed the divine eyes of sarvESvaran by speaking of them as empirAna thadangangaLE. The beauty of those eyes took him to the other limbs.

kaNNum sendhAmarai – He had enjoyed his eyes separately. However, he wants to enjoy the eyes along with the other limbs and hence is speaking about them. Earlier he was fully absorbed in the eyes alone. Now, he is enjoying sarvESvaran’s motherly forbearance and beauty.

kaiyum avai – being attracted by sarvESvaran’s divine eyes, AzhwAr wants to touch his divine form. Knowing this, sarvESvaran embraces him with his divine hands. Sri vishNu purANam 5-18-2 says “samspruSya Akrushyacha  prIthyA sugAdam parishasvajE” (krishNa lifted akrUrar [kamsan’s minister] who fell at his feet and embraced him tightly) – such divine hands.

adiyO avaiyE – The act of embracing  him leads to a feeling of intoxication. Due to this, on swooning, the place where he falls is the divine feet. jithanthE SlOkam 1 says “puNdarIkAksha nama:” (salutations to sarvESvaran who has lotus like eyes). In other words, don’t those who lose out to his eyes, fall at his feet!

vaNNam . . . – the divine form is the means for those who swoon and fall at his divine feet to get back to life. piLLaippiLLai AzhwAn (one of the disciples of kUraththAzhwAn) would say “Just like an infant which is suckling looks at the mother’s face keenly, those who fall at his divine feet look at his divine form”

viNNum kadandhu umbar appal mikku maRReppAl yavarkkum madhi vigaRpAl eNNum idaththadhuvO empirAnadhezhil niRam

madhi vigaRpAl – due to differences in the level of intellect. Even though there is difference in the intelligence levels of samsAris and dhEvAs (celestial entities), it is not possible to know. What is not possible to know? …

viNNum . . . – starting with brahmA who is the cause of samsAris and who has his place of birth at sarvESvaran and who got his knowledge through sarvESvaran, and extending to nithyasUris, is it possible to know the beauty of sarvESvaran, who is my benefactor?

empirAn – AzhwAr celebrates how sarvESvaran manifested his beauty to him, as described in

  • mahAbhAratham mOksha dharmam (187-4) nagrAhya kEnachith kvachith – he cannot be estimated by anyone, in any way
  • kEnOpanishath 1-2 yasyAmatham thasya matham – one who thinks that he does not know (about emperumAn), knows; one who thinks that he knows, does not know.
  • SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 1-12 rUpasamhananam lakshmIm saukumAryam suvESathAm dhadhru vismithAkArA rAmasya vanavAsina: – the sages dwelling in [dhandakAraNya] forest saw the physical build, its augustness and softness, and the fine arrangement of limbs, remaining in wondrous form. Sri rAma’s softness of divine form is such that even if sIthappirAtti or lakshmaNa looks at his form, it will wither away. Such a dharSan (sight) which even the dwellers of his kingdom ayOdhyA could not get, was manifested to these sages who dwell in forests.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruviruththam – 42 – van kARRaRaiya

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous

avathArikai (Introduction)

She said that it is difficult for her to survive the onslaught of this breeze and that she would perish. As soon as she said this, he showered his mercy on her.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

van kARRaRaiya orungE maRindhu kidandhu alarndha
menkAR kamalaththadam pOl melindhana maNNum viNNum
enkARku aLavinmai kANmin enbAn oththu vAn nimirndha
thanpAR paNindha en pAl empirAna thadangaNgaLE

Word-by-Word Meanings

maNNum – the earth
viNNum – the upper worlds
enkARku – for my divine feet
aLavinmai – are not apt
kANmin – please see
enbAn oththu – as if saying so
vAn – in the sky
nimirndha – growing
thanpAl – towards him
paNindha – worshipped
en pAl – (caused) towards me
empirAna – sarvESvaran’s
thadam – expansive
kaNgaL – divine eyes
van – bring cruel
kARRu – wind
aRaiya – to blow
orungE – towards one side
maRindhu kidandhu – having fallen
alarndha – blossoming
men – soft
kAl – having a creeper
kamalam – lotus flowers’
thadam pOl – like ponds
polindhana – were full of beauty

Simple Translation

I worshipped the divine feet of sarvESvaran’s, of which he said “See, neither the earth nor the upper words would equal my divine feet”. How were his divine eyes towards such me? They bent towards me, just like the lotus flowers with long creepers in a pond would, when a strong breeze blows, bend towards one side.

vyAkyAnam

van kARRu . . . menkAl kamalam refers to a lotus whose stem is so slender that it cannot withstand even a gently blowing breeze. van kARRu refers to a breeze which blows hard without taking into consideration the gentleness of this lotus.

orungE – on one side alone. In other words, the divine mercy of emperumAn was oriented towards her alone. If he changes his glance to some other direction, the lotus flowers (divine eyes) will lose their beauty.

maRindhu kidandhu alarndha – if a samsAri (dweller of materialistic realm) comes towards him, sarvESvaran looks at him with mercy. If he wishes to look at even pirAtti, after that, he cannot. thiruvAimozhi 2-6-2 says “engum pakkam nOkkaRiyAn” (he did not look in any other direction)

menkAl kamalam – SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 19-34 says “prakruthayA dharma Seelasya rAghavasya” (SrI rAma is one who, by his nature, treads the path of righteousness). In this SlOkam, the word dharma refers to Sri rAma being of gentle nature. SrI rAma asks the monkeys “What is the way to cross this ocean which is like a hurdle between us and lankA?” SrI vibhIshaNAzhwAn, since he had recently carried out SaraNAgathi (act of surrendering) to SrI rAma and had got the benefit of that act, since he knew that SaraNAgathi is the means for all advantages and since he knew that it grants highest benefits, told SrI rAma to surrender to the ocean. The greatness of SaraNAgathi is that even an insentient entity will grant what has been asked for, when a person performs SaraNAgathi to it. Among the various means to captivate the hearts of great people, there is nothing higher than SaraNAgathi. If it can be effective with sarvESvaran who does not have a clan or limitations, should one doubt whether it will be effective with those who are having restrictions? SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 19-31 “SaraNam … karthum arhathi” (the ocean will be inclined to do what SrI rAma had surrendered for). SrI vibhIshaNAzhwAn had seen the effectiveness of SaraNAgathi with the disciples of sage vasishta [srI rAma and lakshmaNa]. Hence he firmly believed that it will be effective with an insentient entity such as ocean too. The vyAkyAtha cites a thamizh proverb to buttress this belief – erudhu keduththArkkum EzhE kadukkAy – for the one who lost his bull, take seven gall-nuts to retrieve it. The story goes like this – a person had lost his bull; he went to another person and asked him whether he will be able to find it. The other person told him, mischievously, to eat seven gall-nuts and that he would find it. So the owner of the bull ate the gall-nuts and waited at the tank bund. The bull per chance came there. Thinking that he got the bull back because he ate the gall-nuts the person went home happily. On the way back home, a lady, who had not had a child till then, asked of him to giver her a remedy for it. This man told her to ask his friend who had suggested to him to eat the gall-nuts. That person told her too to eat seven gall-nuts. She did that and she conceived. In other words, a deed carried out with deep belief fructifies into desired action.

