Monthly Archives: September 2019

periya thirumadal – 35 – thannudaiya thAdhai

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thannudaiya thAdhai paNiyAl arasu ozhindhu

Word by word meaning

thannudaiya thAdhai paNiyAl – as per the counsel of his father dhaSaratha
arasu ozhindhu – avoiding ruling of the land (and setting forth for the forest)

vyAkyAnam

thannudaiya thAdhai – being affectionate towards his father dhaSaratha chakravarthy such that he would think “Isn’t perumAL  one who obeys my authority? He would do just as I tell him to do”. Alternative meaning – son of dhaSaratha.

paNiyAl – He did not reach up to dhaSaratha’s thoughts. dhaSaratha thought “Instead of going to the forest, would he not tie down my legs and my neck and take over ruling of this country?”

arasu ozhindhu – when ordered by dhaSaratha “leave the country and go to the forest”, instead of hesitating “Should I leave this country?” SrI rAma was focussed on being a forest dweller. When he was told that he was going to take charge of the country, people saw that his face had blossomed with a beauty. When he was told that he has to go to the forest, people said that they had seen  aiSwaryam (opulence) which had formed on his face which they had never seen before. It appeared as if when dhaSaratha chakravarthy told him to go the forest, SrI rama felt relieved as if a huge load had been removed from his head, a load which created svAthanthriyam (independence) in him. When bharathAzhwAn caught hold o f SrI rAma’s legs (in chithrakUtam) and compelled him to return to ayOdhyA, SrI rAma behaved as if he had adorned himself with a garland of fresh flowers and removed that garland once the freshness was gone [here, garland refers to the crown worn by kings; SrI rAma was happy that he had removed the crown that he would have worn had he become the king].

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.2 – pugalidam aRigilam

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Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “Initially the harmful entities tormented me individually and as I kept losing my strength, they are tormenting me together”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

pugalidam aRigilam thamiyamAlO! pulambuRu maNi thenRal AmbalAlO!
pagaladu mAlai vaN sAndhamAlO! panjamam mullai thaN vAdaiyAlO!
agalidam padaiththidandhuNdumizhndhaLandhu engum aLikkinRa Ayan mAyOn
igalidaththasurargaL kURRam vArAn ini irundhennuyir kAkkumAREn?

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

thamiyam – lonely us
pugalidam – to take refuge to escape from the great army
aRigilam – don’t know;
pulambu uRu – sound from the neck of the calves following their mother cows
maNi – bell
thenRal – the southerly breeze (which torments me without any help from anyone else)
AmbalAlO – leaf based flute (all joined together);
pagal adu mAlai – the night which drives away the day (stopping us from seeing the objects)
vaN sAndhamAlO – the sandalwood paste matching the particular time (joined together);
panjamam – the tune named panchamam
mullai – lily garland
thaN vAdaiyAlO – cool northerly breeze (joined together; in this manner, in this state of the individual tormenting aspects being united);
agal idam – expansive universe
padaiththu – created
idandhu – rescuing from being drowned in the deluge
uNdu – during total deluge, placing in the stomach and protecting
umizhndhu – spitting
aLandhu – measuring and accepting (to avoid others claiming ownership)
engum aLikkinRa – being benefactor for all entities/objects
Ayan – having saulabhyam in krishNAvathAram which is specific for his being the cause and protector
mAyOn – having amazing activities which match his protectorship
igal idaththu – opposing in the battle
asurar – for asuras (demons)
kURRam – being death
vArAn – is not arriving (to destroy these harmful group of entities and protecting me)
ini – now that he has not shown his desire for me and has discarded me
en uyir – my life which is a burden for me
irundhu – surviving
kAkkum ARu en – what is the means to protect?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

