Author Archives: T N Krishnan

thiruviruththam – vyAkhyAna pravESam

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vyAkhyAna pravESam

Having mercifully decided in his divine mind to write the vyAkhyAnam (commentary) for thiruviruththam, periyavAchchAn piLLai starts to describe the greatness of nammAzhwAr who has composed this prabandham.

Some people call AzhwAr [whenever the term AzhwAr alone is mentioned, it usually refers to nammAzhwAr], as mukthar (one who had been liberated from samsAram (materialistic realm) and had attained SrIvaikuNtam). One follower of aruLALapperumAL emperumAnAr [a disciple of bhagavadh SrI rAmAnujar] would say that AzhwAr is a mukthaprAyar (one who is on par with mukthAthmAs and possibly living in SwEthadhwIpam (the land mass in which we live is called as jambudhwIpam; SwEthadhwIpam is another land mass, but in a different galaxy)). Some other people will say that emperumAn ordained someone there (in SrIvaikuNtam) to be born on earth. vangipuraththu nambi (a disciple of bhagavath SrI rAmAnujar) had said that emperumAn himself took the incarnation of nammAzhwAr. All these have been said in view of AzhwAr’s greatness.

If AzhwAr had been one among the mukthars who had been sent by emperumAn, he would have waited thinking “We (it was normal during those times to address the self in plural instead of in singular number) have been ordained to come to this earth; once our goal has been reached, we will return to SrIvaikuNtam. Hence why should we make a fuss for this?” However, since AzhwAr kept calling out to emperumAn, just as he had mercifully said (a) in thiruviruththam pAsuram 1 “inninRa nIrmai ini yAm uRamai” (We do not want to put up with this nature of being born repeatedly in this samsAram) (b) thiruvAimozhi 6-9-9 “pala nI kAttip paduppAyO” (will you display many types of worldly pursuits to me so that I get attached to them, and perish in the bargain?) (c) thiruvAimozhi 2-6-8 “mARi mARip pala piRappum piRandhu” (being born repeatedly in various births) (d) thiruvAimozhi 7-1-10 “mun paravai kadaindhu amudham koNda mUrththiyO” (Are you the one who in an earlier time churned the ocean and gave nectar to the celestial entities and helped them?) it is clear that he was one among the samsAris, having been born here repeatedly and suffered. In a country without a king, a person on whom the elephant places the garland becomes the new king. In the same way, emperumAn searched and located a samsAri on whom he showered his grace.

A question arises here. Could a person, who had been suffering for a long time in samsAram, change like this (gaining knowledge about matters related to emperumAn and becoming deeply devoted to him)? SrI vishNu purANam 5-6-28 says “brindhAvanam bhagavathA krushNEnAklishta karmaNA | SubhEna manasA dhyAtham gavAm vrudhdhim apIpsadha ||” (brindhAvan, which was like a forest of thorns got a facelift due to the incarnation of krishNa who is capable of carrying out great deeds; cows became healthy due to his divine mind). SrI vishNu purANam 5-6-37 says “uthpanna navachashbhAtyam” (Fresh grass sprouted). Thus a forest of thorns became converted into a verdant land mass due to emperumAn. In the same way, AzhwAr too got changed due to emperumAn’s grace.

In the next article, we will take up the first pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruviruththam – thaniyan

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The thaniyan (special hymn) for this prabandham has been written by kidAmbi AchchAn. It is said that this thaniyan has been composed by sIrAmappiLLai (vEdha vyAsa bhattar) as well as by ALavandhAr.

avathArikai (Introduction)

This says that instead of observing the sorrows of samsAram (life in the materialistic realm) through the seven stages of life which are infirm, meditate on one line of thiruviruththam which is a divine composition, as a means of attaining SrIvaikuNtam.

karuviruththak kuzhi nIththapin kAmak kadunguzhi vIzhndhu
oru viruththam pukku uzhaluRuvIr, uyirin poruLgatku
oru viruththam pugudhAmal kurugaiyar kOn uraiththa
thiruviruththaththu Or adi kaRRu irIr thirunAttu agaththE

