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thiruvAimozhi – 10.4.1 – sArvE thavaneRikku

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Full series >> Tenth Centum >> Fourth decad

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram, AzhwAr says “The divine feet of emperumAn who owns ubhaya vibhUthi (spiritual and material realm), who is easily approachable for his devotees,  can be attained through bhakthi yOgam”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.


sArvE thava neRikkuth thAmOdharan thALgaL
kAr mEga vaNNan kamala nayanaththan
nIr vAnam maN eri kAlAy ninRa nEmiyAn
pEr vAnavargaL pidhaRRum perumaiyanE


Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

kAr mEgam – dark like a black cloud
vaNNan – having form

(contrasting it)
kamalam – like a lotus
nayanaththan – having divine eyes

(not just the physical beauty)
nIr vAnam maN eri kAl Ay ninRa – being the antharAthmA of the whole universe which is highlighted by the pancha bhUthams (the five elements), having the whole universe as prakAra (attribute)
nEmiyAn – having thiruvAzhi (divine chakra) which is the tool for protection
pEr – divine names for such beauty, aptness and protection
vAnavargaL – residents of paramapadham
pidhaRRum – to recite in no particular order, due to overwhelming joy
perumaiyan – one who has greatness

(being the lord of both realms, in this manner)
dhAmodharan – known as dhAmodharan for being obedient towards the devotees (due to being bound by his mother after being caught in stealing butter as said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.1maththuRu kadai veNNey kaLavinil uravidai AppuNdu eththiRam“)
thALgaL – divine feet
thava neRikku – bhakthi mArgam which is popularly highlighted in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.5 as “vaNakkudaith thavaneRi”
sArvE – will be the attainable goal.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn who is having a dark form like a black cloud, who is having lotus like divine eyes, is the antharAthmA of the whole universe which is highlighted by the five elements, having the whole universe as attribute; he is having divine chakra which is the tool for protection; he has greatness to be praised by the residents of paramapadham who recite his divine names in no particular order, due to overwhelming joy, which highlight such beauty, aptness and protection; the attainable goal for bhakthi mArgam which is popularly highlighted in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.5 as “vaNakkudaith thavaneRi”, is reaching the divine feet of the one who is known as dhAmodharan for being obedient towards the devotees.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

[This is based on the first explanation highlighted in the pravESam of this decad, where this decad is seen in the context of (sAdhya) bhakthi yOgam]

  • sArvE thava neRikkuth thAmOdharan thALgaL – “thavaneRikku – sArvE” – AzhwAr is saying that the divine feet of emperumAn, who is hailed in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.1 as “paththudai adiyavarkku eLiyavan” (he is easily approachable for devotees who have bhakthi) and in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.2 as “eLivarum iyalvinan” (having natural simplicity), are the goal. sArvu – prApyam (goal).
  • thava neRikku – There, AzhwAr said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.5vaNakkudaith thavaneRi” (bhakthi mArgam which includes worshipping etc) for bhakthi mArgam; he is reiterating it; would “thavaneRi” indicate bhakthi? bhakthi would have “nama:” (worshipping) as a limb as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 9.14namasyanthaScha mAm” (bowing down to me); when the devotee performs obeisances to emperumAn, emperumAn would think “he has put in great efforts” and would consider it as physical hardship – it is based on emperumAn’s opinion that bhakthi is explained as thava neRi. Alternatively – as said in muNdaka upanishath “yasya gyAnamayam thapa:” (this thapas which is in the form of abundant knowledge), since bhakthi is explained as the matured form of gyAna, bhakthi can be said as thapas.
  • dhAmOdharan thALgaL – AzhwAr is reiterating what was said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.1uralinOdu iNaindhirundhu Engiya eLivu” (the simplicity of staying together with the mortar tirelessly and crying out in fear). Having the divine name which reflects his being bound by mother yaSOdhA et al and acquiring the scar; only those who hold on to his divine feet will like him, after he was being bound by mother yaSOdhA et al.