We who are lonely don’t know how to take refuge to escape from the great army; the bell sound from the neck of the calves following their mother cows, the southerly breeze, the leaf based flute, the night which drives away the day, the sandalwood paste matching the particular time, the tune named panchamam, the lily garland and the cool northerly breeze have joined together [in tormenting me]; emperumAn who created the expansive universe, rescued it from being drowned in the deluge, placed it in the stomach, protected it during the total deluge, spat it out, measured and accepted it; he is the benefactor for all entities/objects; he is having saulabhyam in krishNAvathAram which is specific for his being the cause and protector and is having amazing activities which match his protectorship; he is the death for the asuras who oppose him in the battle; now that he has not shown his desire for me and has discarded me, what is the means for me to survive and protect my life which is a burden for me? Implies that since she is protected, she does not have the strength and aptness to protect [herself]. Here she has identified the entities which torment her but not the ways they harm her; this is like those who say “padai! padai!” (repeating the words ‘enemy army’) due to the great fear and sorrow [and not being able to explain further]. She highlighted both southerly and northerly breezes to indicate that within a moment, she goes through many eons.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • pugalidam aRigilam – This can be considered as her saying in fear about the harmful entities which are going to be explained further in this pAsuram; or this can be considered as her repeating in fear about previously explained entities.
  • thamiyamAlO – Since the one who is the companion for those without refuge is not helping, my presence is lonely here.
  • pulambu uRu maNi – sound from the bells in the necks of the calves following their mother cows, looked like they were crying out being unable to spot their mother cows.
  • thenRal – Just saying “thenRal” is sufficient; need not say with adjectives as in “malligai kamazh thenRal“; as the battle intensifies, they will remove the armour and fight directly [no need for adjective]. The southerly breeze thinks “Why do I need the armour when there is none equal to me here?”
  • AmbalAlO – Flute or leaf-based flute; she is not saying as before “eerumAlO, thavarumAlO, mayakkumAlO, sidhaikkumAlO“; as someone who sees a tiger will simply shout in fear “Tiger! Tiger!”, even as she tells their names, she becomes frightened. Alternative explanation – if she explicitly speaks about the torture given by them, it appears that her mouth will burn – hence she is not highlighting their acts.
  • pagal adu mAlai – Just as rAvaNa destroyed periya udaiyAr (jatAyu) and was present in front of sIthA to cause pain for her, here evening time appeared destroying the day time which pacifies. In the day time, one can see various objects and pacify oneself; but since that opportunity is not there after sunset, it is more gruelling.
  • vaN sAndham … – Beautiful sandalwood paste; panchama tune.
  • mullai – yAzh (string instrument). Alternatively – cowherds will wear lily garlands; this could refer to that as well.
  • thaN vAdai – There was no difference between northerly breeze and southerly breeze. Northerly and southerly breezes come at different seasons; the time is stretching so much that she is experiencing different seasonal breezes. Alternative explanation – highlighting disaster, various winds are blowing at the same time. Now, there is no scope to take refuge from northerly breeze, fearing the southerly breeze.
  • agal idam … – One who inclusively protects the universe from disaster by placing it in his stomach, is not arriving now even after his empress (parAnguSa nAyaki) is being tormented by harmful entities! When the expansive earth was not in manifested form, he created it, lifted it up when deluge consumed it, protected it by placing it in the stomach when deluge re-occurred, spat it out so that it need not suffocate inside, walked up to the boundary and reclaimed it when prideful persons claimed possession of it – such emperumAn who protects the whole universe without any limitation, is not arriving now!
  • Ayan – mahAbhAratham sabhA parvam 38.23 “krishNa Eva hi lOkAnAm” (krishNa is the cause for all worlds) etc.
  • mAyOn – One who has amazing abilities which are required to protect the universe.
  • igal … – Only in the battlefield, he remains as the death for the demoniac clan; he does not destroy prahAladha, vibhIshaNa et al who said “SaraNam” (I accept you as refuge); he only destroyed rAvaNa, hiraNya et al. It is said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 51.55 “thrAthum na SakthA yudhi rAma vadhyam” (If SrI rAma decides to kill someone no one can save that person).
  • vArAn – You need not draw arrows for me and there are no enemies; you just need to show your face.
  • ini … – Am I pacified thinking that emperumAn will only protect with certain limitations? Am I pacified that there are hurdles in his arrival? Am I pacified thinking that I have a role in protecting myself? Is there anything called saving my own life when the protector who is unlimited, the most abled and the apt one is not coming and I am one among his protected ones, incapable and inapt to protect myself?
  • ini irundhu – Am I pacified to survive until he arrives by hearing some others say as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36.41 “namAmsam rAghavO bhungthE nachApi madhu sEvathE” (he is neither indulging in meat nor in alcohol) or doing as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 35.47 “thvAm apaSyan nrupAthmajE” (Oh daughter of janaka! He is suffering due to not seeing you)? Am I pacified thinking that as part of his arrival ,kara [a demon] was destroyed, kabandha [another demon] was destroyed, vAli was destroyed, the bridge was built on the ocean, he has entered lankA now and so on?
  • ini irundhu – It appears that since she is saying “ini” (from now onwards), previously she protected herself thinking “I cannot let his belonging to be destroyed”.
  • en uyir kAkkum ARu en – Should I protect my life thinking that it is someone else’s belonging? Should I protect myself to only be tormented by these harmful entities?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 11 (Names 101 to 110)

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101) achyutha: (अच्युतः) (also repeated in 320, 557)

The one who does not get separated from such surrendered souls is called ‘achyutha:’ – the infallible.

The scriptures say thus in this regard:

  • “Since I never gave up anything in the past, I am called ‘achyutha’”
  • “I never get separated from such a devotee”
  • “I shall never forsake him; that will never happen”, et al

Etymology: Since bhagavAn never gets separated from his devotees, he is called ‘achyutha:’. Alternately, he is also called ‘achyutha:’, by whose grace the surrendered souls never face any shortcomings.

भक्तॆभ्यॊsच्युतपूर्वत्वात् अच्युतः परिकीर्तितः |
आश्रितानां च्युतिर्यस्मान्नास्ति स अच्युत ईरितः ||

102) vrushAkapi: (वृषाकपिः)

The divine name that justifies that verily the same ‘achyutha’ is the one who incarnated as the boar (varAha) is ‘vrushAkapi:’ – the boar that embodies virtue.

The sages have recorded thus:

“The word ‘kapi:’ (कपिः) means the great divine boar. The word ‘vrusha:’ (वृषः) represents virtue. Thus, kashyapa prajApathi addressed me as ‘vrushAkapi:’ (वृषाकपिः).”

Etymology: The great divine boar is called ‘kapi:’, and righteousness is called ‘vrusha:’. Thus, he is vrushAkapi (the boar that embodies virtue). This eight-syllable manthra grants the wishes of the chanter.

कपिर्वराहः श्रॆष्ठश्च धर्मश्च वृष उच्यतॆ |
तस्मात् वृषाकपिः प्रॊक्तः वस्वरण्यॊsभीष्टदॊ मनुः ||

103) amEyAthmA (अमॆयात्मा) (also repeated in 181)

Since bhagavAn showers his grace towards the souls, who have taken refuge under him, in a constant flow, he is called ‘amEyAthmA’ – the one whose abundant nature cannot be quantified. The vEdhas declare: “Thus he is the supreme of all entities”, “Therefore, that janArdhana is only the greatest”, etc.