Word-by-word Meanings:

karu – womb
viruththam – faulty
kuzhi – from the pit
nIththapin – after slipping out of
kAmam – termed as lust
kadum – cruel
kuzhi – pit
vIzhndhu – falling into
(later)
oru viruththam – old age which is unfit for any activity
pukku – attaining
uzhal uRuvIr – Oh those who are roaming!
uyirin – for the  jIvAthmA (soul)
poruLgatku – for the entities
oru viruththam – any bad conduct
pugudhAmal – without attaining
kurugaiyar kOn – the lord of thirunagari, swAmy nammAzhwAr
uraiththa – mercifully composed
thiruviruththaththu – of thiruviruththam
Oradi – one line
kaRRu – learning well
thirunAttagaththu – at SrIvaikuNtam
irIr – stay (without any worry)

Simple Translation

Oh the people of this samsAram, who are without the strength to come out of it and who are repeatedly experiencing the seven stages of unending sorrows, namely dwelling in womb, birth, infancy, youthfulness, old age, death and hell! I will instruct you a good way to come out, listen to me. Get rid of the bewilderment of looking at your body as the soul, meditate on the first line of thiruviruththam, a divine prabandham mercifully composed by nammAzhwAr, live without any burden and attempt to separate the soul which is distinct from this body so as to reach SrIvaikuNtam.

vyAkhyAnam (commentary)

The vyAkhyAnam for this thaniyan has been written by piLLailOkam jIyar.

The first line shows the fault of samsAram.

karuviruththak kuzhi nIththapin – this speaks about the first stage among the seven stages of life, viz. being in the womb, being born, being an infant, being young, reaching old age, death and being punished in hell. The term karu refers to being in the womb. iruththak kuzhi refers to the pit which has been placed. Mother is like a bag which has been kept to hold the foetus. Alternatively, when considered as viruththak kuzhi, this could also refer to the repeated births in samsAram (viruththam in samskrutham refers to ring, rotating repeatedly).  kuzhi nIththapin – getting rid of the womb and entering the stage of being an infant who is without any knowledge, experiencing the sorrows of that stage (expecting assistance from mother even for taking bath, eating etc).

kAmak kadum kuzhi vIzhndhu – Just as it says in thiruvAimozhi 7-8-7 “thuyaram sey kAmangaLAy” (desires which inflict sorrows), periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 5-2-7 “vazhukki angOr muzhaiyinil pukkittu azhundhikkidandhu uzhalvEnai” (slipping into a cave called as hell (samsAram) and roaming inside it without knowing the way out), periya thirumozhi 6-3-4 “sAndhEndhu menmulaiyAr thadandhOL puNar inba veLLaththu AzhndhEn arunaragaththu azhundhum payan padaiththEn” ((in earlier days) I had immersed in the ocean of pleasures by embracing the rounded shoulders of women who had applied vermillion on their bosoms. As a result of this, I attained the result of being in the quagmire of cruel hell, called as samsAram), falling into the cruel pit of lust

oru viruththam pukku – after exhausting the phase of being engaged with worldly pursuits, entering old age which is unique. thirumangai AzhwAr mercifully described the fault in old age in his periya thirumozhi pAsuram 1-3-1 “muRRa mUththuk kOl thuNaiyA” ((being infirm) having a stick as support after attaining complete old age).

uzhaluRuvIr – calling out to those who are repeatedly suffering the pain of old age, death and punishment in hell. They keep going continuously between the mother’s womb and the lasso of yama, when he pulls the AthmA for undergoing punishment in hell.

Alternatively, oru viruththam pukku would also refer to engaging in improper conduct and getting entrapped in such behaviour.

Instead of getting trapped like this,

uyirin poruLgatku – Just as it is mentioned in thiruvAimozhi pAsuram 1-2-10 “annalaththu oNporuL” (jIvAthma entities (souls) which have distinguished qualities such as knowledge etc), for the jIvAthmAs who are qualified to enjoy the experience of emperumAn. If the text is uyirin poruLukku, it would refer to the benefits of jIvAthmAs instead of benefits of the physical bodies in which they reside.

