Monthly Archives: September 2018

nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 91 – thamar AvAr

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that for those who follow these three means (please refer to the introduction given under pAsurams 89 and 90), devotion to emperumAn is a common denominator and that these people are superior to those who dwell in both nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm) and leelA vibhUthi (materialistic realm).

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

thamarAvAr yAvarkkum thAmarai mElArkkum
amararkkum AdaravArththARkum amarargaL
thAL thAmarai malargaLittiRainji mAlvaNNan
thAL thAmarai adaivOm enRu

Word for Word Meanings

mAlvaNNan – emperumAn with dark complexion
thAL thAmarai – at his divine, lotus-like feet
malargaL ittu – offering flowers
iRainji – worshipping
thAL thAmarai adaivOm enRu – will attain those divine, lotus-like feet
thamar AvAr – those who are followers
thAmarai mElArkkum – to brahmA who was born in the lotus shooting out of [emperumAn’s] navel
Adu aravu ArththARkum – to Siva who has tied (to his body) snakes which are dancing
amararkkum – to nithyasUris (permanent dwellers of SrIvaikuNtam)
yAvarkkum – and to all others
amarargaL – will be deities

vyAkyAnam

thAL thAmarai malargaL ittu – without looking at what type of flower it is, offering any type of flower at the divine feet of emperumAn. Just as it is mentioned in thiruvAimozhi 1-6-1purivadhum pugai pUvE” there is no flower which is disliked by emperumAn. Alternatively, this can be construed as “superior lotus flower for the superior, divine feet of emperumAn”. This activity (of offering flowers to emperumAn) is one involving the body, also called as kAyika seyal (serving emperumAn through the body) [malargaL ittu].

iRainji – praising him whole heartedly. This is an activity of speech (praising).

mAl vaNNan thAL thAmarai adaivOm enRu thamarAvAr – those who are totally devoted to emperumAn thinking that they would attain the divine lotus-like feet of emperumAn who has a dark complexion. This is the activity of mind (thinking).

adaivOm enRu thamarAvAr – meditating through the mind, keeping only emperumAn who said “surrender to me” as the means.

thamarAvAr – these people will be servile to emperumAn through all three faculties of mind, speech and body [as mentioned above].

thAmarai mElARkum – brahmA who stayed on the lotus and created the worlds; the lotus, which is the origin for creation of all the worlds.

AdaravArththARkum – Siva, the deity for annihilation, who has tied down many snakes, which keep dancing, as ornaments.

yAvarkkum – to all the other dhEvas (celestial entities) such as indhra, chandhra et al and to all the people. This indicates all the entities who are in leelA vibhUthi (materialistic realm)

amararkkum – to the indefatigable nithyasUris. This indicates all the entities in the nithya vibhUthi (spiritualistic realm).

amarargaL – these people are superior to all the entities in both the realms.

amarargaL – deities; very pious people. Didn’t nammAzhwAr too praise such people in his thiruviruththam 79 “sIdhanaiyE thozhuvAr vinnuLArilum sIriarE” (those who worship only emperumAn are superior to even nithyasUris who dwell in paramapadham) and in thiruvAimozhi 7-10-11 “dhEvar vaigal thIrththangalE enRu pUsiththu nalgi uraippar tham dhEviyarkkE ” (nithyasUris will tell their consorts constantly, and with joy that such people are very pious)!

We will take up the 92nd pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 7.6.2 – enRukol sErvadhu?

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Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram, AzhwAr calls out with great anguish saying “Even brahmA et al who are focussed on other goals, are attracted to your lotus feet; when will I reach there?”

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “You are the AthmA of all creatures and the companion during disasters; when will I reach your divine feet?”

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

enRukol sErvadhu? andhO! aran nAnmugan Eththum seyya
nin thiruppAdhaththai yAn nila nIr eri kAl viN uyir
enRivai thAm mudhalA muRRumAy ninRa endhAyO!
kunReduththu Anirai mEyththu avai kAththa em kUththAvO!