menkAl kamalam – there is no need for breeze to blow to move these lotus flowers. Their stems will sway on their own; they are that soft. In other words, for sarvESvaran to shower his mercy with his divine eyes, it is not necessary that one should be an Arthaprapannan (one who craves to surrender to get mOksham immediately). sarvESvaran will do that on his own. Is it not required to surrender through one’s mind? vyAkyAthA responds to this doubt by quoting SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18-3 “mithrabhAvEna samprAptham na thyajEyam” (I do not desert anyone who comes with a friendly appearance, even if he has a defect). Instead of analysing whether vibhIshaNAzhwAn has true friendliness or not towards him, SrI rAma says as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18-31 “bala vIryam vinASanam” (It is enough that he came with a friendly demeanour. If I do not accept him, my strength and valour will get devastated). If sarvESvaran demands something from one who comes to surrender to him, which he does not have, then it would result in his not being easily worshippable. sarvESvaran has the nature of accepting whatever the person who comes to surrender to him, has. SrI rAma says in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18-28 “ArthO vA yadhivA dhruptha parESam SaraNam gatha” (whether he is oppressed or arrogant, if one comes seeking protection from others …). If a person comes saying as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 17-16 “rAghavam SaraNam gatha” (I take refuge under SrI rAma), it is enough for sarvESvaran. When he heard such words from SrI vibhIshaNAzhwAn, SrI rAma immediately fully realised the tenderness in vibhIshaNa’s heart. sugrIva thought “These are mere words; his thoughts are otherwise. Even though SrI rAma considers him as Artha prapannan he is indeed dhrupthan only. He has something in his mind and speaks differently; he should be killed”. An Arthan is one who thinks that he should live only if he attains sarvESvaran; otherwise, he would die. dhrupthan is one who has arrogance in him and says that he has come to take refuge, not with his full heart but with an arrogance. Whether one is an Arthan or a dhrupthan the benefit is the same. This is because the benefit does not accrue out of the nature of the one who surrenders but based on the greatness of the act of surrendering and the greatness of the one to whom one surrenders. How does dhrupthi act like a means similar to Arthi? While the one who has Arthi has Akinchanyam (not having anything on his own) as a natural behaviour, in the case of one who has dhrupthi sarvESvaran thinks “Since he does not have Akinchanyam, let us go on our own and show him mercy”. Thus whether one is an Arthan or a dhrupthan, if he comes to take refuge, as said in SrI rAmAyaNam 18-28 “parESAm SaraNam gatha” (one who comes to take refuge from others), he will be protected, even if he is from the enemy side. periya thirumozhi 1-9-3 says “konREn . . . anRE vandhadaindhEn” (Oh the lord of thiruvEngadam! I killed many people and immediately, before even cleaning the blood stain, I reached you to take refuge). SrI rAma says in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 18-28 “prANAn parithyajya rakshithavya” – he should be protected even if one were to give his life, ireseptective of whether one who comes to surrender is Arthan or dhrupthan. The above mentioned SlOkam ends with the worlds “kruthAthmanA” – one who has a disciplined mind, one who stands in the path of righteousness. Thus, SrI rAma gave refuge to SrI visbhIshaNAzhwAn not only to protect him but also to safeguard his nature of being one who does not cross the path of righteousness. If one surrenders to an AchAryan (guru; teacher) in order to practice the path of righteousness, he has to do like this only.

menkAl kamalaththadam poL polindhana empirAna thadangaNgaL

Whose eyes are they?

maNNum viNNum . . . – they are of one who stands firmly saying “See that this world and the worlds above are too little to be measured by my foot”. He filled the entire ethereal layers with his divine form. If he had said that “I will keep my divine feet on your heads when I measure these”, just as rAvaNa said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 36-11 “na namEyam” ([rAvaNa told mAlyavAn, who came to offer him good counsel that] he would not bend before anyone even if he were to be cut into two), the people of the world would have refused. Hence he said “Look at this amazing act” [and measured the worlds, keeping his divine feet on everyone’s head even before they realised it]. But why say that here? This is to illustrate the fact that sarvESvaran, on his own, without any of the worldly people asking him to or taking any efforts on their own, took incarnation as thrivikrama and kept his divine feet on his own, on their heads. In other words, he took the efforts for them to get the benefit. This brings out his quality of menkAl kamalam, viz. without the sentient entity taking any effort, sarvESvaran remains the means on his own.

vAn nimirndha than kAl paNindha enpAlAnukUlya sankalpam is the steadfastness with which one remains as favourable to sarvESvaran. For this, sarvESvaran takes the effort himself. Initially [during thrikrama avathAram] he bowed to king mahAbali, then made mahAbali to bow to him and kept his divine feet on mahAbali’s head saying “You were favourable to me” and showed his mercy.

than pAl paNindha – this is similar to van kARRu aRaiya

en pAl – this is similar to saying orungE maRindhu kidandhu alarndha

empirAna thadakkangaLE – he took the efforts for mahAbali to get the benefit. That sarvESvaran feels happy that the benefit is his, is clear from the blossoming of his divine eyes.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruviruththam – 41 – enRum punvAdai

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous

avathArikai (Introduction)

In the previous pAsuram, at the end, the nAyaki said “emmai nOkkuvadhu enRu kolO?” She was wondering as to who will be her protector. A northerly breeze affects such a nAyaki; wind, which is the sustaining entity for life, is harming her.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

enRum punvAdai idhu kaNdaRidhum ivvARu vemmai
onRum uruvum suvadum theriyilam Ongu asurar
ponRum vagai puLLaiyUrvAn aruL aruLAdha innAL
manRil niRai pazhi thURRi ninRemmai vankARRu adumE

Word-by-Word Meanings

enRum – always
idhu – this
punvAdai – gentle breeze
kaNdaRidhum – we have experienced
ivvARu – like this
vemmai – having cruelty
uruvum – form
suvadum – nature
onRum – any entity
theriyilam – we are not aware of
Ongu – grown well
asurar – demons
ponRum vagai – to be annihilated
puLLai – garuda
UrvAn – emperumAn who conducts
aruL aruLAdha – not showing mercy
innAL – this day
manRil – in the open
niRai – being complete
pazhi – slander
thURRi – to pervade
ninRu – without feeling tired
van – cruel
kARRu – breeze
emmai – us
adum – is harming

Simple Translation

We have experienced this northerly breeze. However, we have not known any entity like this which brings with it cruel heat, form and nature. This day, sarvESvaran, who conducts garuda who annihilates the well grown demons, is not showering his mercy. This cruel breeze is spreading slanderous words in the open and is harming me, without moving out of this place.

vyAkyAnam

enRum punvAdai idhu kaNdaRidhum – it is similar to having been born in prison and brought up only there. punvAdai is gentle breeze.

idhu kaNdaRidhum – we have not seen anything like this. In other words, we have not seen anything other than the northerly breeze which is harming. Why speak about the breeze which has been harming? Various other entities are also carrying on with what the breeze had been doing – harming her by amplifying the anguish of separation. They are all of the same species in so far as harming her is concerned.

ivvAru . . . – We have not known any other entity which is as cruel as this.

