Monthly Archives: December 2019

thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 42 – poliga poliga

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AzhwArs, AchAryas and emperumAnAr in SriperumbUthUr

Essence of thiruvAimozhi 5.2

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of performing mangaLASAsanam (well-wishes) to those who were reformed by his words in thiruvAimozhi 4.10onRum dhEvum” and reforming those who were not reformed, and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? Previously, on hearing AzhwAr’s instructions on the supremacy of bhagavAn in thiruvAimozhi 4.10onRum dhEvum“, everyone became reformed, abundance of bhAgavathas were present and the border between samsAra (material realm) and paramapadham (spiritual realm) was eliminated; AzhwAr became joyful and performed mangaLASAsanam to those who were reformed by his words, reformed those who were qualified to be reformed by giving instructions, and disregarded those who did not reform; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this principle explained in thiruvAimozhi 5.2poliga poliga poliga” starting with “poliga poliga“.

pAsuram

poliga poliga enRu pUmagaLkon thoNdar
malivudhanaik kaNdugandhu vAzhththi – ulagil
thirundhAdhAr thammaith thiruththiya mARan sol
maruNdhAgap pOgum manamAsu

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word-by-word meanings

poliga poliga enRu – saying “Long live! Long live!”
pUmagaL kOn thoNdar – of the devotees of SrIman nArAyaNa
malivu thanaik kaNdu – seeing their abundant presence
ugandhu – being joyful
vAzhththi – performing mangaLASAsanam
ulagil – in this world
thirundhAdhAr thammai – those who are not reformed
thiruththiya – one who mercifully reformed
mARan – AzhwAr’s
sol – SrIsUkthis (divine words)
marundhAga – as medicine
mana mAsu pOgum – blemishes in the mind will be eliminated

Simple Translation

Seeing the abundant presence of the devotees of SrIman nArAyaNa, being joyful and performing mangaLASAsanam saying “Long live! Long live!”, AzhwAr mercifully reformed those who are not reformed in this world; having such AzhwAr’s SrIsUkthis as medicine, blemishes in the mind will be eliminated.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • poliga poliga enRu pU magaL kOn thoNdar malivu thanaik kaNdu ugandhu vAzhththi – As said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 42.33 “jayathyathibalO rAmO lakshmaNaScha mahAbala: | rAjA jayathi sugrIvO rAghavENAbhipAlitha: ||” (Long live the mighty SrI rAma and the powerful lakshmaNa! Long live the king sugrIva, protected by SrI rAma!”), seeing the abundance of the devotees of the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi, [AzhwAr] performed mangaLASAsanam saying “poliga! poliga!” Abundance of devotees of pUmagaL kOn (SrIman nArAyaNa) means – kadal vaNNan bUdhangaL maN mEl maliyap pugundhu (those who were reformed to become bhAgavathas by sarvESvaran who has greatness due to having distinguished qualities and form like an attractive ocean, which is containing precious gems inside it, entered this earth to be present in abundance) [1st pAsuram], mAdhavan bUdhangaL maN mEl paNdAn pAdi ninRAdi (The servitors of sarvESvaran who is the beloved lord of lakshmI, stood on this earth) [2nd pAsuram], kadal vaNNan bUdhangaL maN mEl iriyap pugundhu (bhAgavathas who are immersed in qualities of such bhagavAn who is the ocean of infinite qualities, entered in this earth to initiate the joyful celebrations) [3rd pAsuram], thadangadal paLLip perumAn thannudaip pUdhangaLEyAy (bhAgavathas who are immersed in the qualities of emperumAn who is resting in the vast [milky] ocean and is greater than all, are spreading everywhere) [4th pAsuram], ivvulgaththu vaigundhan bUdhangaLEyAy (this world is filled with those who became paramapadhanAthan‘s devotees) [5th pAsuram], pagai pasi thIyanavellAm ninRivvulagil kadivAn nEmippirAn thamar pOndhAr, gyAlam parandhAr (sarvESvaran is standing in this world, having the weapon, chakra (disc), to destroy all the cruel nature such as the disease which finishes the body and consumes the vital air, enmity, hunger etc; the devotees of such emperumAn are singing distinguished songs, dancing joyfully jumping and spreading out all over the world;) [6th pAsuram], mEvith thozhum adiyArum pagavarum mikkathulagE (This world became filled  with the devotees of sarvESvaran who never abandons [his devotees], the  servitors and sages of bhagavAn, who are ananyaprayOjanas who keep reciting in their tongues the special and very purifying hymns) [9th pAsuram] – such abundant gathering of nithyasidhdhas (nithyasUris), SvEthadhvIpa vAsis (residents of kshIrAbdhi) who are all devotees of SrIman nArAyaNa. Also implies the devotees of this world who were reformed to be at par with nithyasidhdhas and SvEthadhvIpa vAsis.
  • kaNdu – As said in thiruvAimozhi 8.10.8thamargaL kUttam … nALum vAykka nangatku” (emperumAn created the causal ocean with naturally cool water, and is resting in it as revealed in vEdham, having distinguished, matchless, many divine feet, divine shoulders and divine crowns/heads similar to a carbuncle hill having gardens of rising, beautiful, well grown kaRkapa trees and a radiant sun with many dense rays; union with servitors of such emperumAn should occur for us, forever. kUttam – sErththi – union. Alternatively, kUttam means sangam (crowd), and here AzhwAr prays for the presence of such crowd in front of him), see with his own eyes.
  • ugandhu – Being joyful as said in “kaNdOm kaNdOm kaNdOm kaNNukkiniyana kaNdOm” (We have seen this prosperity which is pleasing to the eyes; not just seeing once but got to enjoy repeatedly as said thrice in “aham annAdha:“, being overwhelmed with love, engaging in continuous worship, and stood engaged in joyful celebrations.) [2nd pAsuram].
  • vAzhththi – Performing mangaLASAsanam saying “poliga! poliga!” for such abundance.
  • ulagil thirundhAdhAr thammaith thiruththiya mARan sol marundhAgap pOgum mana mAsu – Towards those who stayed away and did not become reformed after hearing the instructions in thiruvAimozhi 4.10 “onRum dhEvum“, AzhwAr gave instructions to others and reformed them, saying “kaNNan allAl dheyvam illai” (there is no God other than krishNa) [7th pAsuram], “evvulugukkum than mUrththi niRuththinAn dheyvangaLAga aththeyvanAyagan thAnE” (krishNa, who is the lord of all lords, established his different types of forms/bodies as the dhEvathAs who are worshippable in nithya and naimiththika karmas which are duties to be performed ) [8th pAsuram], “okkath thozhugiRRirAgil kaliyugam onRum illaiyE” (if you surrender unto emperumAn as done by the dhEvathAs to fulfil their desires, the defects of this [kali] yugam which cause bewilderment of your intelligence will be rid of) [10th pAsuram]. Further on those who did not become reformed even after hearing these instructions, he reformed them by talking about their destruction saying “arakkar asurar piRandhIr uLLIrEl uyyum vagai illai thoNdIr Uzhi peyarththidum konRE” (Oh those who are interested in worldly pleasures! Oh those who are born with demoniac and evil qualities! If you are present, you will be killed and the [bad] times will change [into good times]; there is no way for your redemption) [5th pAsuram]; the blemishes of mind will be eliminated by the medicine of such AzhwAr’s SrIsUkthis. Blemish in mind is SrIvaishNava sAjAthya budhdhi (Considering SrIvaishNavas to be at par with oneself) and dhEvathAnthara parathva budhdhi (Considering other dhEvathAs to be supreme) [these will be eliminated]; he himself mercifully said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.8mananaga malamaRak kazhuvi” (By purifying one’s heart through knowledge eliminating the dirt).

azhagiya maNavALap perumAL nAyanAr mercifully explained this in AchArya hrudhayam chUrNikai 223 “visha vruksha palangaL kai kUdinavar adimai pukkAraiyum AtcheyvAraiyum kANa, lOka dhvIpAntharangaLill ninRum pOndha dhEvar kuzhAngaLaik kaNdu kAppittu prahlAdha vibhIshaNar soRkELAdha arakkar asurar pOlvAraith thadavip pidiththu, dhESa kAla dhOsham pOga engum idam koNdavargaLai mEvith thozhudhu ujjIviyungOL. nIngaL niRuththugiRavargaLai dhEvathaigaLAga niRuththinavanai mEvip paravumavarOdu okkath thozhil yuga dhOsham illaiyAm enRu vishNu bhakthiparar Akki“.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 84 (Names 831 to 840)

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831) sapthajihva: (सप्तजिह्वः)

Similarly, bhagavAn is the source of the seven forms of fire (also called the seven tongues of agni) such as kAlee (काली), karAlee (कराली), etc. – which are characterized by their responsibility to collect and transport the oblations to all dhEvas during sacrifices.

This is mentioned in SrI paushkara samhithA thus: “That supreme lord accepts all oblations in the form of fire – by being the mouth of all such dhEvathAs – when oblations purified by manthra are offered along with ghee as a sacrifice. Having accepted their oblations thus, bhagavAn protects and nurtures/satisfies them all”.

(NOTE: The seven tongues of agni are listed as follows: kAlee काली, karAlee कराली, manOjavA मनॊजवा, sulOhithA सुलॊहिता, sudhUmravarNA सुधूम्रवर्णा, sphulinginI स्फुलिङ्गिनी and viSvarUpiNI विश्वरूपिणी)

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sapthajihva:’ because he possesses seven tongues namely kAlee, karAlee, etc, in the form of agni. He is the one who is ever engaged in satisfying the worlds.

यस्मात् काल्यादयॊ जिह्वा अग्नॆः सप्त भवन्ति च |
स सप्तजिह्व आख्यातॊ लॊकसन्तर्पणॆ रतः ||

832) sapthaidhA: (सप्तैधाः)

The seven forms of firewood – used in each of ‘pAkayagya’, ‘haviryagya’, and ‘sOmasamsthA’ – and which are of various origins and used for various purposes, are verily the properties of bhagavAn. He is thus called ‘sapthaidhA:’.