oru viruththam pugudhAmal – instead of entering even a part of such avoidable obstacles. Not approaching any of such poor conducts. This AzhwAr himself (nammAzhwAr) has said in thiruviruththam pAsuram 9 “nadAviya kURRam” (the lord of death who rules over cupid; in other words, one can overcome even death, but it is almost impossible to overcome the attraction of lustful objects). nammAzhwAr has also said in (a) thiruvAimozhi 10-2-5 “ippiRappu aRukkum” (emperumAn will rid the jIvAthmA of this samsAram), (b) thiruvAimozhi 6-2-9 “azhiththAy un thiruvadiyAl” (destroyed with your divine feet), (c) thiruvAimozhi 1-7-2 “adiyarai valvinaiththuppAm pulan aindhum thunjak kodAn” (emperumAn will not let his followers to be annihilated being caught in the five senses which stroll through the strong karmas (deeds)), (d) thiruvAimozhi 3-3-9 “Oyum mUppup piRappu iRappu”((emperumAn will get rid of) old age, repeated births and deaths which create tiredness), (e) periya thiruvandhAdhi 23 “iLaikka naman thamargaL paRRi iLaippeydha nAy thandhu mOdhAmal nalguvAn” (emperumAn will shower his mercy on us such that the followers of yama (the lord of justice) will not trouble us by catching us firmly and by letting dogs on us) and (f) thirumazhisai AzhwAr in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 88 “uyir koNdu udal ozhiya Odum pOdhu Odi ayarvenRa thIrppAn” (when the followers of yama take the follower of emperumAn’s AthmA from the body (to punish it in hell), emperumAn runs on his own and removes the hurdles).

kurugaiyar kOn uraiththa – mercifully spoken by satakOpan, the leader of thirukkurugUr.

thiruviruththaththu Oradi kaRRu irIr – recite one line in thiruviruththam which was composed as the first prabandham (divine hymn, among the four divine hymns) by nammAzhwAr. One line is enough for uplifting yourself. Learn it through the method of “AchArya uchchAraNa anuchchAraNa” (AchArya (one’s teacher) would recite a line or phrase once; the disciple will recite the same, twice) and be firmly rooted in it.

Why should this be recited?

thirunAttagaththE – In order to reach SrIvaikuNtam. One can attain SrIvaikuNtam by meditating on one’s shortcomings such as ignorance etc. If one were fully engaged in matters relating to emperumAn, no hurdle will enter. Reciting the hymns of others will be a cause for bondage in samsAram whereas reciting the hymns of nammAzhwAr is the cause for liberation from samsAram.

Thus, by learning the good words of nammAzhwAr from one’s AchArya and reciting them, one can sustain oneself without any fear, getting rid of samsAram and attaining the distinguished paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam).

Next, we will take up the vyAkhyAna pravESam (introduction to the commentary) mercifully written by periyavAchchAn piLLai.

adiyen krishNa ramanuja dasan

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thiruviruththam

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iyaRpA

thiruviruththam forms the fifth prabandham (divine composition) in the third thousand “iyaRpA” among the four thousand pAsurams of nAlAyira dhivya prabandham (divine compositions). This was composed by nammAzhwAr who was blessed by emperumAn with divine knowledge and devotion without any fault. This is the first prabandham of the four prabandhams composed by swAmy nammAzhwAr. It is the essence of rig vEdham (first among the four vEdhams, sacred texts, namely rig, yajur, sAma and atharvaNa). This is composed of one hundred pAsurams. periyavAchchAn piLLai has written the commentary for this divine composition. There have been others too who have written commentaries for this prabandham, including nampiLLai who had mercifully written Idu, special meanings mercifully given by azhagiya maNavALa jIyar, commentary written by parakAla jIyar. appiLLai (a disciple of maNavALa mAmunigaL) too has written explanatory notes for this prabandham. It is said that pUrvAchAryars (early preceptors) such as bhattar, had written commentary for this prabandham, but these are not available now.

We will explore the meanings of this prabandham with the commentary of periya vAchchAn piLLai.

In the next article, we will go through the thaniyan for this prabandham.

adiyen krishNa ramanuja dasan

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upadhEsa raththina mAlai – Simple Explanation – pAsuram 73 and Conclusion

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upadhEsa raththina mAlai

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pAsuram 73

Seventy third pAsuram. He brings the prabandham to an end by mercifully stating the benefit to those who learn it.

indha upadhEsa raththina mAlai thannai
sindhai thannil nALum sindhippAr – endhai
edhirAsar innaruLukku enRum ilakkAgich
chadhiRAga vAzhndhiduvar thAm

Those who retain always, in their thoughts, this prabandham called as upadhEsa raththina mAlai which reveals the essence of the instructions of our pUrvAchAryas, will live in a distinguished way, being the recipient of my swAmy yathirAja’s sweet compassion.