Ongu asurar . . . – the demons are not like those who are withering in separation from sarvESvaran, are not like those who carry out all the services to him; they are the epitome of rajas and thamas (qualities of passion and ignorance, respectively). sarvESvaran conducts garuda such that these demons are annihilated; he is not showing his mercy today so that this breeze could be harmed just like he makes the demons to perish under the hoofs of garuda.

aruL aruLAdha innAL – on this day when he did not shower his mercy, like a mother refuses to nurse her infant.

manRil niRai . . . – it is not only that the breeze did not let her unite with her nAyakan, it also brought a slander on her. It made the people say “It seems that she was suffering in separation from her nAyakan and the moment the breeze touched her, she is quivering; her qualities of shyness, fear etc are like this…”

niRai pazhi – the world did not talk slanderously about her alone. It even spoke disparagingly about the nAyakan saying “She is withering in breeze; even then, he is not coming to her rescue”.

ninRemmai van kARRu adumE – it does not leave after distressing her on one occasion or in one type. It continues to do that.

emmai –  I did not go anywhere near it so that it could make an attempt to grab me. This strong breeze came to end my life.

van kARRu – it is a breeze which did not have affability.

adumE – it is not even considering my femininity. It is not even thinking that it is torturing a lady.

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): this pAsursm narrates as to how despite staying in samsAram for a very long time, as engagement with emperumAn starts increasing, compatibility with samsAram starts disappearing.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruviruththam – 39 – neelath thadavaraimEl

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous

avathArikai (Introduction)

In the previous pAsuram, the blue coloured objects appeared like the divine form of sarvESvaran and tortured her. The divine form established itself in a superior part, the divine eyes. AzhwAr describes as to how the divine eyes tortured him such that he could not move away from them. As an example of how each part reminded of another and finally the whole, the vyAkyAthA cites SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36-4 “gruhIthvA prEkshamAnA” (taking hold [of that ring] and looking at it, sIthAppirAtti thought of the finger over which the ring had been placed, and felt as if she had reached her husband).

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

neelaththadavarai mEl puNdarIga nedum thadangaL
pOlap polindhu emakku ellAvidaththavum pongu munnIr
gyAlappirAn visumbukkum pirAn maRRum nallOr pirAn
kOlangariya pirAn  empirAn kaNNin kOlangaLE

Word-by-Word Meanings

pongu – agitating
munnIr – composed of water from three sources, viz from river, from spring and from rain
gyAlam – for earth
pirAn – being the benefactor
visumbukkum – for the people in the upper worlds too
pirAn – being the benefactor
maRRum – further
nallOr – for mukthAthmAs and nithyasUris, who enjoy sarvESvaran’s guNas (auspicious qualities)
pirAn – being the benefactor
kariya – having a dark bluish complexion
kOlam – having a divine form
pirAn – being the benefactor
empirAn – being the benefactor for me, his
thadam – huge
kaNNin – eyes’
kOlangaL – beauty
neelam – like a bluish gem
varai mEl – on top of the mountain
puNdarIgam – of lotus
nedum – expansive
thadangaL pOla – like ponds
polindhu – full of beauty
emakku – for us
ellAvidaththavum – at all places
(were gleaming)

Simple Translation

He is the benefactor of earth which has three types of agitating water – water from river, water from spring and water from rain; he is the benefactor of brahmA et al who are in the upper worlds; he is the benefactor of nithyasUris and mukthAthmAs; he has a dark bluish complexion; he is the benefactor for people like me. Such empeurmAn’s beautiful eyes are like a huge pond filled with lotus flowers atop a huge mountain of bluish gem, shining in all the places.

vyAkyAnam

neelaththadavarai mEl – just as it is said in thirumAlai 2 “pachchai mAmalai pOL mEni” (the divine form is like a mountain made of emerald), his divine form is described here as a hill made of bluish gem.

puNdarIga . . .  – his eyes were like huge ponds of lotus flowers which had occupied his entire divine form; his divine form appeared to be full of eyes. The eyes of the beholder would focus on only on those eyes and will not see any other limb. This is something similar to SrI rangarAjasthavam 1-98 “krupayA parayA karishyamANE sakalAngam” (the divine eyes of periya perumAL wanted to shower mercy; hence they attempted to change all the limbs of periya perumAL into divine eyes). Those eyes were similar to the ones mentioned in chAndhOgya upanishath 16-7 “thasyayathA kapyAsam puNdarIksham EvamakshiNI” (they eyes were similar to lotus flower which has just then blossomed on seeing sUriyan (sUrya)).

emakku ellAvidaththavum – those eyes followed everywhere in such a way that there is no place on earth which had not been visited upon. If one were to close the eyes so that one need not see those eyes which torment the beholder, those eyes will enter the beholder’s eyes; they will pervade everywhere. They have come to win me over, in this way. This could be compared with thiruvAimozhi 7-7-1 “sUzhavum thAmarai nANmalar pOl vandhu thOnRum kaNdIr” (they will appear from all sides, like just then blossomed lotus flower) as well as thiruvAimozhi 8-9-1 “karumANikka malaimEl maNiththadandhAmaraikkAdugaL pOl” (like huge forest of lotus flowers atop a hill of dark carbuncle).

pongu munnIr gyAlappirAn – he is one who keeps rendering help to those who are on this earth which is surrounded by agitating oceans which are made up of three types of water – from rivers, from springs and from rain. As an example of rendering help, the vyAkyAthA cites the instance when he kept the worlds inside his stomach during the time of deluge and protected all.

visumbukkum pirAn – he is also the controller of dhEvathAs (celestial entities) such as brahmA who had given birth to these worlds.

maRRum nallOr pirAn – he is the controller of nithyasUris too.

kOlam kariya pirAn – the divine form of emperumAn is totally subservient to those divine eyes. It is with the divine form that emperumAn subjugates the nithyasUris and makes them bewildered always.

empirAn – just as he is their lord, he is my lord too.

kaNNin kOlangaLE – the distinguished eyes of one who is my benefactor. Just as lotus ponds have occupied the entire mountain of bluish gems, these eyes shine in all the places that I see.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruviruththam – 38 – kadamAyinagaL

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous

avathArikai (Introduction)

When yOgis (those who are meditating) are in meditation for a very long time, they will turn their attention towards worldly matters for a short time, in order to engage more deeply in meditation once they resume it. In the same way, he too [nammAzhwAr] turned his attention towards worldly objects in order to enhance his experience with matters relating to emperumAn. However, since he has been showered with  knowledge and devotion without any illusion, even the worldly objects which he saw reminded him of emperumAn and tortured him further. It is as difficult to turn the AzhwArs away from the path of vEdhas, and towards worldly matters just as it is difficult to turn us away from worldly matters, and towards the path of vEdhas. Just as it is difficult to turn us away from materialistic pursuit and towards matters relating to bhagavAn, it is equally difficult to turn AzhwArs away from matters relating to bhagavAn and towards materialistic pursuits. embAr, the disciple of rAmAnujar, mercifully mentioned these two.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kadamAyinagaL kazhiththuth than kAl vanmaiyAl palanAL
thadamAyina pukku nIr nilai ninRa thavam idhu kol
kudamAdiya maNNum viNNum kulunga ulagaLandha
nadamAdiya perumAn uruvoththana neelangaLE

Word-by-Word Meanings

neelangaL – blue Indian water lilies
immaNNum – this earth
viNNum – upper worlds
kulunga – to move in amazement
kudamAdi – dancing with pots (in krishNAvathAram)
ulagu – worlds
aLandha – measured (in thrivikrmAvathAram)
nadamAdiya – one who roamed
perumAn – sarvESvaran’s
uru – with divine form
oththana – are equivalent
idhu – the reason for this
kadamAyinagaL – three debts owed to celestial entities, forefathers and sages
kazhiththu – fulfilling them
than – one’s
kAlvanmaiyAl – strength of legs
palanAL – for a long time
thadamAyina – known as ponds
pukku – entering
nIr – in water
nilai ninRa – residing for a long time
thavangol – could be the penance