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

nilam nIr eri kAl viN – five elements which are earth, water, fire, air and ether
uyir – creatures with material bodies
enRu – viz
ivai thAm – these
mudhalA – starting with
muRRum – all entities
Ay – having as prakAra (form)
ninRa – be
endhAy – my lord

(not just this common protection for all, but special protection through incarnations)
Anirai – herds of cows
mEyththu – tending them

(to eliminate the suffering which was caused by rain)
kunRu – mountain
eduththu – lifted
avai kAththa – protected them
em kUththA – oh one who manifested heart-capturing activities!
aran – rudhra
nAnmugan – brahmA
Eththum – to praise
seyya – attractive
nin – your
thiruppAdhaththai – divine feet
yAn – I (who am devoted to you without any other expectation)
sErvadhu – reach
enRukol – when?
andhO – alas!

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

My lord tended herds of cows and protected them by lifting the mountain; having all entities starting with five great elements which are earth, water, fire, air and ether, and all creatures with material bodies, as his prakAra (form); oh one who manifested such heart-capturing activities! When will I reach your divine feet which are attractive to be praised by [even] brahmA and rudhra? Alas! Implies “I, who seek no other benefit from you, have to call out to reach the divine feet which are easily approachable even for those seek other benefits from you”.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • enRukol – In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr was just saying “enRukol sErvadhu” (when will I reach), desiring to be touched by his divine hand; as, there was no response from him, now he is saying [again] “enRukol sErvadhu” with great anguish!
  • andhO – now, there will be no one who would call out saying “enRukol sErvadhu?” AzhwAr is saying that he will perish [soon]. By the tone of “andhO!“, he is revealing his deep distress.
  • aran nAnmugan Eththum seyya nin thiruppAdhaththai – The divine feet which give joy to the destroyer as well as creator, without any difference. When will I, an ananyaprayOjana (one who seeks no other benefit), reach your divine feet which captivate even the prayOjanAntharaparas (those who seek other benefits)? When will I, who am fully focussed on you, reach your attractive, reddish, divine feet which captivate and make brahmA et al who are engaged in their own tasks to be fully focussed on you and praise? When will I reach your reddish divine feet which are praised by rudhra and brahmA?
  • nilam nIr … – Unlike a step-mother who cares for the child which is already born, acting like a real [biological] mother who will prepare/suffer even prior to giving birth to the child, before srushti starts with thrivruth karaNam (mixing of 3 primary elements – earth, water and fire) and ends with panchI karaNam (mixing of five elements – earth, water, fire, air and ether, to engage in creation), creating them all, pervading into the created entities through jIvAthmAs, for their existence and differentiating by name [and form] and such aspects. By “muRRum Ay ninRa” (being fully themselves), his being the meaning for the combination of achith (matter), jIvAthmA (soul) who is the caretaker for achith and the paramAthmA (emperumAn) who is the antharyAmi of jIvAthmA, and how any of those achith will eventually lead to the paramAthmA who is pervading inside, is indicated.

When asked, “while they don’t realise his presences, why is he toiling for their benefit?”, AzhwAr says,

  • endhAyO – The relationship which is the cause for such care is explained. AzhwAr is saying that after creating the entities, emperumAn does not leave them to fend for themselves during dangers; instead, he toils to a great extent for their protection.
  • kunReduththu – He lifted the mountain and protected them.
  • Anirai mEyththu – While protecting, he protected the cows fully without any restrictions.
  • avai kAththa em kUththAvO – he lifted the mountain to protect the cows which were affected by the rain; at that time, he stood in a thribangi [with three bends] form; as that form looks very attractive like that of an expert dancer, for AzhwAr, he says “em kUththAvO“.

Thus, with the previous pAsuram and this pAsuram, his attractive nature and being the goal is explained; with the next five pAsurams, his being the means will be explained.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 90 – vIRRirundhu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr mentioned about attaining emperumAn’s followers as one of the faultless means [for attaining emperumAn] in the previous pAsuram. When asked “could you not mercifully tell us the other faultless means too?” AzhwAr says in this pAsuram that “those who attain emperumAn and those who are in the charamOpAyam (ultimate means) of being fully engaged with the followers of emperumAn are distinguished people”. In matters relating to followers of emperumAn, svagatha svIkAram (attaining through one’s own efforts) was mentioned in the previous pAsuram. paragatha svIkAram (attaining through the causeless mercy of emperumAn) in the matters relating to followers of emperumAn is mentioned in the 18th pAsuram of this prabandham (mARAya dhAnavanai) and in this pAsuram. Has it not been mentioned in bhAradhwAja samhithai that just as in the matter related to emperumAn, there are also the same two types, namely svagatha svIkAram and paragatha svIkAram in matters related to emperumAn’s followers and that these two are faultless means through the verse  “guruNA yO’bhimanyEtha gurum vA yObhimanyathE I thAvubhau paramAm sidhdhim niyamAdhubhagachchatha: II ” (both the one who is respected by the teacher and the one who respects  the teacher attain the ultimate benefit of mOksham without fail)!

