Daily Archives: December 4, 2018

thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 8 – Odu manam seygai urai

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 1.8

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s divine pAsurams which highlight emperumAn‘s honesty where he treats honest and dishonest people equally and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? Though surrendering to emperumAn is very enjoyable, as those who surrender are samsAris (materialistic people) who are dishonest in their three faculties viz mind, body and speech, will it not be difficult to have smooth interaction between AthmA and emperumAn? As those who tactically push water uphill where it will not be naturally possible for the water to flow, AzhwAr explains emperumAn’s Arjava guNam (honesty) which makes him interact with even those who surrendered to him very recently, considering their dishonesty as the reason for his honesty; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this starting with “Odu manam seygai urai“.

pAsuram

Odu manam seygai urai onRi nillAdhArudanE
kUdi nedumAl adimai koLLunilai – nAdaRiya
Orndhavan than semmai urai seydha mARan ena
Eyndhu niRkum vAzhvAm ivai

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word-by-word meanings

Odum – running (to engage in worldly pleasures)
manam – heart
seygai – body
urai – speech (these)
onRi nillAdhArudanE – with those dishonest persons who cannot have these in harmony
kUdi – uniting
nedumAl – sarvESvaran
adimai koLLum nilai – the quality of accepting them as servitors
nAdu aRiya – to have the people well aware
Orndhu – analysed
avanthan semmai – his honesty
urai seydha – mercifully spoke
mARan ena – as one thinks about AzhwAr
vAzhvu Am ivai – these wealth which fit naturally with self
Eyndhu niRkum – fit well and remain forever.

Simple Translation

As one thinks about AzhwAr who analysed sarvESvaran’s quality of accepting those dishonest persons who cannot have their wavering heart, body and speech in harmony and mercifully spoke about emperumAn‘s honesty to make the people to be well aware, wealth which fits the self naturally will remain well, forever.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • Odu manam seygai urai onRi nillAdhArudanE kUdi – Uniting with dishonest persons who act in a crooked manner with wavering heart as said in periya thirumozhi 1.1.4 “ninRavA nillA nenju“, and the body and the speech which follow that wavering mind, where these three faculties are not in harmony.
  • nedumAl adimai koLLum nilai – The quality of honesty of sarvESvaran, who is greater than all, to have such dishonest persons as his servitors.
  • nAdaRiya Orndhu – analysed to bring awareness to the residents of the world.
  • avan than semmai – His honesty as explained in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 17.15 “thEnathEtham anuvrathA:” (hence everyone was devoted to SrI rAma) and SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1.97 “rAmO rAjyam upAsithvA” (SrI rAma rules the kingdom).
  • urai seydha – Mercifully spoke. That is, AzhwAr mercifully explained emperumAn‘s honest interactions with nithyasUris (eternal associates of emperumAn in paramapadham) in “Odum puL ERich chUdum thaNduzhAy nIdu ninRavai Adum ammAnE” (bhagavAn, the unconditional master, climbing on garudAzhwAr wanders around, wearing cool thuLasi garland and joyfully engages with these eternal entities) [1st pAsuram], and his honest interactions with nithya samsAris (those who are eternally bound in this material realm) in “ammAnAy” (being the lord) [2nd pAsuram], “kaNNAvAn” (being the controller)  [3rd pAsuram], and up to “nIr purai vaNNan” ( one who is having water like honest nature) [11th pAsuram]. Spoke in this manner.
  • mARan ena – As one thinks that “this is nammAzhwAr who mercifully spoke about emperumAn‘s honesty”.
  • Eyndhu niRkum vAzhvAm ivai – One will acquire naturally fit wealth [i.e. kainkaryam] and that will remain perpetually as said in nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi 61senRonRi ninRa thiru” (the wealth that is coming to me and fitting in me well).

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – pUrva pItikA – Part 7

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The discussion on ‘saguNa / nirguNa’ brahman:

If someone opines that the worship of brahman attributed with all auspicious qualities (saguNa brahmam) is only for lowly results such as attainment of heaven et al, and that the worship of Brahman devoid of all qualities (nirguNa brahmam) is only for those who desire for the supreme salvation, then down be with such deaf people who have not listened to the scriptures which declare the greatness of the thousand names of the Lord with all auspicious qualities as ‘releasing all creatures from the clutches of samsAra’ and ‘making the practitioners reach the Supreme brahman’.