Etymology: He, who is the master of various sacrifices (seven forms) and the seven forms of firewood used therein, is called ‘sapthaidhA:’.

वानस्पत्याश्च समिधः सप्तसंस्थाश्च वा तथा |
इष्टापूर्तादि कर्माणि सप्तैधाः सन्ति यस्य सः ||

833) sapthavAhana: (सप्तवाहनः)

The various metres such as ‘gAyathri’, ‘thrishtup’, etc (seven meters in which the vEdhic manthras are present) are the ones which show us the manthras for all such sacrifices as seen in the previous divine name. These metres are verily the seven horses that pull the chariot of sUrya. Since bhagavAn is indeed the one who rides on these horses (the chariot pulled by these horses), he is called ‘sapthavAhana:’ – the one who rides on seven horses.

The mundakOpanishath says thus: “Seven forms of the life force are born”.

It is also said thus in the thaiththirIya nArAyaNIya: “The seven life forces rest with the supreme soul, who resides in the cave of the heart”.

As seen here, bhagavAn is also the one who supports the seven life forces in every individual. Thus also, he is called ‘sapthavAhana:’ – the bearer of seven life forces.

Sri paushkara samhitha supports thus: “The demigod called ‘vAyu’ is the one who is born from the breath of the supreme master (bhagavAn). He (vAyu) is the one who bears the entire creation (supports every entity by being the life force) in various forms. bhagavAn resides in all entities (where vAyu is the life force) in all the three worlds, supporting them.”

Etymology: He, who bears the seven life forces, is called ‘sapthavAhana:’. Alternately, since the seven horses drawing the chariot of sUrya are verily his vehicles, he is called ‘sapthavAhana:’.

यॊ वहत्यनिलस्कन्धान् सप्तासौ सप्तवाहनः |
वाहनानि रवॆरस्य सप्त वा सप्तवाहनः ||

834) amUrthi: (अमूर्तिः)

Although bhagavAn is hailed as manifesting in various forms as seen in the last couple of divine names, he is still above all such limitations by nature. Thus, he is called ‘amUrthi:’.

It means that he is different from the manifest physical form that we can see (rather, he is super natural).

Etymology: He, who is different from (and superior to) the manifest physical forms (made of nature), is called ‘amUrthi:’.

स्थूलभौतिकमूर्तिभ्यॊ व्यावृत्तॊsमूर्तिरुच्यतॆ |

835) anagha: (अनघः) (also seen in 148)

Particularly, bhagavAn is superior to the individual souls born in this samsAra, because he is never affected by karma. Therefore, he is called ‘anagha:’.

Etymology: He, who is different from (and superior to) the individual souls born in this samsAra due to their karma, is called ‘anagha:’.

जीवॆभ्यः कर्मवश्यॆभ्यॊ व्यावृत्तश्चानघः स्मृतः |

836) achinthya: (अचिन्त्यः)

bhagavAn cannot be compared even to the superior souls like the liberated and ever liberated souls (mukthas and nithyas) who reside in the supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam. Therefore, he is called ‘achinthya:’ – the one who is beyond comprehension.

Etymology: He, who cannot be compared to the superior souls even of the rank of mukthas and nithyas either, is called ‘achinthya:’.

अचिन्त्यॊ दुर्निरूपः स्यात् मुक्ताद्युपमयाsपि सः |

837) bhayakrudh,  838) bhayanASana:  { 837) भयकृद्  838) भयनाशनः }

Furthermore, bhagavAn is the one who instils fear in the minds of those who disobey his orders (in the form of scriptures). Hence he is called ‘bhayakruth’. He is also the one who dispels fear from the minds of those who abide by his words. Hence, he is called ‘bhayanASana:’.

Etymology: The one who instils the fear of naraka and other punishments in the minds of those who disobey his orders is called ‘bhayakruth’. This seven lettered manthra enhances materialistic benefits. The one who dispels fear from the minds of people who obey his orders is called ‘bhayanASana:’. This nine lettered manthra removes all karma.

आज्ञातिलङ्घिनां पुंसां नरकादिभयङ्करः |
भयकृत् स समाख्यातः सप्तार्णॊ भववर्धनः ||

आज्ञानुवर्तिनां स्वस्य भयं नाशयतीति सः |
भयनाशन इत्युक्तॊ नवार्णः कर्मनाशकः ||

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अणुर्बृहत् कृशः स्थूलॊ गुणभृन्निर्गुणॊ महान् ।
अधृतः स्वधृतः स्वास्यः प्राग्वंशॊ वंशवर्धनः ॥ ९० ॥
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839) aNu: (अणुः)

Thereafter, bhagavAn’s divine wealth consisting of the eight special powers (aNimA, mahimA, etc) is expounded.

bhagavAn possesses the ability to enter (indwell) the very subtle entities namely nature and individual souls, and reside in their hearts (called ‘dhahara AkASa’ दहराकाशः). Therefore, he is called ‘aNu:’ – the one who indwells the most subtle entities.

The root ‘aNathi’ (अणति) means to move to a particular place. The word ‘aN’ (अण्) in this root gets the ‘u’ (उः) adjunct by grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

Also, amongst the eight special powers, bhagavAn displays the divine power of ‘aNimA’ (अणिमा) – manifesting in a very subtle form. Thus also he is called ‘aNu:’.

The thaiththirIya nArAyaNIya hails thus: “He is subtler than all other subtle entities”.

The vEdhas also hail thus in other places: “He is extremely powerful, yet very subtle – even more than the very fine layer of a lotus stem”

Etymology: The one who is capable of entering (indwelling) even the subtlest entities namely prakruthi (nature) and jIva (individual soul), and who is capable of residing in the subtle space of the heart of such individual souls, is called ‘aNu:’. This six lettered manthra confers all powers upon the chanter.

अतिसूक्ष्महृदाकाशाव्यक्तजीवप्रवॆशनॆ |
शक्तिमान् अणुरित्युक्तः षडर्णः सर्वशक्तिदः ||

840) bruhath (बृहत्)

With his all pervasiveness, bhagavAn is expansive (manifests with a big form) – to the extent that the supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam itself (which is otherwise considered as very expansive, as much as three times this material world consisting of all entities we know in this creation) is reduced to the size of a mere cupped palm. Thus, he is called ‘bruhath’ – the magnificent one.

The root ‘bru:’ gets the ‘at’ adjunct by grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

The vEdhas declare thus:

  • “bhagavAn, having pervaded all the worlds in their entirety, expands even beyond them”
  • “He is bigger than the biggest”
  • “He is greater (in magnitude) than this world”, etc.

Etymology: He, by whom even the expansive supreme abode SrIvaokuNtam is reduced to the size of a cupped palm (due to his greatness), is called by the name ‘bruhath’. Chanting of this six lettered manthra confers greatness upon the chanter.

विपुलं परमव्यॊम महिम्ना चुलकीकृतम् |
यॆन नाम्ना बृहत् स स्यात् षडर्णश्च बृहत्त्वदः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 83 (Names 821 to 830)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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821) sarvagya: (सर्वज्ञः) (also seen in 454)

bhagavAn knows precisely the strengths and weaknesses of his dear devotees, and also what they can achieve and what they cannot (and graces them accordingly). Therefore, he is called ‘sarvagya:’ – the omniscient.

Etymology: He, who knows fully the strengths and weaknesses of his dear devotees and their capabilities for accomplishment, is called ‘sarvagya:’.

शक्याशक्यादिकं सर्वं साध्यासाध्यादिकं च यः |
भक्तानामनुसन्धत्तॆ स सर्वज्ञ इतीरितः ||

822) sarvathOmukha: (सर्वतॊमुखः)

For such devotees, bhagavAn brushes aside the hard rules like “He can be attained only by this way, and not by any other means”, and provides umpteen ways to attain him; so that the individual soul takes to any of those ways and reaches him. Therefore, he is called ‘sarvathOmukha:’.

bhagavAn declares thus in SrI rAmAyaNa: “He, who has surrendered to another person, shall be protected by that person at any cost – irrespective of the mindset behind the surrender – even if he is an enemy”.

Etymology: He, who can be known (and attained) by the learned ones (noble men – the dear devotees of bhagavAn) by any means – not wanting to abide (limit) by any strict guidelines – is called ‘sarvathOmukha:’.

तत्तन्नियममुत्सृज्य यॊ ज्ञातुं शक्यतॆ बुधैः |
व्याजॆन यॆन कॆनापि स स्मृतः सर्वतॊमुखः ||

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सुलभः सुव्रतः सिद्धः शत्रुजिच्छत्रुतापनः ।
न्यग्रॊधॊदुम्बरॊsश्वत्थश्चाणूरान्ध्रनिषूदनः ॥ ८८ ॥
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823) sulabha: (सुलभः)

bhagavAn is, furthermore, easily accessible. Although he is extremely valuable and cannot be traded for anything, he still appears as the one who can be owned for a small amount of true love. This can be seen in the episode of the hunch-backed woman (thrivakrA), who used to provide sandal paste and other decorations in the court of kamsa. The vishNu purANa hails thus: “She held the robes of gOvindha and invited him to her house”. That is how she took him under her disposal!

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘sulabha:’, since he is very easily accessible (by true love alone) to every individual.

सर्वॆषां सुखलभ्यत्वात् सुलभः परिकीर्तितः |

824) suvratha: (सुव्रतः) (also seen in 456)

bhagavAn is called ‘suvratha:’, because he has a firm vow of protecting his devotees who have approached him – be it by any means – at any cost.

This is beautifully shown in SrI rAmAyaNa during the surrender of vibhIshaNa. bhagavAn declares thus: “I give my assurance to every individual (of protecting them at any cost), who approaches me saying they are mine, even if they surrender to me just once. Oh Sugriva! This is my firm vow”.