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

vIRRirundhu viNNALa vENduvAr vEngadaththAn
pAl thirundha vaiththArE panmalargaL mEl thirundha
vAzhvAr varumadhi pArththu anbinarAy maRRavarkkE
thAzhvAy iruppAr thamar

Word for Word Meanings

vIRRirundhu – being with greatness (in this world)
viN – paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam)
ALa vENduvAr – one who wishes to rule
vEngadaththAn pAl – towards thiruvEngadamudaiyAn (lord of thiruvEngadam)
pal malargaL – different types of flowers
thirundha – in a good manner [following the procedure mentioned in SAsthras]
vaiththArE – offered
varum madhi pArththu – knowing the thoughts (in emperumAn’s divine mind)
anbinar Ay – being with devotion
maRRavarkkE – to that emperumAn only
thAzhvu Ay iruppAr – being servitors
thamar – those who are thought of with respect
mEl thirundha vAzhvAr – will live with more distinction than those who have been mentioned in the earlier part.

vyAkyAnam

vIRRirundhu viNNALa vENduvAr – they will be fully immersed in being a servitor to emperumAn’s followers, with their eminence fully on display, with a desire to get the benefit of carrying out service to those in paramapadham.

vEngadaththAn pAl thirundha vaiththArE panmalargaL – they are the people who have kept different types of flowers, without slipping on the procedure mentioned in SAsthras (sacred texts) and worshipped thiruvEngadaththAn who has taken residence in thiruvEngadam in order to uplift simple people. They have carried out service to emperumAn [here] and will get to serve him in paramapadham too.

Next AzhwAr mercifully says that engaging with followers of emperumAn fully is superior to this attainment through emperumAn (as mentioned in the earlier verse).

varu madhi pArththu – Just as it is mentioned in the vEdhavAkhyam (line from vEdhas) “yEna yEna dhAthA gachchathi thEna thEna saha gachchathi” (in whichever way emperumAn thinks, he [one who has reached paramapadham after getting liberated from materialistic realm] also thinks in the same way, knowing forehand what emperumAn thinks in his divine mind).

anbinarAy maRRavarkkE thAzhwAyiryuppAr – they will be devoted to appropriate kainkaryam to emperumAn and be servile to him.

thAzhvAy iruppAr thamar mEl thirundha vAzhvAr – they are the people who  are respected as “he is our person” by emperumAn’s followers. AzhwAr says that more than attaining emperumAn, they will lead a very happy life serving the followers of emperumAn, which is much superior to the former. The opinion here is that those who are fully engaged with emperumAn’s followers will get to serve the followers of emperumAn, in line with the saying “yathOpAsanam thathA palam”( benefit is related to one’s devotion).

We will move on to the 91st pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 7.6.1 – pAmaru mUvulagum

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Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram, AzhwAr is calling out for emperumAn saying “When will I reach you who are infinitely enjoyable due to your favours such as creation etc?”

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the first pAsuram, AzhwAr says “When will I reach you who have distinguished relationship with me due to being the cause etc?”

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

pAmaru mUvulagum padaiththa paRpanAbAvO!
pAmaru mUvulagum aLandha poRpapAdhAvO!
thAmaraik kaNNAvO! thaniyEn thani ALAvO!
thAmaraik kaiyAvO! unnai enRukol sErvadhuvE!

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

pA – vastness
maru – having
mUvulagam – the universe which has three types of worlds such as kruthaka, akruthaka, kruthAkruthaka
padaiththa – created
paRpam – having lotus flower
nAbA – oh one who has divine navel!
pA maru mUvulagam – such universe
aLandha – measured to claim exclusive ownership
paRpam – infinitely enjoyable like lotus flower
pAdhA – oh one who has divine feet!

(to acknowledge and protect those who are totally existing for him)
thAmarai – attractive like lotus
kaNNA – oh one who has divine eyes!