When asked “Who is being very easily approachable?” AzhwAr says “The one who is having distinguished form and who is the owner of ubhaya vibhUthi!”

  • kAr mEga vaNNan – One who has a rejuvenating form which resembles a black cloud which is filled with water. The devotee need not put in any effort for bhakthi. emperumAn is having such an apt form, where he causes the ruchi (taste) in the devotee and subsequently when the bhakthi matures, he remains the goal. His form is said as in thiruvAimozhi 5.3.4kAdhal kadal puraiya viLaiviththa kAr amar mEni” (Our obedient krishNa, who is having cloud like divine form, caused ocean like devotion). Like a rainy season cloud, or a black cloud. AzhwAr is reiterating what is said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.10puyaRkaru niRaththanan” (having blackish hue like that of a black cloud).
  • kamala nayanaththan – His divine eyes will reveal his internal qualities. All his mercy is seen through his eyes. One who has divine eyes which highlight his vAthsalyam (motherly love).

Not only is his beauty attractive, even his supremacy makes one desire for him.

  • nIr vAnam … – AzhwAr is speaking about emperumAn’s svarUpa vailakshaNyam (distinguished nature) on top of his vigraha vailakshaNyam (distinguished physical beauty). AzhwAr is concluding what is said in thiruvAimozhi 1.3.3yAvaiyum yAvarum thAnAm amaivudai nAraNan” (SrIman nArAyaNan who sustains all chEthanas (sentient beings) and achEthanas (insentient objects)). By explaining the five great elements starting with earth, AzhwAr is also considering the effects of such elements such as dhEva (celestials) et al; with this, AzhwAr is speaking about leelA vibhUthi (material realm).
  • nEmiyAn – AzhwAr is speaking about emperumAn’s presence in nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm) where he remains with divine chakra in his hand.
  • pEr vAnavargaL – [pEr vAnavargaL – great residents of paramapadham] AzhwAr is speaking about the great personalities in paramapadham instead of those dhEvas who are created here in samsAra; one who has the greatness of being praised by such nithyasUris. Alternatively, it can also be read as “vAnavargaL – pEr – pidhaRRum perumaiyan” (one whose name is praised by the residents of paramapadham). Those who have taste here, will also praise him; those who are already present in paramapadham, enjoying him fully, will also praise him. One who is having black cloud like form, who has lotus eyes, who is the one with chakra and is having water, ether, earth, fire and air as his prakAra, who is praised by the great residents of paramapadham; the divine feet of such dhAmOdhara are the goal of bhakthi mArgam; this is certain.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 61 (Names 601 to 610)

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<< Part 60

601) vrushabhAksha: (वृषभाक्षः)

bhagavAn maintains the cycle of fruits of karma through dharma. Thus, he is called ‘vrushabhAksha:’. The one who bestows (rains) fruits of karma is called ‘vrushabha:’. He is verily the dharma, and acts as the pivot to this wheel of samsAra. Thus, he is himself called ‘vrushabhAksha:’.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn, who is verily the form of dharma, acts as the pivot to this wheel of samsAra, he is called ‘vrushabhAksha:’.

यतॊsक्षॊ वृषभॊ धर्मॊ वृषभाक्षः स उच्यतॆ |

602) vrushapriya: (वृषप्रियः)

In this way (as explained in these previous divine names), bhagavAn holds both pravruththi dharma (that which enhances experiences in samsAra) as well as nivruththi dharma (that which instigates liberation from this samsAra) close to his heart.

Thus, he is called ‘vrushapriya:’ – the one who likes dharmas.

Although pravruththi dharma contains acts that bind a soul in this samsAra, yet it is called ‘dharma’ only because bhagavAn holds it close to his heart. Similarly the nivruththi dharma is also ‘dharma’ or righteous.

Even the scriptural injunctions clearly indicate that both of these are likeable to bhagavAn.