(NOTE: This SlOka from SrI rAmAyaNa, which is illustrated here by SrI parAsara bhattar, is famously called ‘rAma charama SlOkam’, and the original sloka is given here for the perusal of the reader. The readers are encouraged to approach their AchAryas for a detailed explanation on this SlOka – and the intricacies therein.

The SlOka is as follows:

सकृदॆव प्रपन्नाय तवास्मीति च याचतॆ |
अभयं सर्वभूतॆभ्यॊ ददाम्यॆतद्व्रतं मम ||

Etymology: He, who possesses a firm auspicious vow of protecting his devotees – who have approached him by any means – at any cost, is called ‘suvratha:’.

यॆन कॆनापि विष्टानां सर्वथा परिपालनम् |
दृढं सुष्ठुव्रतं यस्य स सुव्रत उदाहृतः ||

825) sidhdha: (सिद्धः) (also seen in 98)

For such dear devotees who have known him in his true form, bhagavAn is said to be ‘sidhdha:’ – the one who is readily attained without any external efforts.

bhagavAn’s nature of protecting his devotees is not consequential to anything else. Rather, it is his natural trait that can be seen at all times. Thus, he is called ‘sidhdha:’.

Till this divine name, the direct incarnations of bhagavAn have been illustrated.

Etymology: He is called ‘sidhdha:’, who is readily attained without external efforts by his dear devotees who have known his true nature.

अयत्नसाध्यः सिद्धः स्यात् स्वतत्त्वस्थितिवॆदिनाम् |

826) SathrujithchathruthApana: (शत्रुजिच्छत्रुतापनः)

Thence, bhagavAn’s indirect protection of his devotees – by being the indweller of other select individual souls and vesting his powers with them – shall be expounded.

In doing so, bhagavAn vests his divine effulgence with the valiant warriors like kakuthstha, purukuthsa, et al and thereby burns those evil souls (the opponents of kakuthstha, purukuthsa, et al) who come in the way of dharma. Thus, he is called ‘Sathrujith-chathruthApana:’.

This is clearly expounded in the fourth amSa of vishNu purANa, thus:

“Having mounted on the hump of the bull (indhra, who had taken that form), kakuthstha was infested with rage. He was vested with the divine effulgence of the supreme master of all – SrIman nArAyaNa himself. With that power, he attacked the asuras – who had waged a war against dhEvas – and killed them all”.

The scriptures have also hailed thus: “purukuthsa went to rasAthala (one of the seven worlds, below bhUmi), and slew all the gandharvas (the residents of that world) with the valour that came due to the divine effulgence of bhagavAn”.

Etymology: He, who burns the opponents by vesting his effulgence with select individual souls like purukuthsa, kakuthstha et al (and making them all the more powerful), is called ‘Sathrujith-chathruthApana:’ in one single name.

पुरुकुत्सककुत्स्थाद्यैः शत्रुजिद्भिः स्वतॆजसा |
आप्यायितैरपि परान् यस्तापयति नित्यशः |
अयमॆकपदॆनॊक्तः शत्रुजिच्छत्रुतापनः ||

827) nyagrOdhOdhumbara: (न्यग्रॊधॊदुम्बरः)

bhagavAn is both ‘nyagrOdha:’ (न्यग्रॊधः), as well as ‘udhumbara:’ (उदुम्बरः). Hence, he is called ‘nyagrOdhOdhumbara:’.

He is called ‘nyagrOdha:’ – because he is the one who gives away himself to those humble devotees whom he cannot bypass because of their joined palms in salutation (anjali mudhrA). The word ‘nyagbhUtha’ (न्यग्भूतः) means a lowly/humble soul. The word ‘rudhyathE’ (रुध्यतॆ) means to establish. He makes such humble souls eligible for his divine grace.

The vishNu dharmOththara purANa says thus: “anjali (joining of palms in salutation) is a superior mudhra, which will grant the supreme brahman instantly (meaning, which will please bhagavAn instantly and makes him grant himself)”

Even in SrI rAmAyaNa, it is hailed thus: “I do not see any means of forgiving the mistakes of a wrongdoer other than joining his palms in salutation/surrender (anjali) and thereby being forgiven by lakshmaNa”

Further, he is called ‘udhumbara:’, because he is the master of the divine abode SrIvaikuNtam, as well as SrI mahAlakshmi and all other divine servitors (nithyas and mukthas) – whose superiority is characterized by their residence in that divine abode. The word ‘ambaram’ (अम्बरम्) means sky, and the word ‘udhgatham’ (उद्गतम्) means being superior. Hence, the “supreme sky” (or paramAkASa:) refers to SrIvaikuNtam. These two words are conjoined to result in the word ‘udhambaram’ (उदम्बरम्), in which the ‘a’kAra is replaced by ‘u’kara due to grammatical rules, resulting in the word ‘udhumbara:’ (उदुम्बरः).

When these two names are read together, this divine name means that bhagavAn is the one who can be approached even by the lowest soul in this material world with a simple anjali mudhra, although he is the supreme soul who is served by supreme servitors at his divine abode.

This is hailed thus in the vishNu purANa: “Oh maithrEya! bhagavAn – the primordial creator as well as the supreme soul – is sought by all souls such as gandharvas, avadhUthas, uragas, et al.”

Etymology: He – who readily graces his even the lowly souls who surrender unto him with anjali mudhrA – is called ‘nyagrOdha:’. Furthermore, he – who possesses the supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam, which is characterized by its being devoid of blemishes associated with the three gunas, as his own – is called ‘udhumbara:’. The ‘u’kAra in this divine name comes from the prushOdhara nIthi (a certain grammatical rule related to usage of syllables). These two divine names are read together as a single name ‘nyagrOdhOdhumbara:’. Therefore, he – who is, by nature, served by superior souls (such as SrI mahAlakshmi, et al) at his supreme abode, and yet is also very easily accessible to even the lowliest souls in this material world – is called ‘nyagrOdhOdhumbara:’.

न्यग्भूतैः प्रणतैः स्वानुग्रहौन्मुख्यॆन रुध्यतॆ |
यॊ व्यवस्थापयतॆ नित्यं न्यग्रॊधः स उदाहृतः ||

गुणत्रयादुद्गतं यत् परमं धाम चाम्बरम् |
यसॊदुंबर एषः स्यात् उः पृषॊदरनीतितः ||
न्यग्रॊधॊदुम्बर इति ह्यॆकं नाम प्रकीर्तितम् ||

अत्युच्छ्रितानां सॆव्यॊ यॊsप्यतिनीचानुवर्तनः |
न्यग्रॊधॊदुम्बरः स स्यात् दशार्णः सर्वसिद्धिदः ||

828) aSvaththa: (अश्वत्थः)

Thereafter, bhagavAn’s indirect way of ruling the world through other dhEvas – who are also subservient to him, and who also constitute his divine body – is explained.

dhEvas like indhra et al are called ‘aSva’s, because their existence is not eternal. They are all present today, but their position tomorrow (position of indhra, Siva, brahmA, et al. after a certain period of time) is not guaranteed. The word ‘Sva:’ (श्वः) means ‘tomorrow’. Those who do not have it with them are called ‘aSva’s. Since he indwells them to control all entities, he is called ‘aSvaththa:’.

The vaishNava dharma says thus: “bhagavAn indwells the ‘rAjasika’ four faced brahmA and carries out the job of creation – thereby creating all beings. He then takes the ‘sAthvika’ form of ‘purusha’ (nArAyaNa himself, as seen in the beginning of Sri vishNu sahasranAma chapter) and protects all entities therein. Finally, he takes on the ‘thAmasika’ form of rudhra or Siva and destroys the entire creation”.

Etymology: He – who indwells even the individual souls like indhra and other dhEvas (who are merely deputees in their respective portfolios), and thereby controls the entire creation – is called ‘aSvaththa:’.

अनित्यमिन्द्रादिपदं यॆषां तॆष्वपि तिष्ठति |
नियामकत्वॆनॆत्यॆवम् अश्वत्थ इति कीर्तितः ||

829) chANUrAndhranishUdhana: (चाणूरान्ध्रनिषूदनः)

Being the indweller of indhra and other dhEvas, bhagavAn destroys the lowly demonic wrestler named ‘chANUra’ (this is different from the chANUra who was killed by krishNa). Thus, he is called ‘chANUrAndhranishUdhana:’.

The word ‘sUdh’ सूद् (to slay) gets the ‘sha’kAra (षकारः) by grammatical rules, thereby resulting in the word ‘nishUdhana:’.

Etymology: He, who slew the demonic wrestler named ‘chANUra’, is hailed by the sages as ‘chANUrAndhranishUdhana:’.

चाणूराख्यासुरं यॊsरिं मल्लं सूदितवानसौ |
प्रॊच्यतॆ मुनिभिर्नित्यं चाणूरान्ध्रनिषूदनः ||

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सहस्रार्चिः सप्तजिह्वः सप्तैधाः सप्तवाहनः ।
अमूर्तिरनघॊsचिन्त्यॊ भयकृद्भयनाशनः ॥ ८९ ॥
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830) sahasrArchi: (सहस्रार्चिः)

bhagavAn has vested thousands of rays – which are beneficial to the creatures at large due to their inherent quality of heat which is useful in cooking/digesting/ripening, drying, burning, lightening, etc. Therefore, he is called ‘sahasrArchi:’ – the one with thousands of effulgent rays.

Sri paushkara samhitha says thus: “Know the visible sun and the moon as verily the eyes of that supreme soul, who is called by the name ‘agnishOmAthmA’ (अग्निषॊमात्मा)”.

bhagavAn also declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “That effulgence which is seen in the sun, and which lights up all the worlds, and the effulgence that you see in other luminous entities like the moon, fire, et al – shall be known as verily my own effulgence (vested with them for a certain purpose)”.

Etymology: He, by whom thousands of effulgent rays are vested with the sun – which help in various tasks such as drying, etc, is called ‘sahasrArchi:’.