Etymology: The one who is the greatest of all due to his unquantifiable abundant nature (of showering his unbounded grace towards his refugees in an abundant flow) is called ‘amEyAthmA’. This manthra is said to grant superior fruits upon the chanter.

इयानित्यपरिच्छॆद्य स्वभावात् सर्वतॊsधिकः |
अमॆयात्मा समुद्दिष्टॊ ह्यौन्नत्यफलदॊ मनुः ||

104) sarvayOgavinissrutha: (सर्वयॊगविनिस्सृतः)

How does bhagavAn qualify as the one with such abundant nature? he qualifies thus due to his being the ‘sarvayOgavinissrutha:’ – the one who is attained by all means. He is called thus, because he is attained by all the scriptural injunctions as well as the lower means that anyone cooks up with his own imagination and intelligence. He is especially fit of being attained by everyone much akin to the esoteric meanings of the vEdhas. This also means that he is very easily attained by all souls.

The scriptures have said thus about bhagavAn’s attainability:

  • “bhagavAn bestows the superior experience of his divine wealth even to those who know not of any higher means of attaining him but just worship him by any means that they can comprehend”
  • “Although not abiding by injunctions, when a surrendered soul worships bhagavAn with pure love, the lord of such manthras – bhagavAn – gets pleased and graces him abundantly. What, then, is to be said about the enlightened souls who are full of knowledge and love towards bhagavAn, and worship him with all faith and devotion?”
  • “When it is well known that mAdhava wholeheartedly accepts just the mental worship of his devotees, isn’t it very clear that those who are caught up in the miseries of samsAra have failed to think about bhagavAn?”, etc.

Etymology: He is attainable by all means, and hence he is called ‘sarvayOgavinissrutha:’.

सर्वैरुपायैः प्राप्यश्च सर्वयॊगविनिस्सृतः |

===========================
वसुर्वसुमनाः सत्यः समात्मा संमितः समः ।
अमॊघः पुण्डरीकाक्षॊ वृषकर्मा वृषाकृतिः ॥ १२ ॥
============================

105) vasu: (वसुः) (also repeated in 271, 701)

Since he resides with utmost love within the minds of even such souls who show little devotion unto him, he is called ‘vasu:’. The root ‘vas’ वस् (to reside) is suffixed with the adjunct ‘u:’ (उः), resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: The one who voluntarily resides with utmost love in such souls who display the slightest devotion unto himim is called ‘vasu:’.

वसतीति वसुः तॆषु प्रीत्या परमया स्वयम् |

106) vasumanA: (वसुमनाः) (also repeated in 702)

He places his mind with his devotees considering them as his greatest wealth, and hence called ‘vasumanA:’ – the one who considers his devotees as his greatest wealth. bhagavAn himself says thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “Such a great soul who considers me as everything to him is the most difficult to find”.

Etymology: He whose mind always rests with his devotees – considering them as his greatest invaluable wealth – is called as ‘vasumanA:’ by everyone. This manthra nurtures the chanters as a mother nurtures her child.

वसुनीव निधौ तॆषु मनॊ यस्यास्ति सर्वदा |
सर्वैः वसुमनाः प्रॊक्तॊ मातृवत् पॊषकॊ मनुः ||

107) sathya: (सत्यः) (also repeated in 213, 873)

The one who is benevolent to such realized souls is called ‘sathya:’ – the benevolent.

The root ‘sath’ (सत्) is suffixed with ‘yath’ (यत्) adjunct resulting in the divine name ‘sathya:’.

Etymology: The one who is benevolent to the realized souls is called ‘sathya:’.

सत्सु साधुः सत्य इति |

108) samAthmA (समात्मा)

The one who ignores the differences among his devotees in their natures and considers them all as equal and graces them all equally is called ‘samAthmA’ – the impartial.

bhagavAn himself declares thus in bhagavath gIthA – “I treat all souls equally”.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘samAthmA’ due to his impartiality.

समात्मा समचित्ततः |

109) sammitha: (संमितः)

He is called ‘sammitha:’ since he is bound by the love of his devotees. The root ‘mA’ मा (restriction) is suffixed with ‘ikAra:’ (इकारः) resulting in the word ‘mitha:’ (मितः).

He is very easily confined by his devotees by their love – to the extent of enabling them to say “He is ours. He is in our control”.

This is shown in SrImath rAmAyanam  and SrI vishNu purAnam, where dhaSaratha declares “My rAma – the lotus eyed one – is not even sixteen years of age”, and vasudhEva declares “He (krishNa) is truly my son”.

Etymology: Since he is confined by his devotees out of their love, he is called ‘sammitha:’.

मितत्वात् च तथा भक्तैः संमितः परिकीर्तितः |

110) sama: (समः)

Even among such devotees, since bhagavAn never differentiates on the basis of the new devotees and old devotees, the knowledgeable souls and the ignorant souls, and other such factors, and since he respects all of their love towards him equally, he is called ‘sama:’ – the equal one.

As per the grammatical rules, the word ‘sam’ (सम्) is suffixed with ‘akAra’ (अः), resulting in the divine name ‘sama:’.

Etymology: The one who is equal to all of his old devotees as well as the new ones is called ‘sama:’.