When yudhishtira has asked “which is the loftiest of all dharmas in your opinion?”and bhIshma has declared “this is the loftiest of all dharmas in the best of my knowledge” in reply, and thus when bhIshma has clearly intended to propound the greatest of all dharmas – namely the chanting of thousand names of the Lord – selected from the most sacred of all scriptures, if someone opines that this is only  for a lowly result, then it becomes imperative to discuss that entity superior to the said brahman, which would be a better solution to attain a higher result.

adhvaithi say that the worship of the saguNa brahman is the first step in achieving the worship of nirguNa brahman and eventual attainment of salvation; because, it would be wrong to differentiate between saguNa and nirguNa brahmams and thus propound the worship of saguNa brahmam as the means to attain nirguNa brahmam. This is simply not the case.

Also, when the Supreme brahman, bhagavan is in fact attributed with so much of auspicious qualities, what would be the basis to call him ‘nirguNa’ (devoid of qualities)? If such basis is known to be ‘avidhyA’ (ignorance), then the tenets of vEdhas are truly beautiful, which prescribe the brahman attributed with all ignorance, confusions and other faults as the supreme medicine to a dying mortal who has been downed with the poison of samsAra effected with birth, death, passion etc. [Note Bhattar’s sarcasm here]

Also, how would the statements supporting the saguNa brahmam lose importance at all? If your reply to this question is “because the nirguNa vAkyas (statements propounding the nirguNa brahmam) refute them”, then can it not also be said the other way, as “the saguNa vAkyas refute the nirguNa vAkyas, and hence saguNa vAkyas gain more importance”? Then, the credits and oppositions to both of these categories of statements are alike. None gain superiority over the other!

In another sense, if at all it is true that the Supreme brahman is devoid of all qualities, and that the ultimate aim of all mortal souls is to attain that nirguNa brahmam, then why did the vEdhas and other scriptures propound the saguNa brahmam in the first place? If your reply to this is “in order to attribute all qualities to the brahman and later show that the brahman indeed is devoid of all those qualities”, then let there not be such refutations at all. If no qualities are attributed to the brahman unnecessarily in the first place, then there would not arise any need to refute each of such statements. Why this over burden at all? Haven’t we learnt from the mahAbhAratha which says “staying away at a safe distance from marsh is much better than touching it and washing off the soil later”?

 Also, it is not a universally applicable logic that when two consecutive statements are mutually in disagreement in their meanings, then the latter is more powerful over the former statement. If we say that certain object “is present in this place”, and later say that the same object “is not present in another place”, nobody would say that the two statements are contradicting, although the meanings differ per context. For all that we know, if the former statement is weaker, it is never possible to write the latter statement without refuting it. If it is written without refuting the former, then it means the two are not mutually contradicting. Thus, even if the saguNa and nirguNa statements come one after the other, they do not refute each other, since they are not mutually contradicting. If it is understood that it is always a fact the latter statement refutes the former ones (irrespective of whether they contradict or not), and thus declare that the nirguNa vAkyas refute the attributes of brahman, then the vEdhas also declare that “void itself is the truth” towards the end. Will that mean that the presence of Supreme brahman itself is refuted? If it is understood that such statements are born out of the ignorance of the lower mortals bound in this samsAra, and thus do not apply to the Supreme Self; then it can also be considered that the vEdhas themselves are born out of the ignorance of the brahman and thus do not apply to the Supreme Entity.

vEdhas intend to negate all bad qualities of the soul-body relationship of the Supreme brahman with all other entities. In order to achieve this, they speak the nirguNa vAkyas.  However, before negating any such bad qualities, they attribute all auspiciousness to the bhagavAn, refuting all faults. That is how the upanishath proudly declare “He is devoid of sins, and does not undergo aging” etc.