सूर्यॆ सहस्रमर्चींषि शॊषणादिषु हॆतवः |
अभिविष्टानि यॆनासौ सहस्रार्चिरिति स्मृतः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 82 (Names 811 to 820)

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811) mahAbhUtha: (महाभूतः)

Till now, bhagavAn’s acts of controlling the evil minded souls – who disobey his orders in the form of SAsthras – in his budhdha incarnation, were said.

Thence, his grace upon the favourable souls who abide by the SAsthras – and hence bestowed with the ‘dhaivI sampath’ दैवी सम्पत् (as explained by bhagavAn in his bhagavath gIthA) – shall be explained.

The great souls, who are noble mined, are considered by bhagavAn as his own people. Therefore, he is called ‘mahAbhUtha:’.

bhagavAn himself declares thus: “Oh arjuna, the great souls attain me”

Etymology: Till now, bhagavAn’s punishment of evil minded souls who disobey his orders (SAsthras) was said. Thence, his favourability towards those who abide by his orders shall be said. he, unto whom the great souls (noble minded souls) belong as his own, is called ‘mahAbhUtha:’.

निग्राहकत्वं कथितं स्वस्यैवाज्ञातिलङ्घनात् |
स्वाज्ञानुवर्तिनां पुंसाम् अनुग्राहकतॊच्यतॆ |
महाभूतॊ महात्मानः स्वभूता यस्य सः श्रुतः ||

812) mahAnidhi: (महानिधिः)

Such noble souls who are abiding by the SAsthric injunctions are so dear to bhagavAn that he considers them as verily his greatest treasure. Thus, he is called ‘mahAnidhi:’ – the one who possesses great treasure (of noble souls).

bhagavAn himself declares thus: “Those noble souls who trust my words and follow my orders (SAsthras) in their true purport as expounded till now are extremely dear to me”

Etymology: He, unto whom the noble souls are very dear – akin to a great treasure, is called ‘mahAnidhi:’.

महात्मानॊ निधिरिव प्रिया यस्य महानिधिः |

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कुमुदः कुन्दरः कुन्दः पर्जन्यः पावनॊsनिलः ।
अमृताशॊsमृतवपुः सर्वज्ञः सर्वतॊमुखः ॥ ८७ ॥
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813) kumudha: (कुमुदः) (also seen in 596)

bhagavAn rejoices with his dear devotees (his treasure, as seen in the previous divine name) in this material world itself (even without having to wait for them to come to mOksha bhUmi SrIvaikuNtam). The word ‘ku’ (कु) refers to this ‘world’ or ‘land’. Thus, he is called ‘kumudha:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘kumudha:’, because he rejoices with his dear devotees in this material world itself.

प्राकृतॆ मण्डलॆ भूमौ कुमुदः स्यात् स मॊदनात् |

814) kundhara: (कुन्दरः)

bhagavAn bestows the mOkshabhUmi (referred to by the word ‘ku’ कु). Therefore, he is called ‘kundhara:’.

Alternately, he is pure like the fragrant oleander flowers (kundha kusuma). Thus, he is called ‘kundhara:’.

Also, he is the one who bestows knowledge about his own supreme self. The word ‘kundha’ refers to the knowledge about the supreme brahman. The letter ‘ra’ indicates ‘rAthi(राति), meaning ‘to give’. This is endorsed by krishNa himself in the bhagavath gIthA thus: “I grant the budhdhiyOga (knowledge about the supreme self) unto those noble souls”. Thus also, he is called ‘kundhara:’.

Etymology: The one who grants mOksha, or the one who is pure at heart – like the beautiful oleander flowers, or the one who bestows knowledge about his own supreme self is called ‘kundhara:’. Also, the word ‘ku’ (कु) refers to the piled up sins. bhagavAn is also called ‘kundhara:’ since he shreds them off.

मुक्तिभूमिप्रदॊ कुन्दसुमवद्विमलामतिः |
कुन्दं तद्राति दत्तॆsसौ कुन्दरः कीर्तितॊsथवा |
कुमव्ययं पापवाचि कुन्दरस्तस्यदारणात्  ||

815) kundha: (कुन्दः)

bhagavAn himself is called ‘kundha:’ (कुन्दः) because he is the one who bestows successive stages of ‘parabhakthi’, ‘paragynAnam’ and ‘paramabhakthi’ upon his dear devotees who have eventually won over their karma with the help of knowledge and renunciation.

As seen in the previous divine name, the word ‘kum’ refers to sins. He is called ‘kundhara:’, as seen previously, because he shreds the sins off his dear devotees. Not stopping at that, bhagavAn further purifies those souls from whom the sins were shredded off. This is indicated in this divine name ‘kundha:’. So, when these two divine names are read together, they show how bhagavAn removes sins of his devotees and grants purity (both being different acts) upon them.

The root ‘dhaip’ (दैप्) means to improvise. This is transformed by grammatical rules, resulting in the form of ‘dha’ (दः).

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘kundha:’, since he is the one who bestows successive stages of parabhakthi etc upon his dear devotees.

भक्तॆभ्यः परभक्त्यादिप्रदानात् कुन्द उच्यतॆ |

816) parjanya: (पर्जन्यः)

The root ‘aja’ (अज) means to extinguish. It gets the ‘parj’ (पर्ज्) and ‘anya’ (अन्यः) adjuncts as per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.

bhagavAn is indeed the one who extinguishes the three heats/fires (namely AdhyAthmika, Adhibhauthika and Adhidhaivika) for his dear devotees, by preaching the scriptures to them in their true purport (just like a heavy downpour from a dark cloud extinguishing a wild forest fire). Therefore, he is called ‘parjanya:’.

Etymology: He, who extinguishes the three heats (thApathrayam) for his devotees by imparting knowledge about his self unto them, is called ‘parjanya:’.

स्वतत्त्वज्ञानदानॆन नित्यं तापत्रयापहा |
पर्जन्यः सः ||

817) pAvana: (पावनः) (also seen in 293)

bhagavAn moves towards his devotees like a flow of air in order to remove the three heats of his devotees and impart knowledge about himself (as seen in the previous divine name). Therefore, he is called ‘pAvana:’. The root ‘pavi’ (पविः) is used in the meaning of motion in this context.

Etymology: He, who moves towards his devotees like air for the same reason (as seen in the previous divine name), is called ‘pAvana:’.

तदर्थं च पवतॆ पावनश्च सः |

818) anila: (अनिलः) (also seen in 236)

bhagavAn does not require any external agencies to inspire him in gracing his dear devotees. He is thus called ‘anila:’.

The root ‘ila’ (इल) is used in the context of ‘impelling’. The ‘kap’ adjunct is added to the root as per grammatical rules. Therefore, the one who impels is called ‘ila:’ (इलः). Since bhagavAn does not require one, he is called ‘anila:’.

This is shown in the vishNu dharma thus: “bhagavAn madhusUdhana bestows everything upon those who meditate on him, even without them asking for the fruits”

Etymology: He, who does not need an impeller (or a source of inspiration) other than himself in gracing his dear devotees who have surrendered unto him, is called anila:. This seven lettered mantra is one of the best.

स्वस्य यस्मात् प्रॆरकॊsन्यः प्रपन्नानुग्रहॆ सदा |
नापॆक्ष्यः सॊsनिलः प्रॊक्तॊ मुन्यर्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

819) amruthASa: (अमृताशः)

In order to grace his devotees, bhagavAn feeds them with the nectar of his own qualities. Therefore, he is called ‘amruthASa:’ – the feeder of nectar.

Etymology: He, who feeds his dear devotees with the nectar of his own divine qualities out of sheer affection, is called ‘amruthASa:’.

यश्चाशयति भक्तान् वै स्वगुणामृतमादरात्  |
अमृताशः स इत्युक्तः श्रितपीयूषदॊ मनुः ||

820) amruthavapu: (अमृतवपुः)

Not just his divine qualities, but bhagavAn’s divine form is also nectarine. Therefore, he is called ‘amruthavapu:’.

Etymology: He, whose divine form is nectarine, is called ‘amruthavapu:’.

वपुर्यस्यामृतसमं स चामृतवपुः स्मृतः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 41 – kaiyArum chakkaraththOn

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 5.1

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of becoming awe-struck seeing the causeless acceptance of AzhwAr by sarvESvaran to make AzhwAr reform samsAris (materialistic people) and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? AzhwAr became pleased thinking “I who remained the most advanced in samsAris, without engaging in the means to attain the apt goal, and being engaged in evil aspects, and disregarding the goal, without even realising about my disastrous state, was accepted by emperumAn without any reason and without seeing any of my defects; further he announced my servitude towards his divine feet, turned me to think that I cannot exist without doing kainkaryam to him and created the greatness in me to reform others too; he became infatuated towards me, came to me and united with me”; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this principle explained in thiruvAimozhi 5.1kaiyAr chakkaraththu” starting with “kaiyArum chakkaraththOn“.

pAsuram

kaiyArum chakkaraththOn kAdhal inRikkE irukkap
poyyAgap pEsum puRan uraikku – meyyAna
pERRai upagariththa pEr aruLin thanmaidhanaip
pORRinanE mARan polindhu

Listen

word-by-word meanings

kAdhal inRikkE irukka – while there was no bhakthi (towards him)
poyyAgap pEsum – speaking deceptively
puRan uraikku – for the mischievous words
meyyAna pERRai – true result
upakariththa – to bestow
pEr aruLin thanmaidhanai – the state of his great mercy
mARan – AzhwAr
polindhu – in a shining manner
pORRinan – mercifully spoke

Simple Translation

AzhwAr mercifully spoke in a shining manner saying “While there was no bhakthi [from me towards emperumAn] and I was speaking deceptively with mischievous words, he has great mercy to bestow true result to me!”