ज्ञातॆsपरिचितॆ चापि समत्वात् सम उच्यतॆ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 34 – pon aNaiyAr pinnum

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ponnanaiyAr pinnum thiruvuRuga – pOrvEndhan

Word by word meaning

pon anaiyAr thAm – those who are fortunate
pinnum thiru uRuga – let them shine with more and more of physical beauty
pOr vEndhan – rAma, who is like a tiger in war

vyAkyAnam

pon anaiyAr – since they are sleeping on the bed of flowers which is like sleeping on fire, they are similar to gold which gains lustre after being burnt in fire. Alternatively, the term pon anaiyAr would refer to those who are fortunate. AzhwAr is mocking them saying that since these people are capable of sleeping even amidst forest fire, they are indeed fortunate ones!

pinnum thiruvuRuga – let this fortune be with them forever.

The prabandham now talks about sIthAppirAtti who followed SrI rAma to the forest. As a precursor to it, the prabandham talks about the quality of SrI rAma wherein he does not expect anything from anyone.

por vEndhan – one who has great valour, like a tiger, in war. One who is called as raNamukharAman [rAna is war; mukham is face]

vEndhan – even though dhaSaratha chakravarthy was ruling ayOdhyA, rAma had the strength to rule the country, making dhaSaratha to remain aloof. Just as bharatha had said “na mantharAyA na cha mAthrasyA dhOshO na rajyO na cha rAghavasya I mathpApapamEvAthra nimiththamAsIth vanapravESa raghunandhasya  II” (it was not due to the fault of mantharA (servant of kaikEyi) or of my mother that SrI rAghava (SrI rAma) had to leave the kingdom and go to the forest. It was purely due to my sins that he had to go) the opinion of bharatha is that one who was capable of piercing seven sAla trees with one arrow could not have gone to the forest because of lack of any strength.

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.1 – malligai kamazh

Published by:

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Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki mercifully explains how entities such as southerly breeze etc harm her individually in the evening time.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

malligai kamazh thenRal IrumAlO! vaN kuRinji isai thavarumAlO!
sel kadhir mAlaiyum mayakkumAlO! sekkar nan mEgangaL sidhaikkumAlO!
alliyam thAmaraik kaNNan emmAn AyargaLERariyERu emmAyOn
pulliya mulaigaLum thOLum koNdu pugalidam aRigilam thamiyamAlO!

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

malligai kamazh – having the fragrance of jasmine
thenRal – southerly breeze
Irum – piercing me in all ways like a sword applied with poison!
vaN – pleasing to the ears and easily graspable even for non-inquisitive ones
kuRinji isai – music with the tune of kuRinji
thavarum – pierces deep into the self;
sel – focussed on setting
kadhir – having sun
mAlaiyum – evening time
mayakkum – causes bewilderment (to destroy the knowledge and not be able to even call out);
sekkar – during the evening time, having reddish complexion
nal – attractive
mEgangaL – clouds
sidhaikkum – harming my body by reminding me his form with golden garment;

(in this manner, after having four different enemies)
alli – blossomed
am – beautiful
thAmaraik kaNNan – one who is having lotus flower like beautiful eyes
emmAn – being the lord (who won over us for us to say “jitham” (victory) by that)
AyargaL ERu – having pride which attracts even the gOpas (cowherd boys) who belong to the same clan
ari ERu – one who is proud like the best lion (due to winning over women and men without any distinction)
em mAyOn – one who is having amazing activities (of interacting with us humbly during the state of union)
pulliya – embraced (being greatly desirous towards me)
mulaigaLum – bosom
thOLum – shoulders
koNdu – having
thamiyam – we who are alone (after being separated from him)
pugalidam – refuge
aRigilOm – we don’t know.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