This prabandham revealed the incarnation of AzhwArs in a sequence, the places where they incarnated, the commentaries written by AchAryas for their aruLichcheyals (divine compositions), the glories of SrIvachana bhUshaNam which is the essence of the aruLichcheyals as well as their commentaries and the esteemed principle of “AchArya’s affection is the greatest”. Those who meditate constantly on these features of this prabandham will, with the mercy of the most compassionate SrI rAmAnuja, live with the wealth of servitude in this world and prosper further with service in the permanent abode of SrI vaikuNtam.

pAsuram 74

Seventy fourth pAsuram. It is customary to recite the thaniyan (single verse) of maNavALa mAmunigal’s disciple, eRumbiyappA, at the end.

mannuyirgAL ingE maNavALa mAmunivan
ponnadiyAm sengamalap pOdhugaLai – unnich
chiraththAlE thINdil amAnavanum nammaik
karaththAlE thINdal kadan

Oh those who live in this firmly established world! If you keep on your head, maNavALa mAmuni’s divine feet which are like golden, reddish flowers, after meditating on them desirously, at the end of this life, you will go in the path of archis (effulgent path) and go past the vrajA river (the boundary between materialistic and spiritual realms). Once amAnavan (a celestial entity who guides) does his principal act of touching you, you will get a divine form, enter thirumAmaNi maNdapam (divine huge courtyard made of gemstones) which is located in SrI vaikuNtam, the unbounded place of happiness, get accepted by emperumAn and be constantly in servitude to emperumAn along with the gathering of devotees.

AzhwAr emperumAnAr jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

Source: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-73/, http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-conclusion/

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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upadhEsa raththina mAlai – Simple Explanation – pAsuram 70 to 72

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upadhEsa raththina mAlai

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pAsuram 70

Seventieth pAsuram. He explains the evil which happens to us when we are with unfavourable people who are to be given up.

thIya gandham uLLadhonRaich chErndhiruppadhonRukku
thIya gandham ERum thiRam adhu pOl – thIya
guNam udaiyOr thangaLudan kUdiyiruppArkkuk
kuNam adhuvEyAm seRivu koNdu

Just as an article gets foul smell when it is kept with other articles emitting foul smell, one would get evil qualities if one is with people who have rajO guNam (passion, lust etc) and thamO guNam (laziness, inattentiveness etc).

If we are with people who do not have devotion towards emperumAn, other devotees and AchAryan, the devotion that we had [initially, before being with these people] will get reduced. If we are with people who commit offences toward emperumAn, other followers and AchAryan, we will also start committing such offences. This is natural. Understanding this, it is better not to move with such people. This is the path shown to us by our preceptors.

pAsuram 71

Seventy first pAsuram. He explains mercifully as to how the instructions would be of those who are favourable and unfavourable, seen in the earlier pAsurams.

munnOr mozhindha muRai thappAmal kEttu
pinnOrndhu thAm adhanaip pEsAdhE – than nenjil
thORRinadhE solli idhu sudhdha upadhEsa vara
vArththadhenbar mUrkkar AvAr

Instead of following the instructions given by our pUrvAchAryas (preceptors) such as SrIman nAthamunigaL et al, analysing them, and instructing others in the same way, those who instruct others with whatever comes to their minds and who say that whatever meanings they had instructed are all taken from the traditional texts only, are fools.

Our pUrvAchAryas speak, with one voice, all the meanings which are seen in traditional texts. Instead of imbibing such meanings, there are people who will teach new meanings [which occur only to them] to others. They are people who do not have devotion towards their AchAryas, do not have knowledge in sacred texts and who do not have knowledge of well founded, traditional practices.

pAsuram 72

Seventy second pAsuram. mAmunigaL instructs others to approach an AchAryan and get the benefit of carrying out service, which is aligned to AthmA’s basic nature, in this world itself.

pUruvAchAriyargaL bOdham anuttAnangaL
kURuvAr vArththaigaLaik koNdu nIr thERi
iruL tharumA gyAlaththE inbamuRRu vAzhum
theruL tharumA dhEsiganaich chErndhu

Surrender to an AchAryan who is well anchored in traditional beliefs and practices. Learn from such AchAryan, who would instruct the knowledge and practices of our pUrvAchAryas starting with SrIman nAthamunigaL, get anchored in them, carry out service to emperumAn, to the other devotees and to AchAryan in this world itself and live joyously.