It is shown thus in the brahma sUthras by bhagavan vEdhavyAsa: “Fruits are begotten from bhagavAn, for it is proven so”

dhramidAchArya has also reinforced this further by saying “Individual souls who desire of certain outcomes act accordingly and only please bhagavAn. That bhagavAn, who is pleased with such righteous actions, bestows the desired fruits upon the seekers. Even the scriptures hail thus”

Thus, the schools of thought that propound the bestowing of fruits by karma (action itself), its samskAra (its sacredness), its power, the apUrvas (entities said to be born out of scriptural actions, believed to bestow the fruits by other schools of thought), etc are clearly refuted (meaning, none of these insentient entities grant the fruits. It is only bhagavAn who is pleased with such actions in accordance with his commandments who bestows the fruits, according to this divine name).

Etymology: The pravarthaka and nivarthaka dharmas are very dear to bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘vrushapriya:’. This eight syllable manthra bestows all fruits upon the seekers.

धर्मौ प्रियौ तावस्यॆति प्रवर्तकनिवर्तकौ |
वृषप्रियः स विज्ञॆयॊ ह्यष्टार्णः फलदॊ मनुः ||

अनिवर्ती निवृत्तात्मा संक्षॆप्ता क्षॆमकृच्छिवः ।
श्रीवत्सवक्षाः श्रीवासः श्रीपतिः श्रीमतांवरः ॥ ६४ ॥

603) anivarthI (अनिवर्ती)

Of the two categories, bhagavAn binds the souls who are inclined towards pravruththi dharma in this samsAra by putting them on the path of repeated cycles of birth and death in the dhUmAdhi mArga (the route leading to lowly planets). Thus, he is called ‘anivarthI’ – the one who causes the souls not to return.

By grammatical rules, the ‘Nini:’ (णिनिः) adjunct is used in this divine name. The same rule applies to other divine names such as ‘kAmI’ कामी (659), etc.

That is how the souls desiring material pleasures are bound in this samsAra.

This is shown in the scriptures thus:

  • “When the soul traverses the path of dhUma (smoke), rAthri (darkness), dhakshiNAyanam (the six months of dakshiNAyana), etc (which is collectively called ‘dhUmAdhi mArgam’), then the practitioner of such dharmas shall attain the effulgence of the moon for a certain period of time and return to this world”
  • “Having travelled to different worlds and enjoyed the fruits of various karmas, the individual soul returns to this world in order to exhaust the remnant karmas”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn clearly binds the souls desiring material pleasures in this samsAra, thereby preventing them from returning, he is called ‘anivarthI’. This eight syllable manthra confers fear of samsAra among the chanters.

पितृयाणप्रवृत्तानां संसारादनिवर्तनात् |
अनिवर्ती समाख्यातॊ ह्यष्टार्णॊ भयदॊ मनुः ||

604) nivruththAthmA (निवृत्तात्मा) (also repeated in 231, 453, and 780)

Although bhagavAn himself establishes the pravruththi dharmas and promotes it, yet he holds those individual souls very close to his heart – who practice the nivruththi dharma (leading to mOksham).

Such souls practicing nivruththi dharma by disengaging from actions that lead to lowly fruits (and desire only for bhagavAn and nothing else) are so dear to him that he considers them as verily his souls!

Thus, he is called ‘nivruththAthmA’.

Etymology: He, who holds all such individuals who practice the nivruththi dharma as verily his souls, is called ‘nivruththAthmA’. This eight syllable manthra destroys all effects of bad karmas of the chanter.

सर्वॆ निवृत्तिधर्माणॊ यस्यात्मानः स तु स्मृतः |
निवृत्तात्मॆत्यष्टवर्णॊ दुष्कर्मफलमॊचकः ||

605) samkshEpthA (संक्षॆप्ता)

bhagavAn causes the natural knowledge of such individual souls who pursue lowly material benefits to shrink, thereby causing them to cycle in this wheel of samsAra. Thus, he is called ‘samkshEpthA’ – the one who causes to shrink.