(to give bliss by his touch)
thAmarai – distinguished like a lotus
kaiyA – oh one who has hands!
thaniyEn – due to abundance of hurdles I am helpless, my
thani – being unique in eliminating hurdles
ALA – oh master who can rule me!
unnai – you who are apt, enjoyable and protector, in this manner
enRu kol – when
sErvadhu – reach?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh one who has divine navel which is having lotus flower, and who created the vast universe which has three types of worlds such as kruthaka, akruthaka, kruthAkruthaka! Oh one who has the infinitely enjoyable lotus flower like divine feet which measured such universe to claim exclusive ownership! Oh one who has attractive lotus like divine eyes! Oh one who has distinguished lotus like hands! Oh master who is unique in eliminating hurdles and can rule me, who is helpless due to abundance of hurdles! When will I reach you who are apt, enjoyable and protector, in this manner? The presence of “O!” at the end of each line indicates the great sorrow.

Note: kruthaka [The bottom seven layers of the universe – athala to pAthAla and the three middle layers – bhUr lOka, bhuva lOka and svarga lOka; these are completely destroyed as part of avAnthara praLayam (intermediary deluge at the end of brahmA’s day) and subsequently recreated], akruthaka [The top three layers of the universe – sathya lOka, thapa lOka and jana lOka; these remain in tact during avAnthara praLayam with their residents] and kruthAkruthaka [mahar lOka; this remains in tact during avAnthara praLayam, but the residents shift to higher layers at that time]

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • pAmaru mUvulagum padaiththa paRpanAbAvO – pA indicates an entity, implying abundance of entities; that is – the three worlds which have abundance of entities. pAmaru can be seen as a single word, and in that case, it would mean the three worlds which are filled with pApa (sins). (another explanation – pA indicates vast, indicating worlds which have vastness). mUvulagam indicates the worlds which are in the top, middle and bottom layers; alternatively, it could mean kruthaka, akruthaka and kruthAkruthaka.
  • padaiththa paRpanAbAvO – Like calling out “oh my mother!” Does he only have the aptness [natural relationship]? Would I not be relaxed if he did not have the enjoyability? [i.e. he has an enjoyable form with beautiful lotus flower in his divine navel] Did you create these only to destroy them? Why are you destroying the existing entity [me], while you are creating new entities [during creation]?
  • pAmaru mUvulagaLandha – Would I not be relaxed if you created them and let them fend for themselves? You are carefully protecting them, like a mother. While I who have great desire as said in thiruvAimozhi 9.2.2 “padikkaLavAga nimirndha nin pAdha pangayamE thalaikkaNiyAy” (Your divine, lotus feet which rose matching your form are the decoration on my head), you are placing your divine feet on those who have no desire! Are you not the one who would redeem this earth by crossing the boundary, when those persons such as  mahAbali et al capture the worlds like an eagle catching its prey?

emperumAn asks “Yes, I have done that. What do you need now?” AzhwAr says,

  • thAmaraik kaNNAvO – We depend on you for our creation, nurturing and life on you only; AzhwAr is saying to emperumAn that he should glance with his divine eyes as said in SrIvishNu purANam 1.20.16 “avalOkana dhAnEna bhUyOmAm pAlaya” (Oh lord! protect me with your glance). So, he meditated upon the beauty of the divine eyes; but he did not see his presence amidst the nithyasUris who consider the beauty of those divine eyes as their life; so, he identifies himself to be thaniyEn (lonely one).
  • thaniyEn thani ALAvO – Oh one who rules me by placing in a third position beyond the material realm where everyone sustains himself by the glance of women and the spiritual realm where everyone sustains himself by your divine glance! Alternative explanation – as I am fully dependent on your mercy, you made me the full (lone) target of your eyes and are ruling me!
  • thAmaraik kaiyAvO – Would I get like akrUra? SrIvishNu purANam “sOpyEnam …” (akrUra kept thinking about krishNa’s features throughout his travel and was embraced by krishNa when they met) – krishNa touched him such that all the features of his divine hands were imprinted on akrUra’s body and as akrUra stood dumbfounded by that touch, he himself picked up akrUra’s hand, and embraced him so tightly that two persons were not seen there. As said in hari vamSam 275.15 “karENa mrudhunA dhEva: pApAnni: mOchayan hari:” (With his tender hand, krishNa touched the body of gaNtAkarNan).
  • unnai enRukol sErvadhuvE – Would you only fix a date for your younger brothers as in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 127.1 “pUrNE chathurdhaSE varshE panchamyAm” (on the panchami (fifth day) after fourteen years)? Should you not specify a date for your distinguished servitors saying “you will get it on this particular day”? A servitor should wait for the master to grant it on the day he (master) wishes. But I am unable to be patient in that manner.
  • thaniyEn – unnai enRukol sErvadhuvE – A nAra (sentient) cannot live being separated from nArAyaNa (the lord); now, reaching/uniting means – uniting with the assembly of nithyasUris as said in thiruvAimozhi – 2.3.10adiyArgaL kuzhAngaLai udan kUduvadhu“. How will we derive this meaning when AzhwAr says “unnai enRukol sErvadhu” (when will I reach you)? Since it is said in thiruvAimozhi 4.9.10oNdodiyAL thirumagaLum nIyumE nilA niRpa” (While SrImahAlakshmi, the one who is having distinguished forearms with ornaments like bangles, and you stand alone), this meaning will be naturally derived [i.e. in paramapadham, while innumerable nithyasUris (eternal associates) including other consorts of emperumAn and mukthAthmAs (liberated souls) are present, in this pAsuram only emperumAn and pirAtti are said to be present – this implies that everyone is subservient to them. Similarly, when emperumAn is mentioned, it implies the assembly of his devotees].