This samsAram (materialistic world) breeds ignorance and nurtures it. We can attain a good AchAryan, get good instructions from him, be favourable to the AchAryan and during the time that we are here, we can worship other followers of emperumAn and prosper here itself.

Sources: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-70/, http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-71/, http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-72/

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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upadhEsa raththina mAlai – Simple Explanation – pAsuram 67 to 69

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upadhEsa raththina mAlai

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pAsuram 67

Sixty seventh pAsuram. He responds to his heart as if it is asking him “You are saying that one should live as if AchAryan is everything for one while some others say that one should live as if emperumAn is everything. Which out of these two is correct?”

AchAriyargaL anaivarum mun Asariththa
AchAram thannai aRiyAdhAr – pEsuginRa
vArththaigaLaik kEttu maruLAdhE pUruvargaL
sIrththa nilai thannai nenjE sEr

Oh heart! Our pUrvAchAryas (preceptors) staring with SrI madhurakavi, SrIman nAthamuni et al were fully engaged with devotion towards Acharyan. Do not get bewildered by the instructions of those who do not understand the actions of those preceptors. Attain the eminent state of our pUrvAchAryas.

First stage in devotion is being subservient to emperumAn. The ultimate stage is being subservient to AchAryan. Our AchAryas much liked and practised this ultimate stage only.

pAsuram 68

Sixty eighth pAsuram. mAmunigaL mercifully states as to who should be followed and who should not be followed.

nAththigarum naRkalaiyin nanneRi sEr Aththigarum
Aththiga nAththigarumAm ivarai – Orththu nenjE
munnavarum pinnavarum mUrkkar ena vittu naduch
chonnavarai nALum thodar

Oh heart! Analyse the three types of people – the atheists, who do not believe in SAsthram, the theists (believers) who accept the esteemed paths given in SAsthram and live as per those, and the believers-disbelievers who superficially accept SAsthram, who do not have firm belief in it and who do not live as per that. Of these three types, discard the first (atheists) and the third (believers-disbelievers) as fools and follow the second type of people (believers) always.

pAsuram 69

Sixty ninth pAsuram. He explains through an example, the benefit accrued through favourable people.

nalla maNam uLLadhonRai naNNiyiruppadhaRku
nalla maNam uNdAm nalam adhu pOl – nalla
guNam udaiyOr thangaLudan kUdi iruppARku
guNam adhuvEyAm sErththi koNdu

Just as an article gets the quality of fragrance when taken near another article which is fragrant, one would get good qualities when one is together with those who have sathva guNam (purely good qualities).

Good qualities are those such as knowledge about servitude, devotion towards emperumAn and other followers of emperumAn, detachment from worldly matters etc. Just as when a field is filled with water, it will overflow into neighbouring fields, when we are together with people who have eminent qualities, we too would get those qualities. One of the important principles of our sampradhAyam is that “We should approach a devotee [of emperumAn] and live under the shadow of his divine feet”.

Sources: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-67/, http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-68/, http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-69/

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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pramAthA (preceptors) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
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upadhEsa raththina mAlai – Simple Explanation – pAsuram 66

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SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

upadhEsa raththina mAlai

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pAsuram 66

Sixty sixth pAsuram. He responds to his heart which presumably asked him whether there is anyone who could be cited as an example for the concepts explained in the earlier pAsurams.

pinbu azhagarAm perumAL sIyar perundhivaththil
anbu adhuvumaRRu mikka AsaiyinAl – nampiLLaik
kAna adimaigaL sey annilaiyai nannenjE
UnamaRa eppozhudhum Or

pinbhazhagarAm perumAL jIyar, without any desire in attaining paramapadham, which is a huge place, due to the great affection which he had towards his AchAryan, nampiLLai, carried out apt services to him. Oh heart! Keep thinking about this state, without any fault, constantly.