Simple Translation

In krishNAvatharam he danced with pots such that this earth and the upper worlds shook with amazement; in thrivikramAvathAram, he measured all the worlds. The blue lilies are having a complexion much similar to the sarvESvaran who roamed like this. The reason for this could be that they paid back their three types of debts, entered water bodies with the strength of their legs, stayed there for a very long time and carried out penance.

vyAkyAnam

kadamAyinagal kazhiththu –  just as it is mentioned in manusmrithi 6-35 “ruNAnithrINyabAkruthya” – after fulfilling the three debts owed. yajUshi kANdam says “brahmacharyENa rushibhya: yagyEna dhEvEbhya prajayApithrubhya” – through brhamacharyam (observing the tenets of being a bachelor), one pays back the debt owed to rishis (sages); through yAgams (rituals involving agni, fire) one pays back the celestial entities and through siring children, one pays back the forefathers. Similarly, the blue lilies pay back their debts through the distress caused to their bodies in hot season, at the hottest time. Here, the body, hot season and hot time are the debts owed.

than kAl vanmai …. – through their efforts (strength of their legs), through their penance, considering only their existence, even during cold times, whether it is water formed under the hoof of a cow or in large water bodies like ocean etc, they stay up to their neck and carry out penance. Did you get a similarity with the complexion of sarvESvaran due to the strength of that penance?

kudamAdi – dancing with pots in the courtyard such that everyone could steal his beauty [with their eyes], snipping the pride of cowherd folk.

immaNNum – instead of benefitting some people or people in a street, he danced such that all the world could enjoy,

kulunga – if rudhra (Sivan) dances, the world trembles in fear since he is the celestial entity for annihilation. But if sarvESvaran dances, the word forgets itself and rejoices.

ulagaLandhu nadamAdiya – when sarvESvaran incarnated as thrivikrama and measured the worlds, indhra accepted his lands which he had lost to mahAbali; mahAbali felt happy that he had magnanimously donated the lands [which were not his in the first place]; sarvESvaran felt that he had carried out the act of retrieval as a benefit for himself.

uruvoththana neelangaLE – was it through paying back the debts, entering water bodies through the strength of your legs and carrying out penance over long periods that you attained equality with emperumAn in all aspects of his divine form?

The vyAkyAthA says that the knowledge that AzhwAr had was such that even if he wanted to look at worldly objects due to separation from emperumAn, even those objects remind him of emperumAn only.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruviruththam – 37 – kodungAl silaiyar

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous

avathArikai (Introduction)

The nAyaki who was distressed after being separated from her nAyakan, could not wait till he returned and left on her own [in search of him]. She went through a cruel forest which had animals and people, capable of harming, sounds which caused fear in one, and paths which were dangerous. Her mother found out that her daughter was not in her bed and gets bewildered thinking “Alas! She has gone through a dangerous path. What is she doing?” In the case of the daughter in thirukkOLUr (thiruvAimozhi 6-7) decad, the mother knew as to where her daughter had gone. But in the case of this mother, she did not know as to where her daughter had gone and feels distressed.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kodungAl silaiyar niRaikOL uzhavar kolaiyil veyya
kadungAl iLaigyar thudipadum kavvaiththu aruvinaiyEn
nedungAlamum kaNNan nINmalarppAdham paravippeRRa
thodungAl osiyumidai iLamAn senRa sUzh kadamE

Word-by-Word Meanings

aruvinaiyEn – I, having cruel sins
nedungAlamum – for a long time
kaNNan – krishNa’s
nIL – being long
malar – like a flower
pAdham – divine feet
paravi­ – after praying
peRRa – got as a daughter
thodungAl – merely on touching
osiyum – quivering
idai – having a waist
iLamAn – this girl who is like a youthful deer
senRa – the place that she went to
sUzh – surrounded (by heat)
kadam – the path
kodum – curved
kAl – having leg
silaiyar – having bow
nirai – cows
kOL – those who steal
uzhavar – farmers
kolaiyil – in harming
veyya – being cruel
kadungAl – having legs which will move fast
iLaigyar – youthful hunters
thudi –  small drum (tambourine)
padum – created from
kavvaiththu – had a sound

Simple Translation

I, who am having cruel sins, prayed to the long, lotus-like divine feet of krishNa and got this daughter. She has a waist which will quiver by merely being touched and she jumps around like a youthful deer. This girl has, however, left me. The place that she went to is a cruel forest – which has people having curved bows, who steal cows as their profession, young people who kill others and who have legs which will carry them fast and from whose drums (tambourines) a sound is created.

vyAkyAnam

kodum kAl silaiyar – just as it has been mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 6-21 “yOdhAnAm agni kalpAnAm pESAlAnAm mAhEshuNAm” which describes those who are guarding the city of ayOdhyA (firebrand like skilful warriors), these people always carry their curved bows. The term kodum kAl silaiyar has two interpretations – it could refer to those who have bows with curved legs or it could refer to those who carry bows and who have cruel legs. In the former case, it would mean that they are constantly ready with drawn bow in order to harm others. For the bow, cruelty refers to its nature of sending another entity (arrow) to cause harm and does not go by itself to harm someone.

silaiyar – they keep carrying their bows, whether it is during the time of taking food or when they are in privacy with their wives. The nAyaki is one who has known sarvESvaran who, just as it is mentioned in periya thiruvandhAdhi 86 “kai kazhalA nEmiyAn” always has the divine disc on his hand. This is his authenticity. Since she has moved with him, she is not afraid of anything. That divine disc is one which sustains everyone while this (the bow carried by these people in the cruel forest) is a harmful entity. Just as it is said in SrI rAmAyaNam adyOdhyA kANdam 60-20 “nAhArayathi santhrAsam bAhU rAmasya samSrithA” (sIthAppirAtti does not fear the wild animals in the forest since she is protected by the broad shoulders of SrI rAma), those who are under the protection of his divine disc and divine shoulders need not fear anything. However, that is not the case here.

nirai kOL uzhavar – for these people, stealing cows is a profession. However she is someone who has known sarvESvaran for whom, as it is said in SrI vishNu purANam “gO brAhmaNa hithAyacha” – protecting cows and brAhmaNas is normal.

kolaiyil veyya – these people exhibit anger when killing others. They kill just to see how their victims tremble when being killed. Alternatively they will torture their victims, ask them to work for them till they die. periya thirumozhi 11-8-6 says “idaiyan eRindha maram” (the tree cut down by the shepherds for their sheep would be fresh at one place and dry at another). These people will harm their victims similarly, by making them half dead and half alive, with pain. In the case of sarvESvaran, though he also aims his arrows at his victims, it is only to carry out a beneficial act for them, just as it is said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 24-24 “sanjAtha bhAshpa paravIra hanthA rAmO muhUrtham vimanA babhUva” ((on hearing sugrIva’s words) SrI rAma had moist eyes and was for a moment perturbed), after he killed vAli.

kadungAl iLaigyar – if they were to harm someone, they will run a hundred miles and return a hundred miles, running. Such is the strength and speed of their legs. One would be fearful of them on just seeing them; there is no need for them to act. Through AyurvEdha medicines, they will keep themselves youthful, always.

thudipadum kavvaiththu – having the sound of drums (similar to tambourine). If she (nAyaki) goes to such a place, only her physical form will get destroyed. But if she stays in her place, her AthmA will get destroyed through the words of her mother.