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 89 – pazhudhAgAdha onRu

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avathArikai

Unlike means such as karmayOgam which are of no use, is there any means which is without any fault? AzhwAr responds saying that attaining emperumAn and attaining emperumAn’s followers are faultless means. He says that of the two, attaining emperumAn’s followers is superior.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

pazhudhAgAdhonRaRindhEn pARkadalAn pAdham
vazhuvA vagai ninaindhu vaigal thozhuvArai
kaNdiRainji vAzhvAr kalandha vinai keduththu
viNdiRandhu vIRRiruppAr mikku

Word for Word Meanings

pazhudhu AgAdhu onRu – faultless (superior) means
aRindhEn – I knew

(Hear me, as to what it is)
pAl kadalAn pAdham – the divine feet of kshIrAbdhinAtha (lord of milky ocean)
vazhuvA vagai ninaindhu – meditating without any error
thozhuvArai – those who constantly worship
kaNdu – (reaching and) having dharSan of (seeing)
iRainji – worshipping
vAzhvAr – those who live (devotees of emperumAn’s followers)
kalandha vinai keduththu – getting rid of the bad deeds connected with AthmA (soul)
viN thiRandhu – opening the entrance to paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam)
mikku – with greatness
vIRRiruppAr – will be residing

vyAkyAnam

pazhudhAgAdhonRu aRindhEn – I knew of the superior means which will not go useless. The means which will not go useless are: 1. Attaining emperumAn; 2. Attaining followers of emperumAn; 3. Taking shelter under the wisdom of followers of emperumAn. All these three means are very distinguished. Of these three, AzhwAr is mercifully describing the second means (of attaining the followers of emperumAn) in this pAsuram and the first (attaining emperumAn) and third means (totally devoted to the wisdom of emperumAn’s followers ) in the next pAsuram.

What is the means which is faultless?

pARkadalAn pAdham – the divine feet of the entity who, leaving aside paramapadham which is the place for enjoyment, takes residence in the milky ocean in order to get his followers.

vazhuvA vagai ninaindhu – meditating without slipping on it. In other words, keeping them as both the means and the benefit for attainment. Isn’t asking for lowly materials from emperumAn, after attaining him, a faulty way of asking, much similar to asking for loin cloth from kaRpaga vruksham (wish fulfilling tree)? Isn’t begging for other benefits a wrong methodology? Instead, thinking of those divine feet as means and goal.

vaigal thozhuvArai – will not the sweetness of the matter (the divine feet of emperumAn) be such that if they are worshipped once, they will make the jIvAthmA to worshsip every day?

thozhuvAraikkaNdu – seeking the followers of emperumAn, on their own. With this, the difference between these people and the distinguished entities who will be mentioned in the next pAsuram is indicated. Just as the saying goes “prajApathim thvO vEdha” these people will go on their own and attain the followers of emperumAn. The ones who will be mentioned in the next pAsuram are those who will be worthy of being under the wisdom of emperumAn’s followers.

kaNdu iRainji vAzhvAr – those who prosper by heartily seeing the followers of emperumAn and worshsipping them. appiLLai, one of the vyAkyAthas for this prabandham will say that iRainji would mean those who bow down their heads fully.

