Daily Archives: August 2, 2019

thiruvAimozhi – 9.6 – urugumAl

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Full series >> Ninth Centum

Previous decad

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Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the sixth decad, previously, AzhwAr became extremely anguished on looking at entities which reminded him of emperumAn; to pacify him, emperumAn manifested his qualities to him; seeing them, AzhwAr highlighted the following aspects:

  1. his amazing form/nature
  2. his unconditioned relationship [with AzhwAr]
  3. his magnanimous nature
  4. his ultimate simplicity
  5. his obedience towards his devotees
  6. his great love
  7. the ultimate state of his love
  8. his eternal regard [for AzhwAr] without any expectation [from AzhwAr]
  9. his enjoyable beauty
  10. his eagerness in enjoying AzhwAr

Meditating upon these, AzhwAr becomes emaciated due to the great pleasure in the distinguished experience of such qualities.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

Previously AzhwAr said without any desire to live anymore in thiruvAimozhi 9.5.10ezha naNNi nAmum nam vAna nAdanOdu onRinOm” (Having become like-minded with emperumAn who is in paramapadham which is the apt destination for us, we are also setting out to leave); at this state, emperumAn should either come and present himself to AzhwAr to retain him or lose him. At this stage, when thiruvadi (hanuman) arrived, while sIthAp pirAtti was anguishing due to the many days of suffering, and perumAL not having arrived, still she was reminded of her twelve years of wonderful togetherness with perumAL as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 33.17  “samAdhvAdhaSathathrAham rAghavasya nivESanE | bhunjAnAmAnushAn bhOgAn sarva kAma samrudhdhinI  ||” (I remained with perumAL in the palace for twelve years with all possible enjoyments of humans). In the same way AzhwAr remembered the intimate union he had with emperumAn in thiruvAimozhi 8.7iruththum viyandhu“. The reason for this is – he should live so that he can complete the kainkaryam he has taken up [i.e singing thiruvAimozhi]; alternative reason – the fortune of emperumAn who is eagerly looking forward to hearing this [thiruvAimozhi] from AzhwAr; another reason – it is the fortune of chEthanas (souls) who get to acquire taste towards bhagavath vishayam through the overflowing devotional love of AzhwAr which comes out as this thiruvAimozhi. In this manner, AzhwAr got reminded about the union in “iruththum viyandhu“.

[SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 33.17 is explained here]

samA dhvAdhaSa – sIthAp pirAtti said “Son! I who am suffering alone here, greatly enjoyed an intimate union with perumAL for twelve years in the palace of my father-in-law!” Here, emperumAn who united/interacted with AzhwAr in an orderly manner [he being lord and others being servitors, as in thiruvAimozhi 4.5vIRRirundhu“], interacted with AzhwAr in a disorderly manner as said in thiruvAimozhi 8.7.8mUvulagum than neRiyA vayiRRiRkoNdu – siRiyEnudaich chindhaiyuL ninRozhindhAn” (he who is having the three worlds inside him without disregarding the protector-protected relationship, stood in my heart, in me who is very lowly); not only AzhwAr recollected that experience, he also started experiencing the same now; that is, AzhwAr spoke about the qualities and physical beauty of emperumAn who is supreme, who disregarded his supremacy and interacted in a humble manner with AzhwAr, and started feeling that he is having the same experience now and becomes broken, thinking about emperumAn’s Seelam (simplicity). nanjIyar would blissfully say “Just as seeing the bottom of an ocean, how is it possible for our AchAryas to connect the experience of iruththum viyandhu decad, here!” While AzhwAr did not attain emperumAn, due to enjoying emperumAn’s Seela guNam, AzhwAr becomes broken. ALavandhAr would mercifully explain “This is AzhwAr’s meditation on emperumAn’s qualities, with displeasure”.