Forgetting this, and applying the truth and falsity to the saguNa and nirguNa statements of the vEdhas is nothing but deception unto the vEdhas. If at all the source of knowledge itself is contaminated with falsities, then it loses all its credibility. It would be like possessing unreal gold or silver, which is not very pleasing. As said earlier, if you argue that refuting nirguNa brahmam by attributing qualities to the Supreme Self is false, then, by the same logic we can say that refuting saguNa brahmam by voiding the brahman of all qualities is also equally false. 

The scholars knowledgeable about the Supreme Entity opine thus: The statements supporting the saguNa brahamam intend to speak about the numerous auspicious qualities of the Supreme brahman, such as knowledge, power etc. Similarly, the statements supporting the nirguNa brahmam intend to speak about the voidance of the innumerable faults such as passion, hatred etc. in the Supreme brahman. The vEdhas attribute many auspicious qualities to the brahman by describing Him as ‘sathyakAma:’ (the one whose desires are unfaltering), ‘sathyasankalpa:’ (the one whose desires are always fulfilled) etc. Thus, when it says ‘nirguNam’ (being devoid of qualities), it only means it is speaking only about those qualities which are opposite to the said auspicious ones. That means it is refuting only the undesirable qualities in the brahman and attributing all desirable auspicious qualities unto Him.

This is just like the logic of using words such as ‘padha-AhavanIya’, ‘brAhmaNa-parivrAjaka’, ‘brAhmaNa-kaundinya’, ‘gO-baleevardha’ etc. (usage of common words and special words together, without mutual rebuttals), and is free to be used here as well.

Thus, for the expounders of nirguNa brahmam, it comes as asphyxiation when the vEdhas refute the blemishes in the Supreme brahman as well as attribute all the auspicious qualities to Him in a single statement that begins by saying “He is devoid of all sins” (apahathapApma) and ends by saying “His desires are unfaltering, and are ever fulfilled” (sathyakAma: sathyasankalpa:).

Similarly, another line begins by saying “He who is invisible” (yath tath adhrEshyam), and ends by saying “The learned see that eternal, all-pervading, omnipresent, atomic, ceaseless entity who is also the originator of all” (nithyam vibhum sarvagatham susUkshmam thadhavyayam yadhbhUthayOnim paripaSyanthi dhIrA:).

Such doctrines do not expect application of heavy logic such as in saying “The pillar is there. The pot is not there” etc. The author of brahmasUthras, SrI vEdhavyAsa has explained this invisibility on the one hand and attribution of the auspicious qualities on the other in one of his aphorisms that says “He is possessed with invisibility and other qualities, since the scriptures declare thus”.

(to be continued…)

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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आर्ति प्रबंधं – ५९

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आर्ति प्रबंधं

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उपक्षेप

मामुनि कहतें हैं, “ मेरे आचार्य तिरुवाईमोळिपिळ्ळै के कृपा से आपके चरण कमलों से मेरा संबंध का ज्ञान हुआ। हे रामानुज! आप कब मेरे यह साँसारिक बँधन को काटेँगे जिसके पश्चात (आत्मा के सुहृद) पेरिय पेरुमाळ गरुड़ में सवार पधारेँगे और अपना दिव्य मुख के दर्शन देँगे? कृपया बताईये के आप यह कब करेँगे?  

पासुरम ५९

एंदै तिरुवरंगर येरार गरुडन मेल

वंदु मुगम काट्टी वळि नड़त्त चिन्दै सैदु

इप्पोल्ला उडंबुतनै पोक्कुवदु एन्नाळकोलो?

सोल्लाय एतिरासा सूळ्ंदु

शब्दार्थ

एंदै  – ( इस शरीर से आत्मा के निकलते समय) मेरे माता और पिता

तिरुवरंगर – पेरिय पेरुमाळ , जो कोयिल (श्रीरंगम) में नित्य वास करतें हैं

मुगम काट्टी  – अपने सुंदर कस्तूरि तिलक , दिव्य मुस्कराहट के दर्शन देँगे

वंदु – मेरे पास आकर

येरार गरुडन मेल  – उन्के तेजस्वी वाहन गरुड़ में सवार

वळि नड़त्त  – “अर्चिरादि मार्ग” नामक श्रेयसी मार्ग में ले चलेंगे

एतिरासा  – हे ! एम्पेरुमानार

सोल्लाय  – कृपया मुझे बताइये

इप्पोल्ला उडंबुतनै पोक्कुवदु एन्नाळकोलो?  – इस नीच शरीर का नाश कब होगा और यह आत्मा कब आपका बनेगा?