aruvinaiyEn – it is not that he is not keen on coming to her; it is also not that she doesn’t have the desire to be united with him. They are not uniting with each other only because of my cruel sins [says the nAyaki’s mother]. This is similar to the SrI rAmAyaNa SlOkam “math pApamEva athra nimiththam AsIth” – it is only due to my sin.

nedungAlam . . . . – I had worshipped krishNa who would not tolerate any delay in surrendering to him [vyAkyAthA says that the word sakruth in SrI rAma charaka SlOkam (ultimate hymn) sakrudhEva prapannAya is to be considered as immediately; krishNa doesn’t want even this delay]. Just as dhEvaki had carried out lot of penance to give birth to krishNa, I had done lot of penance to beget her. However, not realising about herself or about my penance to beget her, she has gone. SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 66-3 speaks of the penance carried out by dhaSaratha to beget SrI rAma “mahathA thapasA rAma mahathA cha api karmaNa” (Oh rAma, you were born because of the great penance and great acts carried out by dhaSaratha).

nINmalarppAdham – his divine feet are such that they will go towards the place where his followers are present. They are so easily approachable. Those divine feet considered attaining his followers as their [the divine feet’s] benefit.

malar – soft; beautiful.

paravippeRRa – obtained after offering prayers of various types. It is similar to attaining a treasure after lot of efforts.

thodungAL osiyum idai – her waist was such that it would snap if touched. The nAyakan enjoyed that waist merely by looking at it and not by touching it after realising its greatness. thiruvAimozhi 6-7-8 “osindha nuNNidai mEl kaiyai vaiththu nondhu nondhu” (keeping the hand on the already quivering slender waist (out of tiredness) and hurting it more and more). Her waist was such that one would doubt its existence. By looking at the form above and below the waist, one could surmise that waist should be there in between. If one were to keep the hand as a support for that waist, the hand would like a mountain in comparison with the wait; it was that slender.

iLamAn senRa – she could not tolerate any of the difficulties which lay in that path

sUzh kadam – the forest which had pervaded in a cruel way.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruviruththam – 36 – thuzhA nedum

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous

avathArikai (Introduction)

It is the basic nature of both the daughter of King janaka (sIthAppirAtti) and nammAzhwAr to consider that all the benefits which they get are due to emperumAn’s mercy and all the sorrows which they experience are due to their misfortune. When his existence cannot take place without emperumAn’s presence, AzhwAr doubts emperumAn’s ability to protect him, considering his lowly situation. Just as it is said in SrI rAmAyaqNam yudhdha kANdam 26-24 “EshaivASam sathE lankAm svEnAnIkEna mardhithum” (the army which went under the leadership of naLa hastened (to destroy lankA) in which each monkey cried out “Only I will destroy” and went further) wind and night time competed with each other to destroy her (nAyaki, AzhwAr in feminine mood).

Let us go throu0gh the pAsuram and its meanings:

thuzhA nedum sUzh iruL enRu than thaN thAr adhu peyarA
ezhA nedu Uzhi ezhundha ikkAlaththum Ingu ivaLO
vazhA nedum thunbaththaL enRu irangAr ammanO ilangaik
kuzhA nedu mAdam idiththa pirAnAr kodumaigaLE

Word-by-Word Meanings

than – belonging to self
thaN – cool
thAr adhu – desire towards the divine thuLasi
peyarA – as the reason
thuzhA – touching gently
nedum – completely
sUzh – pervading
iruL enRu – called as darkness
ezhA – without enervation
nedu – unending
Uzhi – kalpam (a day of brahmA)
ezhundha – started
ikkAlaththum – during this time too
Ingu – here
ivaL – this nAyaki
vazhA – without missing
nedum thunbaththaL enReNNi – thinking that she is suffering from great sorrow
irangAr – he is not showing mercy
ilangai – in lankA
kuzhAm – gathered in abundance
nedu mAdam – huge mansions
idiththa – one who destroyed
pirAnAr – the benefactor
kodumaigaL – cruel acts
(were like this)
ammanO – how terrible

Simple Translation

Night time came, like an unending kalpa kAlam (the day of brahmA running into several millions of years) with such darkness and pervading everywhere, that one has to know objects only by feeling them and not by seeing them. She is unable to tolerate the distress of separation, thinking of emperumAn’s divine thuLasi garland while he remains unaware of her sorrows and is not showing mercy on her. How cruel is the quality of the benefactor who destroyed all the huge mansions in lankA!

vyAkyAnam

thuzhA nedum sUzh iruL enRu – the term thuzhA could mean both destruction and touching [objects] to feel; holding tightly on to an object which has been just found so that it does not slip out of one’s hands.

sUzh iruL – darkness has pervaded everywhere, surrounding all places in such a way that no one can find a safe place to rest. While night time comprises 30 nAzhigai (one nAzhigai is 24 minutes; thus night time is 12 hours), AzhwAr calls it as nedum (very long; unending) because for those in separation, it is called as dhIrkka yAmA thriyAmA (long period, composed of three yAmams, with each yAmam being about 3 hours duration).

iruL enRu – the night time behaved like rAvaNa who came in the form of a pious sage and once he knew that sIthAppirAtti was alone, changed his form to that of a demon; night time too set in like a normal event but started extending for a very long time.

than thaN thAr adhu peyarA – making use of the opportunity when the nAyaki desired the cool, divine thuLasi garland on  his divine shoulder.

ezhA nedu Uzhi – the time of kalpam which is unending. Even that kalpam will have an end but this [night time] is unending. Just like people from the malayALa dhESam will not leave a place until they complete the job for which they came, this night also seems to stay until it destroyed her.

ezhundha – appeared. Normally the term Uzhi would refer to kalpam only. Using nigaNdu (lexicon), the vyAkyAthA says samvardha: praLaya: kalpa: to show that these terms have the same meaning. Thus, the night time extended like a praLayam (deluge). SrI rangarAja sthavam 2-41 says “dhayamAnamanA:” – Oh ranganAthA! During the time of praLaya your divine mind took pity, looking at the condition of the sentient and insentient entities (which were lying without name and form). If sarvESvaran shows mercy, there will be an end to praLayam too. However, since he is not showing his mercy, this night time, referred to as praLayam is extending further.

ikkAlaththum – just as it is mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 28-18 “sIthAthavEnyudhgratham gruhIthvA”(sIthAppirAtti says I am going to end myself by hanging from the braid of my locks as a rope), she too is in a similar distressed condition.

IngivaLO – is her condition similar to that of the samsAris (those who are in the materialistic realm) and their position in samsAram? They had lost their forms and senses during praLayam. Here her existence is in question. There, it is related to primordial matter; here it is related to the AthmA. There it is praLayam due to water; here it is praLayam due to darkness. There, the water, which is visible, is destroying the form [of sentient entities], which is visible; here it is the invisible darkness which is trying to destroy the invisible AthmA. There, they did not realise the danger that they were in, only emperumAn was aware of their condition; here, she fully knows the danger that she is in and she has the desire too for his protection.