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • kaiyArum – mAmunigaL is mercifully saying this based on “kaiyAr chakkaraththu en karu mANikkamE …  vidhi vAykkinRu kAppAr Ar” (I was repeatedly saying the deceptive words  “one who made me enjoy your attractive blue gem like divine form with the divine chakra which is well fixed in your divine hand!” like those who are devoted to higher aspect (bhagavAn) while that love is absent and was jumping from one thing to another in worldly pleasures and was engaged constantly in those pleasures. By your mercy, I have attained the benefit attained by those who have great love towards bhagavAn; who can avert this? Oh you who are very easily approachable and who favoured me! After your mercy leading to the benefit for me, can you withdraw? Alas! If you are capable, try to leave me) [1st pAsuram]
  • kaiyArum chakkaraththOn – One who has his divine hand filled with the divine chakra, having that itself as his identity.
  • kAdhal inRikkE irukka – While AzhwAr doesn’t have devotion towards bhagavAn.
  • kaiyArum chakkaraththOn kAdhal inRikkE irukkap poyyAgap pEsum puRan uraikku – While I should have love towards him as said in thiruvAimozhi 3.8.6pon nedum chakkaraththunnaiyE avivinRi Adharikkum enadhAviyE” (emperumAn has attractive sudharSana chakra which has unsurpassed enjoyment; my prANa (vital air) which is impatient due to the delay, will engage in you), instead of seeing such beauty and having pure love matching him, as I speak about and enjoy him with deceptive love, he sees that refuge-less state of mine and superficial friendship, for such words which are not coming from my heart. poyyAgap pEsum puRan urai means those which are said in “poyyE kaimmai sollip puRamE puRamE Adi” (speaking deceptively while that love is absent and was jumping from one thing to another in worldly pleasures) [1st pAsuram], “enRenRE sila kUththuch cholla” (spoke about different aspects with emotions) [2nd pAsuram], “puRamE sila mAyam solli” ( outside, just from the lips, saying some deceptive words) [3rd pAsuram], “unnaiyum vanjikkum kaLLamanam” (my mischievous mind will even cheat you) [3rd pAsuram].

For such, false lamentation done with superficial friendship,

  • meyyAna pERRai upagariththa – Bestowed the true result which is attained by those with true knowledge. The result of making me speak as explained in:
    • meyyE peRRozhindhEn (received the true result) [1st pAsuram]
    • ennAgi ozhindhAn (came to be in my care) [2nd pAsuram]
    • unnaik kaNdu koNdu uyndhozhindhEn (having seen and enjoyed you in front of me, I who was as good as asath (matter) have become uplifted) [3rd pAsuram]
    • muRai muRai Akkai pugalozhiyak kaNdu koNdozhindhEn (I have seen the lord in front of me, to eliminate the need for entering many different bodies) [5th pAsuram]
    • empirAnum en mElAnE (the benefactor who reformed me, ignoring my inferior nature, has also become intent on pursuing me) [7th pAsuram]
    • mAlAr vandhina nAL adiyEn manaththE manninAr (emperumAn, now approaching me in a friendly manner and only considering my subordinate relationship with him, became well settled in my heart) [8th pAsuram]
    • adiyEnodum AnAnE (united with me who is his belonging) [9th pAsuram]
    • AnAn ALudaiyAn … ennai muRRavum thAn AnAn (emperumAn, being very pleased came by himself without any expectation, gave his infinitely enjoyable mercy to capture me and united with me, manifesting and making me enjoy all his incarnations) [10th pAsuram]

When asked “What is the reason for bestowing me this?” AzhwAr says,

  • pEr aruL … – That is, as said in “vidhi vAykkinRu kAppArAr” (when your mercy is materialising, who can avert that?) [1st pAsuram], “emmA pAviyarkkum vidhi vAykkinRu vAykkum” (even for the greatest sinners, when the destiny in the form of unmissable mercy of bhagavAn sets out to bestow the result, it will certainly bring the result) [8th pAsuram].
  • pEr aruLin thanmai thanaip pORRinanE mARan polindhu –  That is, mAmunigaL is saying that AzhwAr out of great love, spoke about the nature of emperumAn’s overflowing mercy which can give the result of nithyasUris to nithyasamsAris, just as turning iron into gold. As said in SrI rAmAyaNa SlOkam sundhara kANdam 38.34 “krupayA paryapAlayath” (protected out of his mercy).

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 81 (Names 801 to 810)

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801) arka: (अर्कः)

bhagavAn was hailed by the asuras as a mahAthmA – a great soul. Thus, he is called ‘arka:’ – the praised one.

The root ‘arka’ (अर्क) means to praise.

Etymology: The one who is hailed by them (the asuras) as ‘the most righteous’ is called ‘arka:’.

अत्यन्त धार्मिक इति स्तुतस्तैः अर्क ईरितः |

802) vAjasani: (वाजसनिः)

By inducing the asuras into atheism, bhagavAn made them crave for mean materialistic pursuits such as food and other entertainments. Thus, he is called ‘vAjasani:’.

The roots ‘van’ (वन) and ‘shaN’ (षण) are used in the context of providing ‘enjoyment’ (सम्भक्तिः). These roots get the ‘in’ (इन्) adjunct, thereby resulting in this divine name.

It means the one who favours materialistic pursuits for the asuras.

Indeed, it is popularly seen in the budhdhist and jain mendicants (bhikshu`s), who have it as a vow to eat morsels of curd rice as the first thing in the morning.

Etymology: He, by whose influence the asuras crave for mean materialistic pursuits in this world – such as food and the like, is called ‘vAjasani:’. This eight lettered manthra grants food for the chanter.

अन्नादीन् ऐहिकानॆव यस्मान्मह्यां भजन्ति तॆ |
स वाजसनिरित्युक्तः वस्वर्णॊsन्नप्रदॊ मनुः ||

803) SrungI (शृङ्गी)

Furthermore, bhagavAn – as budhdha – held a bunch of peacock feathers in his hand as one of his distinct identifiers, in order to propound the ‘ahimsA vAdha’ or the argument of non-violence. Thus, he is called ‘SrungI’ – the distinctly identified one.

This is shown in the vishNu purANa thus: “…the one holding the feathers of a peacock…”

Etymology: He, who holds a bunch of peacock feathers in his hands in order to propound non-violence, is called ‘SrungI’.

करॆsस्ति पिञ्छिका यस्य शृङ्ग्यहिंसा विडम्बनात् |

804) jayantha: (जयन्तः)

bhagavAn won over the Asthikas (people who believe in the tenets of vEdhas) with his deceitful argument of propounding knowledge itself as AthmA and the whole world as a mirage. Thus, he is called ‘jayantha:’ – the victorious one.

The root ‘ji’ (जि) is used in the context of winning over. It gets the ‘jhach’ (झच्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: bhagavAn won over the Asthikas with his argument of illusion of the entire world and mere knowledge being the soul (AthmA), which is why he is called ‘jayantha:’.

सर्वप्रपञ्चमिथ्यात्व-संविदात्मत्ववादतः |
आस्तिक्यवादिनां जॆता जयन्त इति कथ्यतॆ ||

805) sarvavijjayI (सर्वविज्जयी)

How does bhagavAn win over the Asthikas with his deceitful arguments? It is because he is is ‘sarvavijjayI’. He basically won over the vEdhic exponents, and thus emerged victorious.

Etymology: He, by whom even the exponents of vEdhas were won over, is called ‘sarvavijjayI’.

यस्य जय्याश्च सर्वज्ञाः स उक्तः सर्वविज्जयी |

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सुवर्णबिन्दुरक्षॊभ्यः सर्ववागीश्वरॆश्वरः ।
महाह्रदॊ महागर्तॊ महाभूतॊ महानिधिः ॥ ८६ ॥
===============================

806) suvarNabindhu: (सुवर्णबिन्दुः)

With all of his powers, bhagavAn places such skilful argument with a flair of words that conceals even the actual wisdom of the true scholars. Thus, he is called ‘suvarNabindhu:’.

The root ‘bidhi’ (बिदि) is used in the context of ‘concealment’ (of knowledge).

Etymology: Since bhagavAn conceals the theist arguments by his own skilful arguments with flair of words, he is called ‘suvarNabindhu:’. This nine lettered manthra destroys all sins of the chanter.

आस्तिक्यतापलापॆन पटुभिः पदकाक्षरैः |
सुवर्णबिन्दुर्गदितॊ नवार्णः पापनाशनः ||

807) akshObhya: (अक्षॊभ्यः) (also seen in 999)

Since bhagavAn was very profound in his budhdha incarnation, he couldn’t be subjected to any transformations whatsoever by anyone. Thus, he is called ‘akshObhya:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn – with his profoundness – couldn’t be subjected to any transformations (couldn’t be won over or changed), he is called ‘akshObhya:’. This seven lettered manthra confers invincibility upon the chanter.

गम्भीराशयवत्त्वॆन ह्यविकार्यतया परैः |
अक्षॊभ्यः सप्तवर्णः स्यादक्षॊभ्यत्वप्रदायकः ||

808) sarvavAgISvarESvara: (सर्ववागीश्वरॆश्वरः)

As expounded till now, bhagavAn – as budhdha – was extremely skilful in debating with scholars. This is as hailed in the rAmAyaNa thus: “He is an expert who places very apt arguments systematically, akin to brihaspathi”

Therefore, he is called ‘sarvavAgISvarESvara:’ – the master of all debaters.

Etymology: He, who is an expert in debates and a very skilful orator, is called ‘sarvavrAgISvarESvara:’. This twelve lettered manthra confers oratory skills upon the chanter.

वादिवाग्मित्वयॊः पारं यॊ गच्छति स विश्रुतः |
रव्यर्णॊ वाक्प्रद इति सर्ववागीश्वरॆश्वरः ||

809) mahAhradha: (महाह्रदः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn is like a big lake – in which the sinners get drowned without being able to revive themselves, as shown by bhagavAn himself in the gIthA thus: “I shall put them in the inauspicious births of asuras”; whereas the virtuous souls are highly satisfied by taking dips repeatedly. Therefore, he is called ‘mahAhradha:’ – the great lake.