The southerly breeze having the fragrance of jasmine is piercing me in all ways like a sword applied with poison! The music with the tune of kuRinji which is pleasing to the ears and is easily graspable even for non-inquisitive ones, pierces deep into the self; the evening time which is having the sun focussed on setting causes bewilderment; the attractive clouds which are having reddish complexion during the evening time, are harming my body by reminding me of his form with golden garment; we who are alone here after having our bosom and shoulders embraced by emperumAn who is having blossomed, beautiful lotus flower like beautiful eyes, being the lord, who is having pride which attracts even the gOpas (cowherd boys) who belong to the same clan, who is proud like the best lion and is having amazing activities, don’t know any refuge. The protector is not here; we are helpless; we have a lot of harmful enemies around us; we don’t know how to protect and present him the aspects he likes. Al and O [AlO] indicate the great sorrow. He was called out in every line, due to the great sorrow.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar’s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • malligai – [Commentator becomes amazed at parAnguSa nAyaki’s mood] Who is listening to her when she calls out “malligai … sekkar nal mEgangaL sidhaikkumAlO”?
  • malligai kamazh thenRal – The southerly breeze which can torment us on its own, is now carrying the sweet fragrance of jasmine too. Southerly breeze carrying the fragrance resembles sword, which is used to kill, with poison being applied on it. All the aspects which were favourable when he was with us, are now harming us. emperumAn is the one who would usually call out in separation as seen in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 1.69 “yAni smaramaNIyAni thayAsaha bhavanthimE | thAnyE vA ramaNiyAni jIvathOmE thayA vinA ||” (Whichever objects were pleasing to me when I was with sIthA, are now causing me pain in her absence), SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 1.52 “Esha pushpavahO vAyus suka sparSOhimAvaha: | thAm vichinthayatha:kAnthAm pAvakaprathimOmama ||” (This youthful, cool breeze with fragrance is feeling like fire for me who is thinking about sIthA), SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 1.104 “sadhA sukam ahammanyE yampurAsaha sIthayA | mAruthas savinA sIthAm SOkasajjankOmama ||” (The same breeze which gave me joy when I was with sIthA, is now increasing my sorrow in separation from her) and SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 1.103 “dhanyA lakshmaNa sEvanthE pampAyA vana mArutham” (lakshmaNA! Fortunate are the those (couples) who are served by this breeze from the river pampA). As said in thiruviruththam 5 “ikkAlam ivvUr panippiyalvellAm thavirndhu erivIsum” (the breeze which is naturally cool, is very hot at this time only), it is harmful only for AzhwAr.
  • malligai kamazh thenRal – The southerly breeze is harming both the sense of smell and touch. Like someone who sends an army in the night which can only be known on being physically assaulted, it cannot be seen; one cannot escape on the sight of them. This breeze is having mouth everywhere to harm us.
  • eerumAlO – It is harming the body inch by inch, while the body is already gone due to the separation.
  • vaN kuRinji isai thavarumAlO – Beautiful kuRinji music is piercing me. The wound which was caused by the breeze is further pierced by the music. The breeze would torment externally only; the music will enter inside through the ear and torment internally.
  • vaN kuRinji – The more the music can go through the ears, the more it can harm. How enjoyable will it be when he is together with us? In separation, it will harm us as much. The kuRinji music and the southerly breeze discussed among themselves and arrived, complimented each other in tormenting me. It appears that they have discussed among themselves and arrived saying “We cannot kill her normally, it should be very cruel; in that, you take care of this aspect and I will take care of this other aspect”.
  • sel kadhir … – The evening which has the sun which has already set, is bewildering us. The evening which is having sunset, is making us to be infatuated with love. Just as those who put cloth in the mouth and then kill, it is not even allowing me to call out to reveal my suffering and sustain myself.
  • sekkar nal mEgangaL sidhaikkumAlO – The clouds which have the evening reddishness and blackish complexion, reminding me of his form, and despising the others “How did they torment you? [They have not done a good job]” and sliced me part by part saying “Should we leave the entity behind while tormenting?”
  • alli am thAmaraik kaNNan … – Why should I be angry at them? Is he himself not waiting to finish us? Did he not separate, thinking “If we unite and then separate from her, she will perish”? They are tormenting me giving some opportunities; but he is the one who removed our refuge.
  • alli … – The eyes are the ones which establish the first relationship; only after that, he will unite.
  • emmAn – One who made me exist for him fully by the beauty of his eyes.
  • AyargaL ERu – Just as he won over the cowherds with that beauty. As said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 3.29 “pumsAm dhrushti chiththApahAriNam” (SrI rAma’s beauty will attract the eyes and mind of even men), his beauty will even melt diamond. If he can torment those who are equal to him [cowherds], what to speak of helpless girls?
  • ari ERu – One who remains prideful, after lovingly glancing at her and making her fully exist for him, uniting with her and attaining unattainable goal. Best among lions.
  • em mAyOn – One who is having such greatness, is mingling with us humbly just as inferior persons will mingle with superior persons by holding their hand, feet etc. He united with her to cause butterflies in her stomach.
  • pulliya mulaigaLum thOLum koNdu – He is not coming; I am surviving with sorrow; I have the children [bosom] who are born for him and have no refuge. While I am waiting for him, when will he come and enjoy the fullness of these bosom? Just as the children would cry out for food during famine, these bosom are tormenting me.  It appears that when he unites he is incapable of uniting with all limbs. The place in which he was immersed [bosom] and the place where he rested [shoulders].
  • pulliya … – She is highlighting his anxiety during the union, the great pleasured attained by her limbs during that union, how he interacted as if attaining an unattainable goal and how she is lacking refuge now.
  • pugalidam aRigilam – I don’t see a refuge to escape from the southerly breeze etc during separation from him.
  • thamiyamAlO – At this stage, since even the protector has not come, I am alone here. In this manner, if all his wealth are tormenting me, just as he accepted the arrow of bagadhaththa which was aimed at arjuna, on his chest after pushing arjuna aside, should he not have been with me knowing that they [sorrows] will come? If he is with me, they will engage in humble service. Even for SrI rAma, when he was crying out in sorrow, at least his younger brother was with him as said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 1.1 “rAmas saumithri sahitha:” (SrI rAma is with lakshmaNa); I don’t even have such companion. [Same SlOkam is explained in detail]
    • sa: – SrI rAma’s state in separation of sIthA and being caught by kabandha is explained.
    • thAm – That [pond] which will even melt those who don’t have such separation and suffering.
    • pushkariNIm – Ponds which have flowers everywhere, gardens and the place which is fit to have water-sports. But those who are in separation cannot behold this.
    • gathvA – While not thinking about it, he arrived there, just as approaching the proximity of death. When asked “what is it to be like being close to death?”
    • padhmOthpala jashAkulAm – Having that which resembles the face and eyes. It is said in thiruvAimozhi 5.1.7uyar thAmarai sengazhunIr mAdhargaL vANmugamum kaNNum Endhum” (having ponds which are vast like ocean, with tall lotus and red lily flowers which reflect the radiance from the beautiful face and eyes of the ladies).
    • rAma: – One who eliminated the cry of others.
    • saumithri sahitha: – To have one who will protect along in some manner as said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 1.126 “raraksha dharmENa” (protected SrI rAma by his virtue and strength) in the front; as one enters the river, he would first hold on to a boat.
    • vilalApa akulEndhriya: – he called out with various identities.