vazhA nedum thunbaththaL enRu irangAr – he is not taking pity on her condition where she is in deep sorrow which will not go away. Just as it is mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 15-39 “dhukkEna bubudhE sIthAm” ((hanumAn) recognised sIthAppirAtti who was in deep sorrow); hanumAn could recognise sIthAppirAtti from her sorrowful mood. sarvESvaran did not recognise the nAyaki’s sorrow. karma (deeds from previously encountered sins and virtues) would keep whittling down as it is experienced. But her sorrow is such that it will keep increasing as it is experienced. Since this sorrow is coming on the basis of bhagavath ruchi (engagement with sarvESvaran), it is not possible to alter it and it is not possible to make it to be without distinction. For one [sarvESvaran] who is the opposite of all faults, is it not expected of him to remove the faults of those who are engaged with him and shower mercy on them? If affection [from her] is not needed, should her AthmasvarUpam (true nature of AthmA) too not be required? If he is steadfast in his stand that he will protect only during times of danger, is her anguished state of being separated from him, false?  Is she devoted to someone else for you not to show mercy on her? If it is a fault for us to move away from you, it is also a fault for you not to come towards us [to protect us].  If you come to us, our total dependence on you will be sustained and if you do not come to us, your state of being our lord will be harmed. Is it not the duty of the servants to create eminence for the lord? Creating eminence for one who is complete in all aspects [such as sarvESvaran] is not to protect oneself under any situation. This has been demonstrated in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 31-22 when lakshmaNa tells SrI rAma “vaidharmyam nEha vidhyathE” (Make me your servant; there is nothing unrighteous in this. Besides I will be accomplishing my objective of being your servant). Due to the backing of SrI rAma’s powerful shoulders, just as one inserts one’s hand into the mouth of a poisonous snake, sIthAppirAtti, while being in aSOka vanam, told rAvaNa as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 22-16 “thvam nIcha: SaSavath smrutha:” (you, a lowly person, are said to be like a hare). For such a pirAtti, the situation now is that she doubts his ability to protect her. The reason for this is because of her doubt on her own nature, similar to the condition in which sIthAppirAtti said as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 38-48 “mamaiva dhushkrutham kinchith…” (it is because of the faults in me that the two brothers, SrI rAma and lakshmaNa are neglecting me). If this is the case, why did she say that sarvESvaran is not showering mercy on her? The vyAkyAtha explains this by saying that she has knowledge about his quality of showering mercy but not on her nature. In other words, she has not understood his anguish. His condition has been described in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36-42  “naivadhamSAn namaSAkAn” (he does not even drive away the insects and flies crawling on his body). This is because of the reason mentioned in the same SlOkam 36-42 “thvathgathEnAntharAthmanA” (his mind is fully engrossed in you), as told by hanuman to sIthAppirAtti. His mind is agitated like the agitation one sees in an ocean and not the agitation that takes place in the puddle of water under the hoof of a cow [in other words, his distress is real and deep]. While her condition was just as it was described in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 66-25 “Urdhvam mAsAnam najIvishyE” (I will not live for more than one month) his condition was described in sundhara kANdam 66-10 “na jIvEyam kshaNamapi” (I cannot live for a moment more). Both spoke about killing themselves because of the desire that each knew of the other. The vyAkyAthA quotes a few references to prove that one cannot survive without the other, as in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 7 “inRAga nALaiyEyAga inichchiRidhu ninRAlum ninnaruL en pAladhE nanRAga nAn unnai anRi ilEn kaNdAy nAraNanE nI ennai anRi ilai” (either today or tomorrow or even after a longer time than that, your grace will certain fall on me since for me, your servant, there is no existence other than through you and for you there is no one to be protected other than me). There is no nArAyaNan without nAram (sentient entities). nArAyaNan refers both to the nature [being the lord etc] and the qualities [being with motherly forbearance, simplicity etc]. One cannot speak of a complete person if there were no incomplete (or faulty) persons; there can be no lord without servants.

irangAr – if he does not come, the quantum of sandalwood paste applied and its quantum which dries up and withers due to waiting for  his arrival, appear to be doubling.

ammanO – she says this word with the fear that she would have had if she had sighted a tiger or a snake. He is the entity who looks at everyone as “suhrudham sarvabhUthAnAm” (I am friendly towards all creatures), and she is scared of such an entity. thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavalli says “Anandham brahmaNO vidhvAn na bibhEthi kuthaSchana” (one who knows the extent of the happiness of brahmam (supreme being) does not fear anything). One who has known brahmam’s Anandham need not fear the sins that he has committed knowingly. Her situation is such that despite knowing about brahmam, she has to be scared. The final syllable O refers to the cruelty of her sorrow.

ilangai . . . pirAnAr kodumaigaLE – while interpreting this, embAr [cousin of rAmAnujar as well as the one who succeeded him in the AchArya guruparamparai] would say “What happened to the one who destroyed the huge mansions of lankA for the sake of one lady, by bridging the ocean and shooting arrows which carried the names of SrI rAma and lakshmaNa, and the one who destroyed the gardens such that all the coconut trees lost all their leaves and looked like tonsured heads?” thirumalai nambi [maternal uncle of rAmAnujar as well as one of his AchAryas] would interpret this as “He destroyed lankA out of jealousy since it appeared more beautiful than ayOdhyA and it was not due to a lady”.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruviruththam – 35 – pAlvAyp piRaippiLLai

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous

avathArikai (Introduction)

The nAyaki’s mother gets worried on seeing the onset of evening, which is far worse than all the other sorrowful situations that the nAyaki has been in so far and wonders “How will this end for her?” All those things which the nAyaki enjoyed when she was together with the nAyakan, turned hostile for her now. All along the mother was distressed by the sorrows of her daughter. Now she feels sorry also for the lady who is in the western direction [this is a simile for dusk time which brings with it, its own trails of sadness]. This is similar to the situation of the pirAtti who felt sorry for various naturally occurring events in thiruvAimozhi 2-1 padhigam “vAyum thiraiyugaLum”. Everything that one looks at, becomes inimical.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

pAlvAyp piRaippiLLai okkalaikkoNdu pagal izhandha
mEl pAl dhisaippeN pulambuRum mAlai ulagaLandha
mAl pAl thuzhAykku manam udaiyArkku nalgiRRai ellAm
sOlvAn pugundhu idhu Or panivAdai thuzhAginRadhE

Word-by-Word Meanings

pAlvAy – having milk in its mouth
piRai – crescent of moon
piLLai – child
okkalai – on the hip
koNdu – carrying
pagal –  day time, the master
izhandha – one who lost
mEl pAl – being on the western side
dhisai – as the direction
peN – who could be considered as a lady
pulambuRum – crying
mAlai – evening time
ulagu – worlds
aLandha – one who occupied
mAl pAl – with sarvESvaran
thuzhAykku – fond of thuLasi
manamudaiyArkku – those who have their minds [on such thuLasi]
nalgiRRaiyellAm – all those (including existence) which were given
sOlvAn – to steal
pugundhu – entering
idhu – this
Or – unique
pani – cold
vAdai – northerly wind
thuzhAginRadhu – gently hugging

Simple Translation

The western direction is like a lady who has lost daytime, her husband, and was crying. She had on her waist, the moon who is like a child which had milk in its mouth. At this time, the cold northerly wind gently hugged people who were waiting to get the divine garland of thuLasi from sarvESvaran, who had seized all the worlds, with the intention of stealing from those people, whatever had been given by sarvESvaran.

vyAkyAnam

pAlvAyp pirAppiLLai – The lady called as western direction, stood with the crescent moon on her waist, crying for having lost her husband, the daytime or sUriyan. She appears like one who has lost her husband recently, crying out for him, carrying her infant who cannot even suckle properly.

pAlvAy – the child will wither if she removes her bosom from its mouth.

pagal izhandha – this signifies the importance of the husband who has been lost (daytime or sUriyan). It is similar to losing someone such as manu or mAndhAthA (these are great kings of the ikshvAku dynasty). When someone gets something of importance, it is said as “pagaRkandEn” just like it is said in iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi pAsuram 81 “pagaRkaNdEn nAraNanaik kaNdEn” (I saw SrIman nArAyaNa who is like sun who never sets). Thus losing that pagal is very sorrowful.