kalandha vinai keduththu viN thiRandhu vIRRipruppAr mikku – getting rid of the sins which are inseparably intertwined with AthmA, these people will be servitors to nithyasUris who are the heads of those who carry out kainkaryam to emperumAn, and who have unlimited knowledge and devotion (towards emperumAn), in paramapadham.

mikku vIRRiruppar – they will reside such that their knowledge and devotion will be explicitly manifested.

vIRRruppar – they will reside with their excellence fully displayed. They will be fully servile to the great followers of emperumAn who will be superior to nithyasUris in carrying out kainkaryam to emperumAn.

We will move on to the 90th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 7.6 – pAmaru

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Audio

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the sixth decad – in this manner, after having meditated upon the great qualities of sarvESvaran who is obedient towards his devotees and is the eliminator of hurdles, due to the absence of anyone else who can eliminate the hurdles, AzhwAr highlights the following aspects:

  1. his special relationship with everyone due to his being the cause etc
  2. the resulting omnipresence
  3. his supremacy and simplicity which are specific reasons for his protection
  4. his great enjoyability which accompanies such supremacy and simplicity
  5. his being the greatly splendorous goal due to such enjoyability
  6. his greatly beautiful form which highlights his being the goal
  7. his ways of protecting both directly and indirectly
  8. the destruction of mAli et al which are part of such protection
  9. his partiality towards SrI vibhIshaNa, and
  10. his protection of his own people

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr depending upon such sarvESvaran’s natural aptness and partiality. is calling out to him to attain him with great sorrow.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

As he becomes clear, subsequently he will end up calling out only; otherwise, he would be one of those bewildered persons who think “samsAram (material realm) is a good place”. AchAryas would mercifully explain “ammangi ammAL used to say – on top of hearing the recital of this thiruvAimozhi and enjoying it, we cannot explain through words, the underlying sorrow in the pAsurams”.

Previously – In thiruvAimozhi 7.4 “Azhi ezhach changum” – as sarvESvaran manifested his victories to AzhwAr, he meditated upon his activities as part of that; in relation to that, he meditated upon emperumAn’s incarnations and the qualities such as krupA [mercy] etc which are the cause for such incarnations [in thiruvAimozhi 7.5], and became amazed thinking “while these qualities are manifested, and while having the opportunity, and while they are sentient (having consciousness), these samsAris are still missing out on them!” He thought “They are losing it due to lack of desire; having desire, we won’t lose it;  let us enjoy his incarnations and physical beauty”, but did not get to enjoy immediately; hence he became very anguished, to make sarvESvaran’s presence in paramapadham intolerable for him, with great sorrow, like a troubled ocean which will rise and make noise; to make emperumAn leave that abode at once on hearing his cry and manifest himself here, he is calling out with very loud voice highlighting how he is the goal, how he is the means and how he will remove the hurdles, and to be pitied by those who heard his cry.

SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.26 “bahavO nrupa” – dhaSaratha chakravarthi, planned to perform coronation for perumAL (SrI rAma), thought “for sixty thousand years, we carefully ruled the kingdom in a noble manner; if I place the responsibility on a small child [young SrI rAma], will that be reasonable or not?”, and thought “let us analyse this in the people’s assembly”, gathered everyone and announced “I am planning to perform coronation for perumAL; is it acceptable for you or not?”, subsequently the assembly of people said “oh old man! leave”; SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.25 “kathamnu mayi dharmENa pruthivIm anuSAsathi | bhavanthOdhrashtum ichchanthi yuvarAjam mamAthmajam ||” – he became blissful thinking “our desire is fulfilled nicely; the whole assembly is so eager!”, but concealed the bliss in his heart and thought “we should listen to the reason from them directly”, and asked “Come on! While ruling over the kingdom for sixty thousand years, I have not looked out for any personal joy, and always protected you; this being the case, when asked your opinion [on my retiring], you could have said ‘what is the urgency to leave? let the succession happen naturally over time’ or you could have said ‘if that is your desire, you could do that’ and consoled yourself; instead you are accepting the proposal so quickly as if you are escaping from a murderer; what is the mistake I have committed to deserve this?”, they said as in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.26 “bahavO nrupa kalyANa guNA: puthrasya santhithE” (Oh emperor! You son (SrI rAma) has many auspicious qualities) – your fame did not get destroyed by the arrows of the enemies; but we were won over by your son’s auspicious qualities. We said these words being won over by his qualities and did not say with any other intention [like to bid farewell to you]; SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kANdam 15.21 “dhAthUnam iva SailEndhrO guNAnAm AkarO mahAn” (as the minerals will be valued based on the mountains they were found), if one sees a particular quality in other persons, it gets valued based on “this is a quality found on perumAL” – subsequently it is valued due to being present on SrI rAma; AzhwAr is calling out highlighting such emperumAn’s qualities.