With the desire to attain the apt goal (emperumAn), and as emperumAn did not arrive as per AzhwAr’s desire, and as he did not observe the signs of his arrival such as the sound of musical instruments, the sound of SrI pAnchajanya, the sound of the string in his bow, the sound of the wings of thiruvadi (garudAzhwAr), the other auspiscious signs and clarity in mind, even the favourable aspects become harmful. This is the state of everything appearing to be an enemy here after body and senses suffer and being unable to abandon the samsAra which is the hurdle and not fitting here either. Hence, another way of bringing out the essence is like saying “the evening sunset time is like the state of not fitting here well and not reaching paramapadham, and only suffering here in between”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 10 (Names 91 to 100)

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91. aha: (अहः)

Since none belonging to him is considered as lowly, he is called ‘aha:’ – the one with no lowly possessions. The ancient ‘maula niruktham’ (मौल निरुक्तम्) states the meaning of ‘aha:’ as ‘the one with no lowly possessions’.

Also, the scriptures say thus: “If a soul performs even a small good deed, that good deed will never let him down further”.

Going by this, it can also be understood thus: the one who wakes up all souls bound in this material creation – appearing to be sleeping due to their ignorance from time immemorial – is called ‘aha:’, meaning the one who is like the ‘day’.

Etymology: The one who has no lowly possessions is called ‘aha:’. Alternately, the one who wakes up all bound souls – appearing to be sleeping due to their ignorance from time immemorial – is called ‘aha:’.

न सन्ति हिना यस्यॆति अहः स परिकीर्तितः |
अनाद्यविद्या निद्रायां स्वधी हॆतुतया ह्यहः ||

92. samvathsara: (संवत्सरः) (also repeated in 423)

Among the souls who are thus woken up from the deep slumber of ignorance by him, since he resides within them as their guiding force, he is called ‘samvathsara:’ – the one who guides from within.

The root ‘vas’ (वस्) is prefixed with ‘sam’ (सं), due to which ‘saran’ (सरन्) adjunct is suffixed to it. While the ‘saran’ adjunct is being suffixed, the ‘sa’ (स) in ‘samvas’ (संवस) changes to ‘ta’ (त), resulting in the divine name ‘samvathsara:’.  (संवत्सरः).

bhagavAn himself declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “I give them the ‘budhdhiyOga’ or intellect, using which they attain me at the end”, “I am the one who uplifts them”, et al.

Etymology: The one who resides within the realized souls as their guiding force from within is called ‘samvathsara:’

इत्थं तॆषु प्रबुद्धॆषु वसत्युद्धरणाय यः संवत्सरः |

93. vyAla: (व्यालः)

As shown in the SrI rAmAyaNam, where SrI rAma says “Oh SugrIva, bring that vibhIshaNa to me. I have granted abhayam / security to him”, since he accepts all souls as his own by sending out his messengers, he is called ‘vyAla:’ – the one who accepts all souls as his own. The ‘vi’ (वि) adjunct is used to mean ‘specially’, and the ‘A’ (आ) qualifier shows that he makes the souls as his own ‘in all ways’. The root ‘lA’ (ला) means to accept.

Etymology: The one who accepts all souls as His own is called ‘vyAla:’.

तान् आत्मसात् व्यालः उक्तः करॊति यः |

94. prathyaya: (प्रत्ययः)

Since all such creatures firmly believe in him, he is called ‘prathyaya:’  – the one who is most trusted. He only creates trust in himself among individual souls, and also grants assurance to them. This is as said in the scriptures: “…that supreme godhead, who grants us the knowledge about himself”.

The vishNu thathva says thus: “I tell you repeatedly, oh brahman! The most trustworthy entity is that purushOththama alone!”

bhagavAn himself says thus in the mahAbhAratha: “If at all you know things well, and if at all you trust me wholeheartedly, then hand over bhImasEna and arjuna to me right away”.

Etymology: The one who creates trust in himself among such individual souls is called ‘prathyaya:’.

यॊsसौ प्रत्याययति तान् प्रत्ययः स उदाहृतः |

95. sarvadharSana: (सर्वदर्शनः)

The one who shows all of his greatness to those who have accepted his supremacy is called ‘sarvadharSana:’  – the one who shows all of his greatness.

The scriptures say:

  • “Such a soul, who is devoid of sorrows, sees that effulgent and supreme ruler – bhagavAn – transcending thamas purely out of his grace”
  • “…to those souls, bhagavAn shows his own divine and auspicious body”, etc.

Etymology: He is called ‘sarvadharSana:’  since he shows his own all-enduring greatness to the deserving souls, and also since he only grants the necessary vision for it.

महिमानं सर्वसहं तॆषां दर्शयतीति सः |
सर्वदर्शन आख्यातॊ नवार्णॊ लॊचनप्रदः ||

==============================
अजः सर्वॆश्वरः सिद्धः सिद्धिः सर्वादिरच्युतः ।
वृषाकपिरमॆयात्मा सर्वयॊगविनिस्सृतः ॥ ११ ॥
==============================

96. aja: (अजः) (also repeated in 206, 524)

For all such souls, since he is the one who wards off all the obstacles that stop them from attaining him, he is called ‘aja:’ – the remover of all obstacles.

In this divine name, the word ‘aja:’ gets the meaning of ‘warding off’.

This is as said in the scriptures:

  • “Among such souls, I destroy their ignorance out of sheer mercy by residing in their minds as the guiding light of knowledge”
  • “I shall free you from all of your sins”, etc

Etymology: He is called ‘aja:’, for he wards off all obstacles in attaining him for the individual souls.