चिन्दै सैदु  – कृपया विचार कीजिये

सूळ्ंदु  – और मेरे शांति और ख़ुशी केलिए  कृपया मुझे निश्चित रूप में बताइये

सरल अनुवाद

श्री रामानुज के प्रति नित्य कैंकर्य के तृष्णा में मामुनिगळ पूँछते हैं कि, उन्के(श्री रामानुज के) नित्य कैंकर्य के नियमित होने केलिए कब इस शरीर से उन्को मुक्ति मिलेगा। अंतिम स्थिति की वर्णन करतें हुए मामुनि कहतें है कि श्रीरंगम के पेरिय पेरुमाळ अपने तेजस्वि वाहन गरुड़ में पधारेँगे और अर्चिरादि मार्ग के द्वारा परमपद ले जायेँगे।  

 

स्पष्टीकरण

श्री रामानुज के प्रति कैंकर्य करने कि अधिकतर तृष्णा के कारण ,मामुनिगळ पूँछते हैं, “मुक्ति केलिए इस शरीर का छूटना आवश्यक है, यह शरीर कब छूटेगा? कोयिल नामक श्रीरंगम में शयन मेरे माता और पिता पेरिय पेरुमाळ को अंतिम स्थिति में देखूँगा। “अम चिरै पुळ पागन” (तिरुनेडुंतांडगम ६) से वर्णन किये गए सुंदर गरुड़ में सवार, पेरिय पेरुमाळ पधारेँगे। चँद्रमा जैसे दिव्य मुख, (पेरिय तिरुमोळि ४.४.५ ) “नल कदिर मुत्त वेंणगै चेयवाय” से चित्रित सुंदर मुस्कुराहट तथा कस्तूरी तिलक जैसे मेरे मनमोहक विषयों के दर्शन देंगे। पेरिय पेरुमाळ को तिरुमंगैयाळवार,अपने पेरिय तिरुमोळि के ३. ७. ६ वे पासुरम में “अरंगत्तुरैयुम इनतुणैवनान ताम” से श्रीरंगम के प्रिय सखा कहतें हैं और आगे प्रस्ताव करतें हैं कि वे (वराह चरम श्लोक)”नयामि परमां गतिं” के अनुसार अर्चिरादि मार्ग के द्वारा परमपद ले जायेँगे। हे स्वामि एम्पेरुमानार! नम्माळ्वार नें (तिरुवाय्मोळि ५.८.७) से “उन चरणम तंदु एन सनमम कलयाये” गाया था। अपने चरण कमलों में आश्रय देकर मेरे जन्म मरण का यह निरंतर चक्कर से कब छुटकारा देँगे? इस शरीर को हटाकर मेरे आत्मा को कब अपनाएँगे?   श्री रामायणं में “पूर्णे चतुर्दसे वर्षे” वचन से श्री राम को अयोध्या वापस लौटने का १४ साल का समय दिया गया था। यह समय का निश्चित उल्लेख ही भरत केलिए आश्वासन था, कि श्री राम निश्चय १४ वर्षों में लौटेंगे। “आरुरोहरतम हृष्ट:” के अनुसार भरत को वही किंचित ख़ुशी देने वाली विषय थी। परन्तु मुझे ऐसे कोई भी विषय आश्वासन नहीं देती हैं। अत: कृपया मुझे प्रसन्न करने वाली उत्तर दें। तिरुवाय्मोळि १०.१०.११ के “अवावर सूळ्” और पेरिय तिरुवन्दादि १६ वे पासुरम के “सोल्लु नीयाम अरिय चूळ्ंदु” के जैसे ही इस पासुरम के “सूळ्ंदु” का अर्थ है।

अडियेन प्रीती रामानुज दासी

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