pinbazhagarAm perumAL jIyar was a dear disciple of nampiLLai. Though he was a jIyar [one who had renounced everything in the world and accepted sannyAsASramam, the state of one who has renounced] during the time of nampiLLai himself, he was carrying out services to the divine form of nampiLLai. Once when jIyar had a health issue, he went to the medical practioner in that place and took medicines from him, thus relieving himself of the health issue. This led to a discussion on whether a SrIvaishNava, especially a sanyAsin could nurture his body by taking medicines. Several people gave several reasons for such an act. One AchAryan said that jIyar did not have the heart to leave namperumAL. Another said that he did not wish to leave SrIrangam while yet another said that he did not have the heart to leave the kAlakshEpa gOshti (gathering of people who were listening to the discourses) of nampiLLai. They then went to nampiLLai and asked him the correct reason for jIyar’s taking care of his body by consuming medicines. nampiLLai called jIyar himself and asked him to reveal the real intention behind consuming the medicines. jIyar replied that when nampiLLai returned after taking his daily bath in kAviri, jIyar would have the fortune of seeing the drops of sweat which would drop down from his divine back and that since he did not want to lose the opportunity of seeing that, he consumed the medicines, thus revealing his unlimited devotion towards his AchAryan. mAmunigaL reveals this here. Just as SrI madhurakavi AzhwAr was for nammAzhwAr and vaduga nambi was for emperumAnAr, this jIyar was, for nampiLLai.

Source: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-66/

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upadhEsa raththina mAlai – Simple Explanation – pAsurams 64 and 65

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upadhEsa raththina mAlai

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pAsuram 64

Sixty fourth pAsuram. He tells his heart that even though AchAryan is the ultimate benefit, viz. one should attain him and enjoy being with him, there is no possibility for one to separate from one’s AchAryan.

than Ariyanaukkuth thAn adimai seyvadhu avan
innAdu thannil irukkum nAL – annEr
aRindhum adhil Asai inRi AchAriyanaip
pirindhiruppAr Ar manamE pEsu

Despite a disciple knowing well that it is his fortune that he can carry out service to his AchAryan only until the AchAryan lives in this world, would any disciple, without any desire in it, separate from his AchAryan? Oh heart! Please tell me.

A disciple can carry out service to his AchAryan only until the AchAryan is alive. Once AchAryan attains paramapadham, the disciple loses the opportunity to carry out service directly, to the AchAryan. Hence, one should carry out service to one’s AchAryan until he is alive. In line with the explanation given in the previous pAsuram, mAmunigaL followed this. Our preceptors too were engaged like this in service to their AchAryas.

pAsuram 65

Sixty fifth pAsuram. Showing the activities of AchArya and disciple, mAmunigaL says that it is difficult to see these in practice.

AchAriyan sichchan Aruyiraip pENumavan
thEsArum sichchan avan sIr vadivai – Asaiyudan
nOkkum avan ennum nuNNaRivaikkEttu vaiththum
Arkkum annEr niRkai aridhAm

AchAryan will protect the esteemed AthmA (soul) of disciple through his instructions and activities. However, the disciple, who received effulgent knowledge from AchAryan, will protect the divine form of AchAryan, which has the greatness of being desired by emperumAn himself, through his services. Even if these had been heard from elders through one’s lineage, though they are good to hear, it is difficult to act according to these.

Sources: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-64/, http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-65/

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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upadhEsa raththina mAlai – Simple Explanation – pAsurams 62 and 63

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SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

upadhEsa raththina mAlai

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pAsuram 62

Sixty second pAsuram. He mercifully states as to how one can easily attain paramapadham.

uyya ninaivu uNdAgil um gurukkaL tham padhaththE
vaiyum anbu thannai indha mAnilaththIr – mey uraikkEn
paiyaravil mAyan paramapadham ungaLukkAm
kai ilangu nellikkani

Oh those who are living in this expansive world of samsAram! If you have the thought to uplift yourselves, I will tell you a simple path to attain that. Listen to me. Carry out devotion at the divine feet of your AchAryan. You will attain paramapadham which is the divine abode of the amazing entity, emperumAn, who is reclining on AdhiSEshan, who has expanded hoods. This is the truth, and as clear as the back of one’s palm.