mEl pAl dhisaippeN – this gives the importance of the nAyaki. When directions are explained, greatness is given to the western direction. The roar from the ocean on the western side is taken as the crying out of the lady in the western direction.

ulagaLandha . . . .  – her mind is fully focussed on the divine thuLasi garland which sarvESvaran dons.

mAlai nalgiRRaiyellAm – all those which were given by the evening time ; vyAkyAthA calls this as giving existence and santhAnasApam – in olden times, when kings waged war and won an enemy country, the king of that country would request the conqueror to leave at the least one son to continue the clan. Similarly, the evening time left her complexion behind for her.

mAlai – sOlvAn . . . . –  the northerly wind tries to steal the existence, complexion etc left behind by evening.  Similar to torturing those who torture others, the wind tries to steal existence.

panivAdai – northerly wind which is poisoned. Since it belongs to the clan of prANan (vital air in the body; existence), it knows where the vital air is and it tries to steal it. When queried as to what it was doing, it would say “Are we destroying the world? We are only trying to take our relative with us” and tried to destroy her.

svApadhESam (distinguished meaning): Looking at the condition of AzhwAr for whom even favourable entities appear to be inimical because of separation from emperumAn, the SrIvaishNavas are fearing as to what will happen to his existence.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruviruththam – 34 – sidhaikkinRadhu Azhi

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous

avathArikai (Introduction)

The nAyaki is unable to tolerate until the nAyakan arrives. Hence she engages with kUdal to find out whether he would come or not [kUdal is drawing a large circle on sand, either at the river or at the ocean, and drawing many smaller circles inside the large circle. If the count of the small circles is even, it would indicate that the nAyakan would return and if it is odd, it would indicate that he would not]. Since this also did not yield the desired result, she gets angry with kUdal, as much as the anger that she would have felt had the nAyakan, who had separated from her, returned.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

sidhaikkinRadhu AzhiyenRu Azhiyaich chIRi than sIradiyAl
udhaikkinRa nAyagam thannodum mAlE unadhu thaN thAr
thadhaikkinRa thaNNam thuzhAy aNivAn adhuvE manamAyp
padhaikkinRa mAdhin thiRaththu aRiyEn seyaRpAl adhuvE

Word-by-Word Meanings

mAlE – Oh swAmy (lord)!
Azhi – ocean
Azhiyai – kUdal (drawing of circles on sand)
sidhaikkinRadhu – destroying
enRu – saying so
sIRi – becoming angry
than – her
sIr – beautiful
adiyAl – with foot
Azhiyai – ocean
udahikkinRa – kicking
nAyagam thannodu – with pride
thaN – cool
thAr – with flower
thadhaikkinRa – being complete
thaN – cool
am – beautiful
unadhu – your
thuzhAy – garland of divine thuLasi
aNivAn – to don
adhuvE – in that
manamAy – keeping her mind
padhaikkinRa – having urge
mAdhin thiRaththu – in the matter of the girl
seyaRpAladhu­ – what you intend doing
aRiyEn – I do not know

Simple Translation

Oh my lord! She (my daughter) is kicking the ocean with her beautiful feet since the waves of the ocean are destroying the circles that she has drawn. She has a great urge to don the cool, beautiful garland of thuLasi which you are wearing. What do you intend doing in her matter? I do not know.

vyAkyAnam

sidhaikkinRa – three different interpretations are given here: the opinion of those who were prior to parASara bhattar, the opinion of parASara bhattar and the opinion of nampiLLai. In the first two interpretations, the term Azhi (in both the verses sidhaikkinRadhu Azhi and Azhiyaich chIRi) refers to kUdal. In the first opinion, the interpretation is – she started carrying out kUdal. Since it did not reflect her desire, out of anger, she kicked it. bhattar’s interpretation is – kUdal did not hint her desire that he would come and unite with her. Instead, it hinted that he will not come. Becoming angry, she destroyed it. In nampiLLai’s interpretation, the first Azhi refers to kUdal and the second Azhi refers to ocean. Thus, when she drew the circles on the shore, the waves of the ocean destroyed them. Becoming angry with the ocean, she kicked the waves. Is there any precedence for a person becoming angry with ocean? The vyAkyAtha (commentator) periyavAchchAn piLLai cites the case of SrI rAma in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 21-22 “chApamAnaya” (bring the bow) when he threatened to dry up the ocean with his bow and arrows when the samudhrarAjan (King of oceans) did not respond to his surrendering to him to give way for his army to cross it and reach lankA. The second reference is also from yudhdha kANdam 21-13 “rAmO rakthAntha lOchana” (SrI rAma had eyes which were blood red in colour due to his anger) again, in the same context.

sIradi ….nAyaki kicks with her eminent divine feet. While the nAyakan was desiring this, instead of happening to him, this was happening to someone else. He did not have his desire of uniting with her fulfilled; he did not get his desire of being touched by her [even if it is with her divine feet] fulfilled! She is kicking the ocean with her feet which are rare indeed to attain! Had he known this, he wouldn’t have hidden himself inside a pillar [as in narasimhAvathAram] but would have hidden himself within these sand grains so that he would have been touched by her feet. Perhaps, he pervaded every droplet of water in the ocean in anticipation of this only. As mentioned in the verse “thvath pAdha pankaja parigraha dhanya janmA bhUyAsam” it is a great honour to be touched by her lotus like feet. parASara bhattar, in his SrI rangarAja sthavam 1-9 says “lakshmIpathi lAkshaika lakshaNam” (the identity of her divine feet smeared with vermillion paste can be seen on the chest of emperumAn), indicating that he relishes being touched by her divine feet.

than sIradiyAl udhaikkinRa nAyagam – she is kicking without considering the soft nature [of emperumAn]. nAyagam refers to greatness, eminence, pride etc. Her greatness is such that she is not considering his greatness which is sought after by everyone.

mAlE – oh one who is bewildered after making her get bewildered!

unadhu thaN thAr … – she desires to don the garland of divine thuLasi which appears to be fresher when in contact with your divine form than when it is in its plant. Her condition is similar to the one mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 2-4-9 “pattapOdhu ezhupOdhu aRiyAL virai mattalar thaN thuzhAy ennum” (she who does not know as to when the sun rises or sets, keeps repeating the word ‘thuLasi’ which is filled with fragrance and honey). The moment she hears the word thuLasi, she starts craving it. Her condition is similar to lakshmaNa when he says as in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 96-23 “pAdhasyavathE dhOsham nAham paSyAmi” (I do not see any fault in killing this bharatha) and in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 17-29 “vadhyathAm” (vibhIshaNa, who has come seeking refuge under SrI rAma) should be killed). Though bharatha and vibhIshaNa had come to SrI rAma with good intentions, due to excessive devotion towards SrI rAma, lakshmaNa became furious. In the same way, the nAyaki kicks at the ocean thinking that it is coming to harm her.

aRiyEn seyaRpAl adhuvE – I do not know as to what you intend doing with her. Attaining him in course of time and her craving are not the means, since he is the end goal.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org

thiruviruththam – 33 – aruLAr

Published by:

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full Series

Previous

avathArikai (Introduction)