प्रत्यर्थिनः स्वसम्प्राप्तौ प्रजानं क्षिपतीति अजः |

97. sarvESvara: (सर्वॆश्वरः)

Since he gets hold of all surrendered souls by himself instantly by removing off their dependence on others in attaining him and their frailty, without differentiating them as capable or incapable souls, he is called ‘sarvESvara:’ – the one who attains the individual souls impartially.

The root ‘aSnOthi’ अश्नॊति (attains) is suffixed with the ‘varat’ (वरट्) adjunct to indicate that such attainment is instant in nature. The ‘a’ (अ) in the root changes to ‘I’ (ई), resulting in the form of ‘ISvara:’ (ईश्वरः).

In the SrI rAmAyaNam,  bhagavAn is said to have reached and attained vibhIshaNa similarly, in a quick instant.

Etymology: The one who attains all surrendered souls himself instantly – irrespective of whether the souls are capable or not – in order to iron out their mutual differences is called ‘sarvESvara:’.

अशक्तानां च शक्तानां वैरूप्यं शरणैषिणाम् |
अश्नुतॆ परिहर्तुं यः स सर्वॆश्वर ईरितः ||

98. sidhdha: (सिद्धः) (also repeated in 825)

For all such surrendered souls, he is said to be the ready means of salvation – by his nature. The word ‘sidhdha:’ represents a readily available entity. This divine name shows his piety in uplifting souls. Similar devoutness is shown in other names such as ‘prathitha:’ प्रथितः (321), et al.

He does not need any other means in order to attain him, as shown in the scriptural statements such as this one: “The knowledgeable souls call bhagavAn himself as the highest means of attaining him”, et al.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is – by nature – a readily available means of attaining him, he is called ‘sidhdha:’.

स्वरूपॆणैव भक्तानां सिद्धत्वात् सिद्ध उच्यतॆ |

99. sidhdhi: (सिद्धिः)

Since bhagavAn is only attained even by other means (such as bhakthi, et al), he is called ‘sidhdhi:’ – the fruit of varied actions.

The scriptures say thus:

  • “…desiring whom they observe the vow of celibacy”
  • “Our obeisance be to that supreme godhead, whom the followers of various dharmas worship in various forms in order to attain various fruits”, etc

Etymology: Since he is only attained even by all other means, he is called ‘sidhdhi:’.

अयमॆव ह्युपायैश्च सिद्धिः स्यात् साध्यतॆ यतः |

100. sarvAdhi: (सर्वादिः)

Since bhagavAn is himself the source of all kinds of fruits for such souls – both in this world as well as the nether, he is called ‘sarvAdhi:’ – the source of everything.

This is as shown in the scriptures thus:

  • “Your devotees pray to you – the supreme godhead, the eternal, and the best among men – and attain all of their desires both in this world as well as in the nether”
  • “With the utterance of the name ‘krishNa’ (कृष्ण), they attain all their desires in all three worlds”, etc

Etymology: The source of all attainable fruits is called ‘sarvAdhi:’.

सर्वॆषां पुरुषार्थानां मूलं सर्वादिरीरितः |

Thus ends the first centum (prathama Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SrIvishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hAritha clan, the son of SrIvatsAnga miSra (kUraththAzhwAn) – SrIranganAtha by name, also called SrI parAsara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 9.9 – malligai

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Previous decad

Audio

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the ninth decad, AzhwAr who was engaged in the desire towards the goal, observed that though archAvathAram of emperumAn which is easily enjoyable is present in close proximity, ISvara who is the enjoyable entity was not in his reach, highlighted the following aspects of the enjoyable ISvara, due to his impatience in dealing with the delay in enjoying emperumAn:

  1. his pleasing nature
  2. his ways of protection
  3. his having pleasant limbs
  4. his having vehicle matching his form
  5. his easy approachability for his devotees
  6. his unbounded simplicity
  7. his having most generous forms
  8. his great union
  9. his intent glances etc
  10. his having amazing forms which is the reason for his separation being unbearable

Meditating upon these, due to the sorrow of not being able to enjoy such enjoyable emperumAn as desired, and due to breaking down as a result of seeing entities which remind him of emperumAn and his fondness, AzhwAr calls out being unable to bear the separation even for a fraction of a moment. He sings it in the mood of gOpikAs who were seeing the sunset and were unable to bear the delay in krishNa’s arrival in the evening time after tending the cows.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

sIthAp pirAtti who thought that she could enjoy with perumAL (SrI rAma) in privacy in the forest thinking “If we remain in the capital city [ayOdhyA], we will not be able freely interact with perumAL due to the presence of in-laws”, was made to call out saying as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 28.2 “kAnthAra madhyE vijanE visrushtA bAlEva kanyA vilalApa sIthA” (That sIthA cried like a young girl who was left alone in an uninhabited forest). Similarly, AzhwAr who desired to enter and enjoy in thirunAvAy ended up calling out in fear of the enemies.

Once peRRi (an AchArya) asked nambi thiruvaranga nArAyaNa dhAsar who was returning after hearing thiruvAimozhi from me [nampiLLai] and reaching there [peRRi’s residence] “What is new with nampiLLai today?” nambi thiruvaranga nArAyaNa dhAsar said “We completed hearing nampiLLai’s lecture on aRukkum vinai [previous] decad”. peRRi said “So, you will be enjoying malligai kamazh thenRal (this decad) and mAlaip pUsal (romantic fights in the evening time)”

ALavandhAr would mercifully explain “AzhwAr desired the attainment of emperumAn in the previous decad; since he did not see that he was getting the result he was desiring for, he himself is undergoing the pain of all of the residents of thiruvAyppAdi (gOkulam) in separation of krishNa in one night”. [As this was explained by thirumAlai ANdAn] emperumAnAr mercifully heard this and said “Since AzhwAr is already very weakened due to the suffering, he cannot withstand such sorrow now; hence AzhwAr is going through suffering [of gOpikAs] in one evening time”.