It is evident that this applies to all those who have a connection with their AchAryan and have devotion to him, from his usage of the generic term ungaLukku, which means “For you all”. Just as Sathrugna, who had devotion towards bharatha, attained SrI rAma’s affection, those who are devoted to their AchArya will easily attain emperumAn. Since these are divine words from maNavALa mAmuni, who is referred to as being one without any false words, there is no doubt in this.

pAsuram 63

Sixty third pAsuram. He mercifully speaks about the great benefit carried out by AchArya and the disciple remaining thankful to him for it.

AchAryan seydha upakAramAna adhu
thUydhAga nenju thannil thOnRumEl – dhEsAn
dharaththil irukka manam thAn porundha mAttAdhu
iruththal ini Edhu aRiyOm yAm

If a disciple realises in his mind that the benefit given by the AchAryan is faultless, it will be unsustainable for him to be at a place where he cannot carry out service to his AchAryan. I am unable to comprehend as to how, despite this, there are some people who are at a place where they cannot carry out service to their AchAryan.

AchAryan engages in many helpful activities such as bestowing knowledge on the disciple, correcting the disciple if he errs, engaging him in service, obtaining  for him mOksham itself etc. One who is a good disciple should think of these and be engaged in carrying out service, with gratitude. mAmunigaL himself stayed in AzhwAr thirunagari until his AchAryan, thiruvAimozhippiLLai. lived in this world and carried out the services as given by his AchAryan. It was only after his AchAryan left for the divine abode [SrIvaikuNtam] that he went to SrIrangam. Thus, he is instructing others, what he himself had followed.

Sources: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-62/, http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-63/

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upadhEsa raththina mAlai – Simple Explanation – pAsurams 60 and 61

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upadhEsa raththina mAlai

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pAsuram 60

Sixtieth pAsuram. Starting with this pAsuram, he mercifully explains the devotion towards AchArya, which is highlighted as an eminent meaning in SrIvachana bhUshaNam. In this pAsuram, he says mercifully that emperumAn will not cherish those who are without devotion towards their AchAryas.

than guruvin thALiNaigaL thannil anbu onRu illAdhAr
anbu than pAl seydhAlum ambuyaikOn – inba migu
viNNAdu thAn aLikka vENdiyirAn AdhalAl
naNNAr avargaL thirunAdu

If a person does not have devotion towards the divine feet of his AchArya, emperumAn will not desire to give him a place in paramapadham which has unlimited bliss, irrespective of the extent of devotion which that person has towards emperumAn, the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi. Thus, one who does not have devotion towards his AchArya will not attain the divine abode of paramapadham. Since emperumAn has been referred through his connection with pirAtti [SrI mahAlakshmi] with the usage of the term ambuyaikOn, it appears that even with the presence of pirAtti, who recommends the chEthana to emperumAn by hiding the faults of the chEthana, near  him, emperumAn will not accept those who are not devoted to their AchAryas.

pAsuram 61

Sixty first pAsuram. mAmunigaL mercifully says that emperumAn, the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, will grant paramapadham to those who have connection with their AchAryas.

gyAnam anuttAnam ivai nanRagavE udaiyan
Ana guruvai adaindhakkAl – mAnilaththIr
thEnAr kamalath thirumAmagaL kozhunan
thAnE vaigundham tharum

Oh those who are on this expansive earth! If one surrenders to one’s AchAryan who has true knowledge on matters related to artha panchakam and activities aligned to that knowledge, SrIman nArAyaNan, who is the lord of SrI mahAlakshmi who dwells on the lotus full of honey, will grant SrI vaikuNtam to such a follower, on his own.

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL has mercifully and clearly stated about how a good AchAryan will be. It is very important that an AchAryan should have knowledge about artha panchakam – the five meanings – knowledge about self, knowledge about emperumAn, knowledge about the means to attain emperumAn, knowledge about the benefit [after reaching emperumAn] and knowledge about the impediments in attaining the benefit. Further, in line with this knowledge, a person should attain emperumAn as the means and surrender to him through an AchAryan and involve in carrying out kainkaryam to emperumAn and that AchAryan. mAmunigaL mercifully says in this pAsuram that one should surrender to one’s AchAryan and look up to him as the refuge. Those who are like this need not take any efforts on their own to reach paramapadham; emperumAn himself will grant it. This pAsuram is the essence of the entire prabandham.

Sources: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/11/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-60/, http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2019/12/upadhesa-raththina-malai-tamil-61/

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