[Similar explanation is found in thiruvAimozhi 7.6 pravESam] SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.26 “bahavO nrupa” (Oh king there are many qualities) – dhaSaratha chakravarthi who planned to perform coronation for perumAL (SrI rAma), thought “for sixty thousand years, we carefully ruled the kingdom in a noble manner; if I place the responsibility on a small child [young SrI rAma], will that be reasonable or not?” He thought “let us analyse this in the people’s assembly” and arranged for the same. As the whole palace started trembling as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.18 “janaughOdhghushta sannAdhO vimAnam kampayanniva” (the palace started trembling on hearing the joyful uproar of the people) to make him think that he should rebuild the palace, he thought “They acknowledged my desire and accepted the same; still, should I not ask them to reveal their thoughts from their own mouths?” He asked “come on”, as in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.25 “kathamnu mayi dharmENa” (Why do you desire for my son, while I am ruling righteously?) – I ruled the whole earth for sixty thousand years ensuring that the weak is protected from the strong, as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.7 “pANdarasyAthapathrasyach chAyAm jaritham mayA” (I became old under the shade of this white umbrella (of my throne) while caring for the whole world) – Wandering under the pearl studded umbrella without seeking any pleasure for myself and cared for your protection only; when I asked your opinion, should you not have told “Do you have to do this when you are alive? Should you not have waited until your death?” or “Should you not do it when it is impossible to manage?” Instead you are speaking as if you have been ruled by a cruel murderer and now found a righteous person; what is the mistake I have done for your abandoning me and choosing my son?; [the citizens replied] You have not committed any mistake towards us; the qualities of your son is the main reason; there is no shortcoming in how you cared for us; you begot a son with great qualities and stole everyone’s heart! bahava: (many) – his eagerness to protect is much greater than yours. SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 13.20 “dhAthUnAm iva” (thArA tells vAli “just like himalayas is rich with minerals, SrI rAma is rich with auspicious qualities) – Just as value of material is measured with the value of gold, the qualities and faults of people are measured based on the same qualities present in SrI rAma. SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 26.2 “hrudhayAni AmamanthEva janasya guNavaththayA” (Due to having wonderful qualities, he appeared like churning the hearts of people).

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – avathArikai – Part 2

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In thamizh literature it is said “kadalanna kAmaththarAgilum mAdhar madalUrAr maRRaiyAr mEl” (even if their lust is as deep as the sea, women will not engage in madal). Thus, while men are permitted to engage in madal, women are forbidden from engaging in it. When this is the case, why did parakAla nAyaki engage in madal? This should not be taken as something forbidden by vEdhas, just like the order of a king [king’s order should never be crossed]. Since lust lends itself to the wishes of individuals, there is nothing wrong if someone engages in madal in the matter of that person’s earnest desire. If it is forbidden by vEdhas, even lust should function just like obeying the order of a king. But we do not see it that way.

Who were the ones who had engaged in madal? SrI rAma, in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 64-75 says “sadhEva gandharva manushya pannagam jagath saSailam parivarthayAmyaham” (I will invert the world which is inhabited by dhEvas, gandharvas (celestial entities), human beings and snakes). He also says in SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 60-17 “aSOka sOkApanudhaSOkOpahatha chEthasam I thvan nAmAnam kuru priyAsandharSanEna mAm II” (Oh the aSOkA tree which removes the sorrow of all! By revealing the whereabouts of my beloved, turn me, who is hurt deeply, into one without sorrow, just like your name, aSOka); he says in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 124-7 “na mE snAnam bahumatham vasthrANyAbharaNAni cha I tham vinA kaikEyiputhram bharatham dharmachAriNam II” (without the righteous bharatha, the son of kaikEyi, I do not desire bath, dresses or ornaments) and further says in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 33-7 “yA na SakyA purA dhrashtum bhUthairAkASagairapi I thAmadhya sIthAm paSyanthi rAjamArgagathA janA: II ” (sIthA, who could not be seen by those who live in the skies too, is seen today by all on the regal path). Thus, those who had been smitten by love would engage in madal. We have seen similar behaviour in people such as vAsavadhaththai. We have seen only those who are belonging to regal families engaging in madal. Is this parakAla nAyaki too a rAjaputhri (daughter of a regal entity)?