This is hailed in the vishNu purANa thus: “…The Sakthi called ‘avidhyA’ or ignorance is the third type of Sakthi that bhagavAn possesses, with which the true knowledge of an individual soul is bound in this samsAra”.

Etymology: He – who possesses the quality of preventing the spreading of the otherwise naturally unbounded knowledge among the practitioners of pravruththi dharma – is called ‘samkshEpthA’. The chanting of this six lettered manthra causes one’s knowledge to be expanded.

स्वाभाविकासङ्कुचित-मॆधायाश्चाप्रस्रारणम् |
प्रवृत्तिधर्माणां कर्तुं शीलं यस्यास्ति सर्वदा |
स संक्षॆप्तॆति कथितः षडर्णॊ धीविकासदः ||

606) kshEmakruth (क्षॆमकृत्)

On the other hand, bhagavAn also prevents the shrinking of such knowledge in the mumukshus treading the path of nivruththi dharmas. He always safeguards such knowledge so that it is always expanded, thereby granting full knowledge upon the souls desiring liberation. Thus, he is called ‘kshEmakruth’ – the one who is beneficial.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn looks after the welfare of noble men (mumukshus) by causing their knowledge to expand fully, he is called ‘kshEmakruth’.

असङ्कॊचज्ञानरूप-क्षॆमस्य करणात् सताम् |
क्षॆमकृच्चापि सर्वॆषाम् |

607) Siva: (शिवः) (also repeated in 27)

Thus, bhagavAn always confers all favourable fruits to all souls who desire material benefits as well as liberation. Thus, he is called ‘Siva:’.

The scriptures hail thus:

  • “bhagavAn is the cause for both binding in samsAra as well as liberation to mOksha”
  • “He rules over the world of pithrus”
  • “He is auspicious to the noble men and inauspicious to the corrupt”, et al.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is the benefactor of auspiciousness (to all kinds of souls), he is called ‘Siva:’.

शिवस्य करणात् शिवः |

608) SrIvathsavakshA: (श्रीवत्सवक्षाः)

Thence, the forthcoming divine names show how bhagavAn achieves such bestowal of favourable outcomes upon all souls. He takes care of all souls because of his eternal relation with his divine consort SrI mahAlakshmi.

bhagavAn has a mark on his chest, which is called ‘SrIvathsa’ (श्रीवत्सः), which gives away his sole lordship over all worlds, as well as his eternal relation with SrI mahAlakshmi, and hence acts as a mark of utmost prosperity. Thus, he is called ‘SrIvathsavakshA:’.

Sri mahAlakshmi has verily this ‘SrIvathsa’ as Her seat on his chest.

The SrImath rAmAyaNam itself gives this divine name ‘SrIvathsavakshA:’ to bhagavAn.

Etymology: The sign of utmost prosperity showing the eternal relation of bhagavAn with SrI mahAlakshmi, ‘SrIvathsa’ by name – is seen on bhagavAn’s chest. Hence, he is called ‘SrIvathsavakshA:’.

लक्ष्मीवाल्लभ्यसौभाग्यचिह्नं श्रीवत्सनामकम् |
श्रीवत्सवक्षाः अस्यास्ति वक्षसीति स तु स्मृतः ||

609) SrIvAsa: (श्रीवासः)

The attribute of bhagavAn by which he is called ‘nithyaSrI:’ (नित्यश्रीः) is shown in this divine name ‘SrIvAsa:’. bhagavAn’s divine chest is verily the beautiful garden filled with all auspicious trees such as kalpavruksha and other nice floral plants for SrI mahAlakshmi, where she relaxes at all times.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn (his divine chest) is verily the pleasure garden for SrI mahAlakshmi, he is called ‘SrIvAsa:’.