The root ‘hrAdha’ (ह्राद) means an indistinct sound / noise. Since a lake produces such an indistinct sound at all times, it is called ‘hradha:’ (ह्रदः) (after applying grammatical rules).

Etymology: He, who is in the form of a great lake – in which the sinners get drowned, and the virtuous souls rejoice by taking dips – is called ‘mahAhradha:’.

मज्जन्ति पापाः तृप्यन्ति पुण्या इति महाह्रदः |

810) mahAgartha: (महागर्तः)

For the sinners who either do not accept vEdhas as the source of knowledge, or for those who misinterpret the vEdhic verses, bhagavAn has dug a pit in the form of the ‘naraka’s such as raurava, etc (27 narakas). Thus, he is called ‘mahAgartha:’ – the huge pit.

bhagavAn declares this in bhagavath gIthA thus: “Oh arjuna, those cynics who do not trust the words of vEdhas (the dharmas) shall not attain me. Instead, they shall cycle in this wheel of samsAra”.

Etymology:  Owing to their sinful acts, many deep pits are dug by bhagavAn for the sake of ignorant souls – in the form of raurava and other narakas, which is why he is called ‘mahAgartha:’.

पापाक्रान्ततया नष्टप्रज्ञानां रौरवादयः |
गर्ता यस्मात् महागर्तः सः स्मृतॊ वसुवर्णकः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 40 – onRumilaith thEvu

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 4.10

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of explaining emperumAn’s parathvam (supremacy) in archAvathAram (deity form) which facilitates the surrender of samsAris (materialistic people), and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? In the previous decad “naNNAdhAr“, AzhwAr set out to reform those who were even abandoned by ISvara as “impossible to be reformed”; he eliminated the faith [of samsAris] in dhEvathAntharams (other dhEvathAs) which are the seeds for bondage in samsAram, using a) the phrases from vEdhAntham which is most distinguished from other sources of knowledge, which is eternal and unblemished, b) santhamSa nyAyams (a type of logic), c) emperumAn’s activities such as consuming of the universe; he firmly instructed that “nArAyaNan who is Sriya:pathi (consort of SrI mahAlakshmi) is the cause of the universe”; further, he said that such sarvESvaran who is greater than all, is present in thirunagari to prove that he is not difficult to attain, and surrender unto him; in this manner AzhwAr engaged in parOpadhEsam (instructing others); mAmunigaL mercifully explains this principle explained in thiruvAimozhi 4.10 “onRum dhEvum” starting with “onRumilaith thEvu“.

pAsuram

onRum ilaith thEvu ivvulagam padaiththa mAl
anRiyena Arum aRiyavE – nanRAga
mUdhaliththup pEsiyaruL moymmagizhOn thAL thozhavE
kAdhalikkum ennudaiya kai

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word-by-word meanings

ivvulagam padaiththa – one who created these worlds
mAl anRi – other than sarvESvaran
dhEvu onRum ilai ena – saying that there is no other dheyvam
Arum aRiya – to be understood by all
nanRAga mUdaliththu – proving fully
pEsi aruL – mercifully spoke
moy magizhOn – glorious vakuLAbharaNa (AzhwAr), his
thAL thozhavE – only to perform anjali (joined palms) towards the divine feet
ennudaiya kai – my hands
kAdhalikkum – will desire

Simple Translation

My hands will only desire to perform anjali towards the divine feet of the glorious vakuLAbharaNa who mercifully spoke, to be understood by all, proving fully, saying “there is no other dheyvam than sarvESvaran who created these worlds”.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • onRum ilaith thEvu … – (ivvulagam padaiththa mAl anRi dhEvu onRum ilai ena) Other than sarvESvaran who is the creator of all/everything, there is none among the created, who has the glory acquired due to being the cause. That is, mAmunigaL is saying this based on the phrases in this decad which highlight emperumAn being the cause as seen in
    • onRum dhEvum … nAnmugan thannodu dhEvar ulagOduyir padaiththAn … AdhippirAn niRka maRRaith theyvam nAdudhirE (Why are you seeking other dhEvathAs while AdhippirAn who created all the dhEvathAs starting with brahmA, and other entities, is standing here?) [1st pAsuram]
    • nAdi nIr vaNangum dheyvamum ummaiyum mun padaiththAn vIdil sIr pugazh AdhippirAn (AdhippirAn, the first benefactor who created the dhEvathAs you determine [to be worshippable] and surrender unto, and you as well, during the creation, who is having eternal auspicious qualities) [2nd pAsuram]
  • Arum aRiyavE nanRAga mUdhaliththup pEsi aruL – That is – to be known even by illiterate women, children; to be known by thArA, angadha et al as said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 24.31 “thvamapramEyaScha” (thArA says to SrI rAma – you cannot be measured even by vEdham) and SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 114.15 “thamasa: paramO dhAthA SankachakragadhAdhara:” (maNdOdhari, the wife of rAvaNa says about SrI rAma – the lord of SrIvaikuNtam which is beyond the material realm, who holds conch, disc and maze); Azhwar highlighted the following aspects:
    • dependence of other dhEvathAs on emperumAn for their gyAnam, Sakthi etc in
      • parandha dheyvamum … kaNdum theLiyagilleer (Even after seeing clearly emperumAn creating many different dhEvathAs and their many different vast worlds, back then consuming all the worlds immediately (during deluge) concealing them from the deluge, spitting them out (after the deluge), owning them up fully and rescuing them, you are unable to have clarity) [3rd pAsuram]
      • pEsa ninRa sivanukkum … kabAla nanmOkkaththuk kaNdu koNmin (sarvESvaran (SrIman nArAyaNan) is the only lord for rudhra who is spoken [as lord in some statements], brahmA and other dhEvathAs; please see for yourself as revealed in mahAbhAratham, how the skull was eliminated from rudhra’s hands) [4th pAsuram]
      • ilingaththitta purANaththIrum … polindhu ninRa piran kaNdIr (Oh you who are kudhrushtis due to being faithful to thAmasa (mode of ignorance) purANams! Oh jainas! Oh baudhdhas! Oh you vaiSEshikas, who are debating through dry arguments! emperumAn is promoting those different dhEvathAs, who you have considered as goal, to be at his (emperumAn‘s) disposal and standing in thirunagari where fresh paddy is available abundantly and the crops are appearing to be swaying like a chAmara (a fan made with fur) with completeness, is sarvESvaran himself) [5th pAsuram]
      • pORRi maRROr dheyvam … ARRavallavan mAyam kaNdIr (The reason for keeping you all away from him to praise and serve another dhEvathA in this manner and make you remain faithful towards them is that if everyone attained mOksham (liberation) of serving bhagavAn, the injunctions/order of the world will be lost. The reason for this is – emperumAn who is residing in AzhwArthirunagari where fresh paddy and lotus flowers grow nicely in marshes, who is greatly capable and making others enjoy the results of their deeds – such emperumAn’s relation with prakruthi (material realm) which is said as “mAyA”) [6th pAsuram]
      • Odi Odip pala piRappum piRandhu … palpadikAl vazhiyERik kaNdIr (Singing and dancing another dhEvathA who cannot be named, worshipping him in many different ways, taking shelter of him more and more through the SAsthram, running/moving around taking different births, and having seen all these in front of you) [7th pAsuram]
      • pukkadaimaiyinAl … nakkapirAnum anRuyyakkoNdadhu nArAyaNan aruLE (rudhra, the benefactor, who is known as nagna, due to being dhigambara, during praLaya, rescued mArkaNdEya who is famously known through purANams and entered by servitude and seen him in front, and made mArkaNdEya a devotee of bhagavAn for his upliftment by the mercy of nArAyaNa) [8th pAsuram]
      • viLAmbum ARu samayamum … uLangoL gyAnaththu vaimin (emperumAn, the great benefactor who is the cause of all, who is having the nature where his matters are difficult to see and determine by the collective group of six schools of philosophy which reject vEdham and are being essence just by words [no real stuff] and other kudhrushti philosophies. If you want to uplift yourself, place AzhwArthirunagari, the perfectly enjoyable abode of such emperumAn which is surrounded by attractive and invigorating water bodies, in your internal knowledge) [9th pAsuram]
      • uRuvadhAvadhu … nIL kudakkUththanukku AtcheyvadhE (emperumAn is standing in such a manner that all categories of dhEvathAs, all worlds, other chith (sentient beings) and achith (insentient entities) and all of these remain in his svarUpam, considering them to be distinguished forms as comparable to his divine/special forms, without losing his identity as well as his characteristics; he is also standing in thirukkurugUr which has fertile lands having nicely growing fresh paddy, sugarcane etc; to serve such emperumAn who is having great enjoyability forever as vAmana, assuming the form of brahmachAri and as krishNa who performed kudak kUththu, is the purushArtham (goa) that is destiny and apt) [10th pAsuram]
    • the thamO guNam orientation of bAhya and kudhrushti matha followers in ilingaththu [5th] pAsuram and viLambum [9th] pAsuram.
    • how detachment [in materialistic aspects] will be followed by ruchi for surrendering towards bhagavAn will occur in “Odi .. kaNdIr” [7th pAsuram], “kaNdum theLiyagilleer” [3rd pAsuram], “aRindhOdumin” [6th pAsuram], “AtcheyvadhE … uRuvadhAvdhu” [10th pAsuram].
  • mUdhaliththup pEsi aruL moym magizhOn – That is, AzhwAr clearly explained to others that emperumAn’s supremacy in archAvathAram, to the extent that it need not be explained any further ever, is to reform the chEthanas (sentient beings) as in “thirukkurugUr adhanuL ninRa AdhippirAn” (AdhippirAn who is standing in thirukkurugUr) [1st pAsuram], “adhanuL paran” (supreme lord in there) [3rd pAsuram], “adhanuiL ISan” (supreme lord in there) [4th pAsuram], “adhanuL polindhu ninRa pirAn” (polindhu ninRa pirAn in there) [5th pAsuram], “adhanuL Adu put kodi mUrththi” (one who has the victorious garuda flag, in there) [7th pAsuram]; on seeing that, many became reformed, having their doubts on supremacy cleared, and seeing that AzhwAr wore this beautiful divine magizha garland which is shining and that became the identity for AzhwAr as in magizhOn. mAmunigaL is following what is said by AzhwAr himself in “nAtkamazh magizh mAlai mArbinan mARan satakOpan” (AzhwAr who is having the divine name “SatakOpa” and the family name “mARan”, who is having divine and very freshly fragrant magizha garland on his chest).
  • mUdhaliththup pEsi aruL moym magizhOn thAL thozhavE kAdhalikkum ennudaiya kai – Since AzhwAr mercifully brings people to the divine feet of emperumAn, and since he is blissful due to being immersed in nectarean, cool pond of bhagavath kainkaryam, and is having his chest decorated with ultimately fragrant saffron garland, my hands are always worshipping with devotion, his divine feet as said in sthOthra rathnam 5 “SrImath thadhangriyugaLam praNamAmi mUrdhnA” (I worship and bow down with my head at the two divine feet of AzhWAr who is having SrIvaishNavaSrI). kAdhalikkai – being enthusiastic. Just as AzhwAr’s senses became engaged in emperumAn as said in “mudiyAnEyil karaNangaL” [thiruvAimozhi 3.8mudiyAnE” decad], mAmunigaL is saying that his senses became infatuated with kurugUr nambi’s [AzhwAr’s] glorious divine feet. With this, it is said that it is sufficient to surrender unto the divine feet of nammAzhwAr who instructs and uplifts others.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 80 (Names 791 to 800)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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791) thanthuvardhana: (तन्तुवर्धनः)