SrI vishNu purANam 1-9-11 says “sa SlAghya: sa guNi dhanyas sa kulInas sa budhdhimAn I sa SUra: sa cha vikrAnthO yam thvam dhEvi nirIkshasE II” (Oh SrIdhEvi! Whoever you glance at mercifully is the greatest; he is the repository of all auspicious qualities; he is fortunate; he is born in a great clan; he is wise; he is valorous; he is brave). mUnRAm thiruvandhAdhi pAsuram 10 says “thEsum thiRalum thiruvum uruvamum mAsil kudippiRappum maRRavaiyum pEsil valam purindha vAn sangam koNdAn pErOdha nalam purindhu nangadaiyum vandhu ” (if one were to recite the divine names of the one who has the white conch which has curled towards the right, he or she will get all benefits such as esteem, capability to win over enemies, wealth, beauty, being born in a faultless clan and various others which have not been mentioned, with the benefits coming on their own). periya thirumozhi 1-1-9 says “kulam tharum selvam thandhidum adiyAr paduthuyar AyinavellAm nilandharam seyyum nILvisumbaruLum aruLodu perunilam aLikkum valam tharum maRRum thandhidum peRRa thAyinum Ayina seyyum nalam tharum sollai nAn kaNdukoNdEn nArAyaNA ennum nAmam” (By reciting the divine name nArAyaNa, one will get a great lineage, wealth, removal of all sorrows, paramapadham (SrI vaikuNtam), emperumAn’s mercy, kainkaryam to emperumAn, bravery, many other benefits which  have not been stated, more than what a mother will be able to do for her son; I found all these in the divine words namO nArAyaNa).  Just as it has been mentioned in these references, by a mere glance from SrIman nArAyaNa, she (parakAla nAyaki) will get all the greatness of a rajaputhri and hence there is no impediment in her engaging with madal.

She was like a withered garland, having been separated from bhagavAn. Having deep love for him, while she decided to engage with madal and ventured into it, her face was cool and beautiful similar to one who had had a bath and a satisfying feast, unlike the cruel face with anger of one who was fiery. This mood is similar to the one described in periya thirumozhi 2-7-2 “thuLambadu muRuval thOzhiyarkkaruLAL thuNaimulai sAndhu koNdaNiyAL kuLambadu kuvaLaik kaNNiNai ezhudhAL kOlananmalar kuzhaRkaNiyAL vaLambadu munnIr vaiyam munnaLandha mAlennum mAlinamozhiyAL” (This girl is having her speech aligned with her bewildered look. She is not smiling at her friends with her teeth which are like the seeds of pomegranate; she is not decorating her bosom with sandalwood paste; she is not applying black pigment to her eyes, which are like the purple lily in the pond; she is not wearing beautiful flowers on her hair; she is saying that emperumAn measured the worlds which are surrounded with oceans, which are the repository of invaluable gems).

bhImasEna told hanumAn that SrI rAma’s divine form with bow in his hand is manifested in hanumAn’s body as mentioned in mahAbhAratham AraNya parvam 149-8 “nirguNa paramAthmA’sau dhEham dhEvyApyathishtathi I thamaham gyAna vigyEyam nAvamanyE na langhayE II” (that supreme being SrI rAma, with bow which has not been drawn, is present in your body, having permeated it; I will not dishonour him and I will not cross him over). Just as bhImasEna told hanumAn that SrI rAma’s divine form is manifested in his body, parakAla nAyaki’s friend saw the firmness in nAyaki’s body that she will engage in madal. Knowing that the nAyaki is going to engage in madal just as mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 4-6-1OrppAl ivvoNNudhal uRRa nal nOy idhu thERinOm” (we are very confident that this girl who has a beautiful forehead is afflicted with a distinguished disease and we can prove it), the friend tried to dissuade her saying “ Considering your lineage, beauty and qualities and considering his greatness just as mentioned in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 77-32 “thayA sa rAjarishi suthO’bhirAmAyA samEyivAnuththamarAjakanyayA I athIva rAma: SuSubhE’thikAmayA vibhU: SriyA vishNuivAmarESvara: II” (that SrI rAma, the son of rAjarishi dhaSaratha, being together with sIthAppirAtti who is beautiful and a regal lady, appeared like vishNu bhagavAn, who is the dhEva of all dhEvas, along with his consort SrIdhEvi), this firmness that you have of engaging in madal is not proper. The people of the town will despise you. Your father and mother too will give up on you. Responding to that, the nAyaki proves here that other than engaging in madal there is no other distinguished benefit for her birth, just as nammAzhwAr had mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 5-3-2enseyyum Uravar kavvai thOzhi ini nammai” (what will the slanderous words of the townspeople will do me in this matter?), in thiruvAimozhi 5-3-6annai enseyyilen Ur en sollilen” (what does it matter as to what my mother does to me or what the people of the town say?) and in thiruvAimozhi 5-3-10yAm madal Urndhum emmAzhiyangaip pirAnudaith thUmalar thaNNandhuzhAy malar koNdu sUduvOm” (even if I have to engage in madal, I will do that so that emperumAn who has beautiful and divine hand holding the divine chakra will grant me the cool garland of thuLasi which has sacred petals and I will adorn it on my head).