Clouds gathered on all sides. Looking at this, the nAyaki was bewildered and dazed. The nAyaki’s mother looks at her and thinks that he [sarvESvaran] is the one who controls everything just as it has been said in thaiththirIya upanishath “bhIshAsmAth vAtha:pavathE bhIshOdhEthi sUrya:” (out of fear for sarvESvaran wind blows, sun rises). Isn’t it his order which enables every entity to work in clockwork precision here, without having any freedom to carry out what each entity desires? When such is the case, she wonders whether protecting her daughter is a difficult task for him and calls out to him.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

aruLAr thiruchchakaraththAl agal visumbum nilanum
iruLAr vinai kedachchengOl nadAvudhir IngOr peNpAl
poruLO ennum igazhvO ivaRRin puRaththAL enReNNO
theruLOm aravaNaiyIr ivaL mAmai sidhaikkinRadhE

Word-by-Word Meanings

aruL – mercy
Ar – to the brim
thiruchchakaraththAl – with the divine chakkaram (chakram – disc)
agal – expansive
visumbum – sky
nilanum – and the earth
iruLAr – full of darkness (made of ignorance)
vinai – sins
keda – to be annihilated
sengOl – order
nadAvudhir – you are employing
aravu – AdhiSEshan
aNaiyIr – Oh the lord who has him as your mattress!
ivaL mAmai – her complexion
sidhaikkinRadhu – is being destroyed
Ingu – in this leelAvibhUthi (materialistic realm)
Or – one
peNpAl – matter relating to a girl
(protection)
poruLO – is it the end goal?
enum – saying so
igazhvO – – is it contemptuousness?
ivaRRin – all these entities to be protected
puRaththAL – outside these
enRu – saying so
eNNO – is it your divine opinion?
theruLOm – we do not know

Simple Translation

Oh the one who has AdhiSEshan as your mattress! You are ruling both the expansive sky and this earth such that sins which are caused by ignorance run away, through your divine disc. In such a condition, the beautiful complexion of this nAyaki is continuously fading. What is the reason for this? Is it because you feel contemptuously that a girl is also an entity in these realms or is it because you think that she is outside the area of your kingdom? We do not know this.

vyAkyAnam

aruLAr thiruchchakaraththAlchakkaraththAzhwAn (divine disc) is filled to the brim with mercy. Even if sarvESvaran himself stops showering mercy, chakkaraththAzhwAn will be full of mercy. periya pirAtti is mercy personified. Even if such pirAtti does not show mercy, chakkraththAzhwAn’s mercy will not change. The opinion here is that if someone thinks of him, he will immediately rush to help that person; he has such independence. vyAkyAthA (commentator for the prabandham) periyavAchchAn piLLai calls this as madu arugil URRUppOlE (he is like a spring near a pond, continuously supplying water to the pond so that it never dries up). He cites the narration of chakravarthi ambarIsha (in the clan of ikshvAku). ambarIsha would observe total fasting on EkAdhaSi days [eleventh day after full or new moon] and on the next day, dhvAdhaSi, he would observe pAraNam (breaking the fast before a particular time). Once sage dhurvAsa wanted to test ambarIsha. Hence, on the day of dhvAdhaSi, he came to ambarIsha’s palace and told him that he would come to have pAraNam with the chakravarthi and went for having a bath. Despite passage of time, he did not come [deliberately]. ambarIsha was getting anxious since there was very little time left for breaking the fast and if he did not have anything, he would not get the benefit of observing fast on the day of EkAdhaSi. dhurvAsa would get very angry and curse him if he did not wait for the sage before taking any food item. Hence, as a compromise, he took a sip of holy water alone and waited for the sage to join him. Once dhurvAsa returned, he realised what had happened. With raging fury [at having been slighted by ambarIsha in not waiting for him], he wanted to curse the chakravarthi. ambarIsha realised what the sage was going to do. He thought of chakkraththAzhwAn to save him. That same moment, chakkaraththAzhwAn appeared there and started chasing sage dhurvAsa. The sage started running, seeing the divine disc. He sought refuge from all the deities such as brahmA, rudhra, indhra et al. None was willing to help him. He went to sarvESvaran himself who told him that he is under the control of his devotees and told him to take refuge under ambarIsha himself. He did that and was saved from the divine disc on ambarIsha’s request. If the divine disc looks at someone as his enemy, there is no refuge for that person other than sarvESvaran himself.

aruLAr – mercy is a demonstration of the protection offered to someone who has taken refuge. Instead of saying that it is the act of preventing someone from carrying inimical acts, why is it explained this way? This is because both are acts of benefit.

thiruchchakraththAl – SrIman nArAyaNan is referred to as sarvESvaran because he holds the divine disc on his right hand. The importance of chakkaraththAzhwAn to emperumAn is as much as that of periya pirAtti to emperumAn. This is the reason that he is referred to as thiruchchakkaram (divine disc) instead of chakkaram (disc) by prefixing the word thiru which indicates aiSvaryam (wealth, of service).

agal visumbu …. – sarvESvaran removes the sins which are caused by ignorance with the help of the divine disc who removes all the sins; thus sarvESvaran rules with the radiance of the divine disc as his sceptre.

agal visumbu – purusha sUktham says thripAdhasyAmrutham dhivi – paramapadham is three times the size of leelA vibhUthi (materialistic realm). How can ignorance be felt in paramapadham? It is the fear of those who experience and enjoy the presence of sarvESvaran there as to what will happen if there is a hurdle to that continuous dharSan (seeing him). sarvESvaran protects those who are in paramapadham by displaying his divine hand and the divine disc held in that divine hand. In leelA vibhUthi he protects his followers by cutting their enemies into two with his divine disc. The former is called as prAgabhAvam – lack of prior existence (enemies do not exist) and the latter is called as pradhvamsAbhAvam – (enemies) ceasing to exist after initial existence.

ingOr penpAl … – are you thinking that you can help her without any urgency since she is helpless and has no refuge? Or do  you think that she is outside the two realms (leelA and nithya vibhUthis)? Do you think that you do not have the capacity to protect her? Do you think that you do not know anything about her? Are you trying to abandon her because you do not have the strength? If you think that she is outside the two realms, you become ignorant and if you think that you cannot protect her, you become weak [both of which are against sarvESvaran’s qualities of being omniscient and omnipotent]. mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 70-43 says “sAham kESa graham prApthA thvayI jIvithya prabhO” (dhraupadhi appeals to lord krishNa as she is dragged by her hair to the court by dhushASan that despite krishNa being alive, she, who had taken refuge under him, is being dragged by her hair). The opinion expressed by the nAyaki’s mother here is that despite his being the lord, there is no connection between that quality and the nAyaki’s suffering though she has taken refuge under him.

theruLOm – we do not know why this has come to such a pass.

aravaNaiyIr – you do not deny your divine form to those who desire you. When the nAyaki is lying on the floor, do you need to recline on the bed of AdhiSEshan? If you are lying alone on the bed, could you enjoy anything?

ivaL mAmai – her complexion is very difficult to get. Are you thinking that since you are the creator of everything, you could create her again, should she perish? Your quality of suhrudham sarvabhUthAnAm – friendly towards all – seems to be failing in her case. If a child falls into a well, the blame will fall on the mother. The world will say that she had pushed the child into the well. In the same way, the world will blame you for destroying her. When looking at her position and his status, there is no shortcoming for her attaining him. However, considering the delay in his coming to her rescue, the mother feels sad, fearing as to what will happen.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

pramEyam (goal) – http://koyil.org
pramANam (scriptures) – http://granthams.koyil.org
pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
SrIvaishNava education/kids portal – http://pillai.koyil.org