Thus, bhagavAn extends the bondage in this samsAra to the asuras with the thread in the form of sinful tastes (liking for materialistic pursuits). Thus, he is called ‘thanthuvardhana:’.

bhagavAn himself says thus in bhagavath gIthA: “Oh arjuna, I push those heinous ignorant souls who tread the evil paths in samsAra”

“The asuras have been made to forsake the path of vEdhas due to ignorance by me. They in turn would influence other asuras to follow them. They would further attract more asuras to forsake vEdhic path. They in turn influence more, and so on.” (This continues as a chain and all asuras shall eventually be removed from the path of vEdhas so that they are destroyed)

Etymology: He, who weaves a web named ‘samsAra’ (meaning, extends the bondage in samsAra) with the thread called ‘sinful tastes’ (inclination for materialism), is called ‘thanthuvardhana:’.

अंशुभिः पापरुचिभिः तन्तुं संसारनामकम् |
सन्तनॊति सदा यः सस्तन्तुवर्धन ईरितः ||

792) indhrakarmA (इन्द्रकर्मा)

The vishNu purANa hails thus: “All the dhEvas prostrated before bhagavAn and with abject surrender pleaded him to protect them from the dhaithyas (asuras)”

Since indhra and other dhEvas surrendered to bhagavAn, which further led bhagavAn to act as seen here (taking the incarnation of budhdha, et al), he is called ‘indhrakarmA’ – the one who acts for indhra.

Etymology: He, who possesses actions of destroying the asuras due to being pleaded by indhra and other dhEvas, is called ‘indhrakarmA’. This eight syllable manthra is one of the best manthras.

प्रपन्नॆन्द्राद्यर्थतया दैत्यसंहाररूपकम् |
कर्म यस्यास्तीन्द्रकर्मा सॊsष्टार्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

793) mahAkarmA (महाकर्मा) (also seen in 677)

Thus, bhagavAn’s deceitful outlooks are just in order to protect his devotees who have surrendered unto him, and in order to punish the evil souls. Thus, it only shows his extreme compassion towards his devotees. In this way, every action of bhagavAn stands justified and is very much logical. Therefore, he is called ‘mahAkarmA’ – the one with great (justified) actions.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn thus indulges only in lawful actions (abiding by scriptures), he is called ‘mahAkarmA’.

एवं न्यायप्रवृत्तत्वात् महाकर्मॆति कथ्यतॆ |

794) kruthakarmA (कृतकर्मा)

In order to fool the asuras into his trap, bhagavAn also started practicing what he preached (going astray from vEdhic path). Therefore, he is called ‘kruthakarmA’ – the one who acted as he spoke.

Etymology: He who practiced the acts of asuras is called ‘kruthakarmA’.

स्वानुष्ठित तदाचारः कृतकर्मॆति कथ्यतॆ |

795) kruthAgama: (कृतागमः) (also seen in 661)

Furthermore, in order to firmly establish his words, he even timely created many scriptures in support of his preaching in budhdha, arhatha (jaina) and other incarnations. Thus, he is called ‘kruthAgama:’ – the one who created scriptural doctrines.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn created all budhdhist and other scriptures (baudhdha, jaina, etc), he is called ‘kruthAgama:’.

कृतबुद्धाद्यागमत्वात् कृतागम उदाहृतः |

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उद्भवः सुन्दरः सुन्दॊ रत्ननाभः सुलॊचनः ।
अर्कॊ वाजसनिः शृङ्गी जयन्तः सर्वविज्जयी ॥ ८५ ॥
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796) udhbhava: (उद्भवः) (also seen in 375)

Since bhagavAn as budhdha pretended to preach the path of salvation, he also appeared as having overcome the samsAra. Thus, he is called ‘udhbhava:’.

Etymology: In pretending to preach the path of mOksha, bhagavAn appeared as a one who has transcended the bonds of samsAra. Thus, he is called ‘udhbhava:’. This seven lettered manthra destroys all sins of the chanter.

मॊक्षॊपदॆशनटनात् भवादुद्गतवत् स्थितः |
उद्भवः स तु विज्ञॆयः सप्तार्णः पापनाशकः ||

797) sundhara: (सुन्दरः)

bhagavAn’s form was also very pleasing to the eyes of asuras. Hence, he is called ‘sundhara:’.

Etymology: He is called ‘sundhara:’, who appeared very beautiful to the asuras.

सः स्यात् सुन्दर उद्दिष्टस्तॆषां दृष्टिमनॊहरः |

798) sundha: (सुन्दः)

With such beautiful form, bhagavAn melted the hearts of asuras. Thus, he is called ‘sundha:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn completely melts the hearts of asuras by his transcendental beauty, he is called ‘sundha:’.

विश्वातिशायि सौभाग्यशालित्वात् सॊनत्ति यत् |
सुष्ठु चॆतः क्लॆदयति रक्षसां सुन्द ईरितः ||

799) rathnanAbha: (रत्ननाभः)

bhagavAn sported a huge belly with a charming navel, which indicated his wisdom (NOTE: a pot belly is said to indicate high wisdom). Thus, he is called ‘rathnanAbha:’.

Etymology: He is called ‘rathnanAbha:’, who sports a huge belly with a charming and prominent navel that showed off his wisdom. This manthra confers all auspicious fruits upon the chanter.

स रत्ननाभ इत्युक्तः यः पाण्डित्यविडम्बनात्  |
मृष्टॊदरव्यक्तरम्यनाभिः सत्फलदो मनुः ||

800) sulOchana: (सुलॊचनः)

Complimenting his beautiful form was the beauty of his bewitching eyes. Thus, he is called ‘sulOchana:’ – the one with beautiful eyes.

The scriptures hail the form of budhdha thus:

  • “Thereafter, budhdha (called ‘mAyAmOha’ in vishNu purANa) – all naked and shaven, went before the asuras with a bunch of peacock feathers in hand”
  • “Later, he (mAyAmOha) wore a red garment, and his vision was invincible”, etc.

Etymology: The one who possessed bewitchingly beautiful eyes is called ‘sulOchana:’.

सुलॊचन इति प्रॊक्तॊ दृङ्‌मायामॊहितॆक्षणः |

Thus ends the eighth centum (ashtama shatakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hArItha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnga miSra (kUraththAzhwan) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The eighth centum is completed.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 39 – naNNAdhu mAladiyai

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 4.9

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of showing disgust on seeing the disastrous state of samsAris (materialistic people) and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? Even after developing detachment towards AthmA and belongings of AthmA, they did not leave AzhwAr and hence his pain in separation increased greatly. He started looking at the samsAris to be companions during such loss and observed that they were indifferent towards bhagavath vishayam. They were suffering while considering the worldly gain and loss as their attainment of result and lack of it; being unable to bear that, he tells sarvESvaran “Oh benefactor! While you the protector are existing, how can they suffer like this?” and became distressed. He tells emperumAn “either you should eliminate their suffering or mercifully finish me who cannot bear seeing their suffering”. emperumAn responds saying “Since they have no desire [for this], I am equally distressed as you”; AzhwAr said “In that case, you should rescue me from amidst them”. emperumAn manifested his presence along with pirAtti in paramapadham, to eliminate his anguish. Seeing that AzhwAr became contented; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this principle explained in thiruvAimozhi 4.9naNNAdhAr muRuvalippa” starting with “naNNAdhu mAladiyai“.

pAsuram

naNNAdhu mAladiyai nAnilaththE valvinaiyAl
eNNArAth thunbamuRum ivvuyirgaL thaNNimaiyaik
kaNdirukka mAttAmal kaN kalangu mARanaruL
uNdu namakkuRRa thuNai onRu

Listen

word-by-word meanings

mAl adiyai – divine feet of emperumAn
naNNAdhu – without surrendering
nAnilaththE – on this earth
val vinaiyAl – due to cruel sins
eN ArAth thunbam uRum – experiencing endless sorrow
ivvuyirgaL – these AthmAs, their
thaNNimaiyai – lowliness
kaNdu irukka mAttAmal – being unable to remain relaxed after seeing
kaN kalangum – mercifully having his divine eyes shed tears (and divine heart becoming worried)
mARan – AzhwAr’s
aruL – mercy
namakku uRRa thuNai onRu uNdu – remains as our apt companion.