Instead of engaging in madal immediately, why is parakAla nAyaki responding to the questions of her friend and spending time?  Just as lakshmaNa came running once SrI rAma ordered him, as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 21-22 “chApamAnaya saumithrE” (bring the bow, oh son of sumithrA!) and just as emperumAn came running as soon as AzhwAr mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 5-3-11iraikkum karum kadal vaNNan” (emperumAn who has the complexion of the resounding dark ocean), parakAla nAyaki thinks that emperumAn will be upset (if she engages in madal) and come running to her. Hence she threatens him like those who stand behind a screen and threaten others. Her friend is also playing her role in the hope that he will come at some point of time and spend time with the nAyaki.

We will next take up the first two lines of periya thirumadal pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 9.5.11 – inbam thalaippeydhu

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Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, AzhwAr says “Whosoever understands the goodness in this decad, will not be able to sustain”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

inbam thalaippeydhu engum thazhaiththa pallUzhikkuth
than pugazh Eththath thanakkaruL seydha mAyanaith
then kurugUrch chatakOpan sol AyiraththuL ivai
onbadhOdonRukkum mUvulagum urugumE

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

inbam thalaippeydhu – causing joy
engum thazhaiththa – spread everywhere
than pugazh – his glorious qualities
pal Uzhikku – forever
Eththa – to praise
thanakku – for AzhwAr
aruL seydha – showered infinite grace
mAyanai – amazing lord
then – organised
kurugUr – leader of AzhwArthirunagari
satakOpan sol – mercifully spoken by AzhwAr
AyiraththuL – among thousand pAsurams
ivai onbadhOdu onRukku – for the first nine pAsurams filled with one level of sorrow and the tenth pAsuram which is filled with greater level of sorrow
mU ulagum – three worlds
urugum – will become fluid due to the love.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

AzhwAr, the leader of AzhwArthirunagari, was showered with the amazing lord’s infinite grace, to praise forever, his glorious qualities which are spread everywhere causing joy; the three worlds will become fluid due to the love in this decad, among the thousand pAsurams, where the first nine pAsurams are filled with one level of sorrow and the tenth pAsuram is filled with greater level of sorrow.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • inbam thalaippeydhu engum thazhaiththaengum thazhaiththa inbam thalaippeydhu – Having unlimited love which is spread all over the world.
  • pal Uzhikkuth than pugazh Eththa – To praise his qualities forever.
  • thanakku aruL seydha – For AzhwAr who was one among the samsAris [worldly people], bestowing “mayarvaRa madhinalam” (blemishless knowledge and devotion).
  • mAyanai – The amazing lord who specially blessed only me among all of the samsAris.
  • inbam thalaippeydhu engum thazhaiththa – than pugazh Eththa – pal Uzhikku – thanakkaruL seydha mAyanai – Alternative explanation – He made me enjoy forever his auspicious qualities which are spread everywhere and which give infinite joy to those who enjoy them. It is said that AzhwAr sustained himself with this “than pugazh Eththa thanakkaruL seydha” only. AzhwAr considered the experience of nithyasUris and his own similarity with them in attaining the goal, and became anguished; but looking at samsAris who have lost this opportunity forever, he consoled himself saying “even this anguish is as good as the ultimate result”. As AzhwAr speaks about himself in third person as in “satakOpan sol“, he could address himself as “thanakku aruL seydha” (emperumAn who blessed AzhwAr) [instead of enakku aruL seydha]; this is similar to what is said [by vAlmIki bhagavAn himself] in SrI rAmAyaNam “vAlmIki bhagavAn rishi:” (Sage vAlmIki bhagavAn).
  • onbadhOdu onRukkum – This decad where the first nine pAsurams which are considered to be filled with sorrow, appear to be filled with joy in comparison to the tenth pAsuram which is filled with great sorrow. In the first nine pAsurams, AzhwAr felt great anguish while being alive, due to being reminded by the entities which are similar to emperumAn; but in the tenth pAsuram, he lost all interest in living itself.
  • mU ulagum urugumE – No one will be able to sustain. After AzhwAr said “this world should not be destroyed hearing my cry”, the residents of this world ended up breaking down [seeing his anguish].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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