What is it that AzhwAr did in this decad? Since AzhwAr did not leave the samsAra (material realm) which is the hurdle after one acquires knowledge, and since he has desire to reach paramapadham which is the ultimate destination, he was made to suffer at the hands of the hurdles. Even though AzhwAr prayed in thiruviruththam 1 “poynninRa gyAnam” when he acquired knowledge and prayed “Mercifully remove my connection with this samsAra which is the hurdle”, emperumAn did not fulfil that desire of AzhwAr thinking “we should get him to sing a few prabandhams”; this decad is explaining how his distaste for such hurdle has developed and become firm now.

How do AzhwAr‘s actions correlate to vEdhantha methods? [After acquiring knowledge about bhagavAn surviving in this material realm will be most unbearable] It is explaining the principle which is explained in chAndhOgya upanishath “thasya thAvadhEva chiram“. “thasya thAvadhEva chiram yAvanna vimOkshyE athasampathsyE” (After acquiring desire to be liberated, I am waiting for a very long time) [bhagavAn sees it as a short period, AzhwAr sees it as a very long period].

Subsequently, in thiruvAimozhi 3.8 “mudiyAnE”, AzhwAr explained the weakness attained by his senses; here – AzhwAr is explaining how along with the senses, he, who is the abode of those senses, is becoming destroyed. Azhwar is explaining how his gyAnEndhriyams (senses of knowledge) and karmEndhriyams (senses of action) are all getting destroyed together. For the cowhered girls in thiruvAyppAdi, one evening felt like the fourteen years [of separation] in rAmAvathAram. Since the separation there is with emperumAn who is abundant with auspicious qualities, even those feeling of fourteen years will pass; but since AzhwAr is immersed in emperumAn’s nIrmai (simplicity, his mischief), even one day will feel like many eons. [Will the mischief bind anyone?] The qualities do not bind one independently, but because of their presence on emperumAn. As in krishNAvathAram, emperumAn himself is very simple and his mischief is greatly relishable, it is difficult to handle the separation. The sensual pleasures which are considered as enjoyable by the worldly people are considered by AzhwAr as hurdles; such AzhwAr is suffering here without attaining emperumAn just as SrI bhIshma who is like a male tiger, was pierced by arjuna’s arrows and was suffering there after being knocked down.

This decad speaks about the sufferings of the residents of thiruvAyppAdi when krishNa would set out to tend the cows, until he returns. That is, just as sandhyAvandhanam (daily rituals) for brAhmaNas, for the cowherds, tending cows is a routine as per their jAthi (varNa); hence it cannot be avoided. In this manner, as krishNa would go behind the cows, the cowherd firls of thiruvAyppAdi would wait and eagerly look forward to the sunset time, when he returns. When he goes to tend the cows, if they spend the day time in anguish in one way, during the sunset time, if the first batch of cows returns and he is not seen with those cows, the cowherd girls cannot bear that sorrow. That is, he would not be present in the first batch and will be in the last batch, to see the anxiety of the cowherd girls. The sunset time when he arrives, has arrived; the cows which accompany him have also arrived; as his arrival is not seen, at that time, the fragrance of jasmine, favourable aspects such as beautiful kurinji tune, southerly breeze, moon, sound of the ocean, curlew and music from flute started causing pain. Even the music from flute will remind his qualities and cause pain. Previously many rAkshasis (demoniac ladies) such as EkAkshi (one eyed), EkakarNi (one eared) et al spoke harsh words to sIthAp pirAtti first and then thought of further tormenting her together; similarly these harmful entities individually and together torment the cowherd girls and called out krishNa; here AzhwAr himself is calling out with the collective tone of all of those cowherd girls.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 33 – chinna malarkkuzhalum

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chinna malarkkuzhalum algulum menmulaiyum                        45
inniLa vAdai thadavath thAm kaN thuyilum

Word by word meaning

chinnam malar kuzhalum – tresses, adorning themselves with flowers which had just then blossomed.
algulum – waist
mel mulaiyum – soft bosom
in iLa vAdai thadava – being stroked by the sweet, youthful northerly winds
kaN thuyilum – sleeping (happily)

vyAkyAnam

chinnam malarkkuzhalum – having tresses which have spread flowers. While they are not supposed to adorn their tresses with flowers unless the nAyaka himself strings it, as mentioned in thiruppAvai 2malarittu nAm mudiyOm” (we will not plat and adorn our hair with flowers) it is amazing that they have decorated their hair with flowers! chinnam – to spread out

kuzhalum algulum menmulaiyum inniLavAdai thadava – how they get the pleasures when touched by the northerly wind, just as they would get if stroked by their beloved on each and every limb separately!

inniLa vAdai – it is like an arrow with poison applied on its head.

iLa vAdai – the wind is becoming youthful by torturing others repeatedly.

thAm kaNthuyilum – can they, being separated from their beloved, sleep? Should they not be similar to what has been mentioned in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 5-5 “porukayaRkaNNiNai thunjA” (my eyes which are similar to two fighting fish are not sleeping)? Since they are sleeping it is possible that these are not their eyes, but eyes borrowed from others!

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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