Simple Translation

AzhwAr seeing, on this earth, the lowliness of these AthmAs who are experiencing endless sorrow due to cruel sins, without surrendering at the divine feet of emperumAn, becomes unable to remain relaxed, is mercifully having his divine eyes shed tears; such AzhwAr’s mercy remains as our apt companion.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • naNNAdhu mAl adiyai – Without surrendering at the divine feet of sarvESvaran who is greatly affectionate towards his devotees. mAmunigaL says that AzhwAr is speaking with disgust after finding no companion amidst samsAris to share his grief even after developing detachment in AthmA and its belongings, saying “nAnilaththE valvinaiyAl …“.
  • nAnilaththE – On four types of earth. That is, emperumAn remains easily approachable in kuRinji (hilly areas) such as thirumalai etc, mullai (forest areas) such as thirukkOshtiyUr, thirumOgUr etc, marudham (urban areas) such as kOyil (SrIrangam), perumAL kOyil (kAnchIpuram) etc and neydhal (seashore areas) such as thiruvallikkENi, thiruppullANi, thiruvallavAzh, thiruvaNvaNdUr etc; instead of surrendering at his divine feet, considering that saulabhyam.
  • nAnilaththE val vinaiyAl eN ArAth thunbam uRum ivvyirgaL – Instead of surrendering to bhagavAn on this distinguished earth. As said in periya thiruvandhAdhi 44mAlaiththAm vAzhththAdhiruppar idhuvanREmElaiththAm seyyum vinai” (Isn’t it due to their sins that the samsAris don’t praise sarvESvaran since time immemorial?) these bound souls are going through extreme, countless suffering due to their strong sins. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 105.24 “nadhandhyuthitha AdhithyE nadhanthyasthamithEravau | AthmanO na avabudhyanthE manushyAjIvithakshayam ||” (People are delighted when the sun has risen and also when the day ends. But they are not able to perceive the waning in their life-span).
  • thaNNimaiyaik kaNdirukka mAttAmal – Being unable to bear on seeing their disastrous state. That is, as highlighted in many pAsurams as in,
    • eNNArAth thuyar viLaikkum ivai enna ulagiyaRkai (How strange are these worldly aspects which cause innumerable sufferings?) [1st pAsuram]
    • EmArik kidandhalaRRum ivai enna ulagiyaRkai (How strange are these worldly aspects which are causing us to stay without any break and cry?) [2nd pAsuram]
    • kaNdARREn ulagiyaRkai (I am unable to see and bear this world) [3rd pAsuram]
    • thamamUdum ivai enna ulagiyaRkai ( How sad are worldly incidents which make one to be consumed by the darkness of ignorance?) [4th pAsuram]
    • aRap poruLai aRindhOrAr ivai enna ulagiyaRkai? (How sad are these worldly situations where those who don’t know and determine that dharma is the first goal …) [6th pAsuram]
    • kodu ulagam kAttElE (Hide this cruel world from my eyes) [7th pAsuram]. etc
  • kaN kalangum mARan – AzhwAr’s divine eyes become wet and his divine heart becomes shaken. That is, AzhwAr who became convinced as said in “kUttariya thiruvadikkaL kUttinai” (united me with your divine feet which are difficult to attain) [9th pAsuram] and “adaindhEn un thiruvadiyE” (attained your divine feet) [10th pAsuram], after mercifully revealing his sorrows, as said in ,
    • kUyE koL adiyEnaik kodu ulagam kAttElE (mercifully call and accept me who is a servitor (of yours) and hide the cruel world from me) [7th pAsuram]
    • vAngenai (mercifully acknowledge me) [5th pAsuram]
    • kUttariya thiruvadikkaL engyAnRu kUttudhiyE? (When will you unite me with your divine feet which are difficult to attain?) [8th pAsuram]
  • aruL uNdu namakku uRRa thuNai onRu – Mercy of such AzhwAr who will argue with ISvara for those samsAris who were abandoned by ISvara himself, will remain as our confidential protection. We need not search for any other protection as AzhwAr’s mercy itself will remain our protection. kaNNinuN chiRuth thAmbu 8aruL koNdu Ayiram inthamizh pAdinAn aruL kaNdIr ivvulaginil mikkadhE” ( nammAzhwAr, out of great mercy, compiled the thousand pAsurams of thiruvAimozhi. This mercy of nammAzhwAr is very great in this world).

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 38 – ERu thiruvudaiya

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 4.8

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of revealing his detachment in AthmA and AthmA’s belongings which are not existing for emperumAn’s sake, as emperumAn is not helping in such sorrowful state and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? Even after calling out in the previous decad “seelam illAch chiRiyan“, emperumAn did not arrive and show his face; AzhwAr thought “sarvESvaran who is the apt lord, who is simple, and is able to eliminate the hurdles, is not arriving and showing his face; this is because he does not want me; there is no use with my AthmA and AthmA’s belongings” and revealed his detachment in them, through the merciful words of a consort of emperumAn; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this principle explained in thiruvAimozhi 4.8ERALum iRaiyOnum” starting with “ERu thiruvudaiya Isan ugappukku“.

pAsuram

ERu thiruvudaiya Isan ugappukku
vERupadil ennudaimai mikka uyir – thERungAl
enRanakkum vENdAvenumARan thALai nenjE
nandhamakkup pERAga naNNu

Listen

word-by-word meanings

ERu thiru udaiya – one on whose divine chest  SrI mahAlakshmi climbed
Isan – sarvESvaran
ugappukku vERupadil – if not acceptable for his divine heart
en udaimai – my ornaments etc
mikka uyir – the AthmA which is greater than those
thERungAl – when analysed
en thanakkum vENdA enum – one who said with disgust “even I don’t need them”
mARan – AzhwAr’s
thALai – divine feet
nenjE – Oh heart!
nandhamakku – for us
pERu Aga naNNu – seek as the ultimate benefit.

Simple Translation

AzhwAr said with disgust “If my ornaments etc and the AthmA which is greater than those belongings are not accepted for the divine heart of sarvESvaran on whose divine chest SrI mahAlakshmi climbed, when analysed, even I don’t need them”. Oh heart! Seek such AzhwAr’s divine feet as the ultimate benefit for us.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • ERu thiruvudaiya Isan – As pirAtti is EkAyanA (dependent on emperumAn alone) she said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 26.5 “nahimEjIvithEnArthO naivArthair na cha bhUshaNai: | vasanthyA rAkshasImadhyE vinA rAmam mahAratham” (For me who is separated from SrI rAma, the mahAratha (the great charioteer), and living amidst the demoniac ladies, there is no use of my life; no use of any objects; no use of any ornaments), that she was not interested in aspects which are not desired by emperumAn; since AzhwAr is mithunAyanar (dependent on pirAtti and emperumAn), he says as in “thirumagaLum kURALum thani udamban” (one who gives his divine body to SrI mahAlakshmi also) [1st pAsuram], “malar mAdhar uRai mArban” (one who has SrI mahAlakshmi residing in his divine chest) [2nd pAsuram] and “pada nAgaNaikkidandha paruvaraiththOL parampurudan” (emperumAn who rests on the serpent bed, who is having mountain like huge shoulders, who is the supreme lord) [3rd pAsuram]; AzhwAr rejects his complexion etc and the self itself, which are outside the desire of sarvESvara, who is Sriya:pathi (consort of SrI mahAlakshmi). By ERu thiruvudaiya Isan – emperumAn’s lordship acquired by being the consort of SrI mahAlakshmi is explained.
  • ERu thiru – As said in SrI vishNu purANam 1-9-105 says “paSyathAm sarvadhEvAnAm yayau vakshasthalam harE: ” (even as the celestial entities were watching, SrI mahAlakshmi attained the divine chest of emperumAn), he is ArUdaSrIka (on whom SrI mahAlakshmi climbed).

Such emperumAn’s,

  • ugappukku vERupadil – That is, instead of being like sandalwood paste, flower, betel leaves/nuts which exist fully at his disposal for his pleasure, if anything remains with self interest. This is what is explained in sthOthra rathnam 57thava SEshathvavibhavAth
    bahirbhUtham” (outside the wealth of being surrendered to you).
  • en udaimai – That is, my AthmA and belongings as said in
    • maNi mAmai (radiant complexion) [1st pAsuram]
    • mada nenjAl (humble heart) [2nd pAsuram]
    • niRaivinAl (completeness in my feminine nature) [3rd pAsuram]
    • thaLir niRaththAl (sprout like reddish complexion) [4th pAsuram]
    • aRivinAl (knowledge) [5th pAsuram]
    • kiLarOliyAl (rising radiance) [6th pAsuram]
    • vari vaLaiyAl (beautiful bangles) [7th pAsuram]
    • mEgalaiyAl (garments) [8th pAsuram]
    • udambinAl (body) [9th pAsuram]
  • mikka uyir – The AthmA which is more distinguished than the aforementioned entities, being an embodiment of knowledge and bliss, being subservient to bhagavAn, being desirable to emperumAn like the bosoms of SrI mahAlakshmi and like SrI kausthuba jewel [which is on emperumAn’s chest].
  • thERungAl – As one clearly understands the state of being desired by bhagavAn only. As one analyses and understands as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.4.9nAraNan than vAdAdha malar adik kIzh” (unto the fresh lotus feet of nArAyaNa), thiruvAimozhi 2.9.4thanakkEyAga enaikkoLLum IdhE” (to be fully dependent on him) and thiruvAimozhi 10.3.9undhan thiruvuLLam idarkedundhORum” (whenever your divine mind is pleased), one should exist for emperumAn’s sake only; if it remains otherwise, that is, if there is self-interest.
  • en thanakkum vENdA – Not needed for me who is a parathanthran (dependent).
  • enum mARan thALai nenjE nandhamakkup pERAga naNNu – Oh heart! Consider the divine feet of the AzhwAr who says this, as the ultimate benefit. There is no such restriction for us, just desire for AzhwAr’s divine feet and reach them.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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