श्रियॊ विहारस्थानत्वात् श्रीवास इति चॊच्यतॆ |

610) SrIpathi: (श्रीपतिः)

Just as SrImath rAmAyaNa celebrates the divine couple by saying “Befitting in all ways such as character, age and deeds, and also in the ways they protect their devotees, that SrI rAma is befitting of this vaidhEhi and she also rightly deserves that SrI rAma as her consort”, that bhagavAn is the most deserving consort of SrIdhEvi SrI mahAlakshmi.

The vEdhas also glorify this divine relation thus:

  • “Oh bhagavAn, SrIdhEvi and bhUdhEvi (and NeeLA dhEvi) are your divine consorts”
  • “…(SrI mahAlakshmi is) the mistress of all worlds, and the divine consort of vishNu”, etc.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is verily the divine consort of SrIdhEvi, he is called ‘SrIpathi:’.

स्वयं श्रियःपतित्वॆन वृत्तत्वात् श्रीपतिः स्मृतः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 49

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நாலூர் பிள்ளைக்கு அவர் தாம் நல்ல மகனார்க்கு அவர் தாம்

மேலோர்க்கு ஈந்தார் அவரே மிக்கு 

நாற்பத்தொன்பதாம் பாசுரம். ஈடு வ்யாக்யானம் எவ்வாறு தன் ஆசார்யரனான திருவாய்மொழிப் பிள்ளை அளவும் வந்தடைந்தது என்பதை விளக்குகிறார்.

சிறியாழ்வான் அப்பிள்ளை என்ற ஈயுண்ணி மாதவப் பெருமாள் நம்பிள்ளையிடம் இருந்து பெற்ற ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தை தன்னுடைய திருக்குமாரரான ஈயுண்ணி பத்மனாபப் பெருமாளுக்கு நன்றாகக் கற்றுக் கொடுத்தார். இவரும் பெருமாள் கோயில் என்று சொல்லப்படும் காஞ்சீபுரத்திலே வாழ்ந்த காலத்திலே, நாலூர் பிள்ளை இவர் திருவடிகளிலே பல கைங்கர்யங்களைச் செய்து, இவரின் அன்புக்கு இலக்காகி, இவரிடமிருந்து ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தைக் கற்றுக் கொண்டார். பின்பு, தன்னுடைய திருக்குமாரரான நாலூராச்சான் பிள்ளைக்குக் கற்றுக் கொடுத்தார். ஆழ்வார்திருநகரி திவ்யதேசத்தைத் திருத்திப் பொலிந்து நின்ற பிரான், நம்மாழ்வார் ஸந்நிதிகளைப் புனர் நிர்மாணம் செய்து பவிஷ்யதாசார்யரான எம்பெருமானாருக்கு ஒரு திருக்கோயிலும் நிர்மாணித்துப் பல கைங்கர்யங்களைச் செய்து வந்த திருவாய்மொழிப் பிள்ளை ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தைக் கற்றுக் கொள்ளும் ஆசையுடன் காஞ்சீபுரத்துக்கு வந்து சேர, தேவப்பெருமாள் தாமே ஆணையிட நாலூராச்சான் பிள்ளை திருவாய்மொழிப் பிள்ளைக்கும், திருவாய்மொழி ஆச்சானுக்கும், ஆயி ஜநந்யாசார்யருக்கும் திருநாராயணபுரத்தில் வைத்து ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தைக் கற்றுக் கொடுத்தார். இப்படித் திருவாய்மொழிப் பிள்ளை உபதேசமாகப் பெற்ற ஈடு வ்யாக்யானத்தையே பெரிய நிதியைப் போலே மணவாள மாமுனிகளுக்கு அளித்தார்.

அடியேன் ஸாரதி ராமானுஜ தாஸன்

வலைத்தளம் – http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/

ப்ரமேயம் (குறிக்கோள்) – http://koyil.org
ப்ரமாணம் (க்ரந்தங்கள்) – http://granthams.koyil.org
ப்ரமாதா (ஆசார்யர்கள்) – http://acharyas.koyil.org
ஸ்ரீவைஷ்ணவக் கல்வி வலைத்தளம் – http://pillai.koyil.org