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 88 – uyir koNdu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr continues with the benefits that emperumAn carries out for his followers who are without any means, in  this pAasuram.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

uyir koNdu udalozhiya OdumpOdhOdi
ayarvenRa thIrppAn pEr pAdi seyal thIrach
chindhiththu vAzhvArE vAzhvAr siRu samayap
pandhanaiyAr vAzhvEl pazhudhu

Word for Word Meanings

udal ozhiya – leaving the body behind
uyir koNdu – taking the prANa (vital air)
Odum pOdhu – when (this AthmA) runs
Odi – (emperumAn himself) runs
ayarvu enRa – everything which is considered as a difficulty
thIrppAn – emperumAn who removes
pEr – divine names
pAdi – reciting heartily
seyal thIra – there is nothing that we need to do (pravruththi) as means
sindhiththu – understanding the basic nature
vAzhvArE – only those who comtemplate to live
vAzhvAr – will prosper
siRu samayam pandhanaiyAr – those who hold on to means which are lowly, which are conditional and which are the reason for being bound to samsAram (materialistic realm)
vAzhvu El – any prosperity that it may beget
pazhudhu – is useless

vyAkyAnam

uyir koNdu udal azhiya OdumpOdhu – when this AthmA, propelled by the messengers of yama (deity of righteousness), runs with its vital airs, after shedding the body

Odi – there is an entity [emperumAn] who will be witnessing the troubles of his followers. Instead of sending his servitors to remove the troubles (just like a person appoints a representative to carry out deeds ordained by SAsthram such as sandhyAvandhanam etc), this entity will run to remove the troubles of his followers, himself.

Odi – his (that entity’s) deed will be one with which his followers will be involved, as mentioned by SrI paraSAra bhattar in SrI rangarAjasthavam 2-57 “bhagavathas thvarAyai nama:” (I salute the speed of emperumAn) [reference here is to the act of emperumAn who came running to save the life of his follower gajEndhra (an elephant) who was troubled by a crocodile].

ayarvenRa thIrppAn – he will remove all the troubles of his follower who is under the control of messengers of yama. He removes the trouble undergone by his follower when he is shivering at the mere sight of yama’s messengers, when he is dragged out of his body by yama’s messengers etc.

ayarvenRa – The opinion here is that , in reality, only that which is experienced by the follower at the hands of messengers of yama is apt to be termed as trouble. All the others are joyous experience only, when compared to this.

thIrppAn pEr pAdi – heartily reciting the divine names of the entity who removes the trouble.

seyal thIrach chidhiththu vAzhvArE vAzhvAr – only those who live considering emperumAn himself as the means [for attaining him], rejecting all other means which are to be carried out by them, will prosper.

seyal thIrach chindhiththu vAzhvAr – these are the people who think that there is nothing that they can do in order to get rid of their troubles and to experience utmost happiness. These are the people who think that only emperumAn, who comes running to protect them when they are at the hands of yama’s messengers, is the means. These are the people who have been referred to by thoNdaradippodi AzhwAr in his thirumAlai 38 as “kadaiththalaiyirundhu vAzhum sOmbar” (those who have given the responsibility of looking after them to emperumAn).

Till now, AzhwAr has been talking about the greatness of those who are without any means. Now he talks about the lowliness of those who attempt to attain emperumAn on their own.

siRu samayap pandhaniyAr vAzhvEl pazhudhu – there is no benefit to those who attempt to follow the lowly means of karma yOgam (path of carrying out ordained deeds), gyAna yOgam (path of knowledge leading to carrying out those deeds), bhakthi yOgam (path of devotion towards emperumAn) which are to be observed over very long periods of time, referred to as “janmAnthara sahasrEshu” (thousands of successive births) and which lead to cultivation of ego in the mind of samsAri. This is opposite of his svabhAvam (basic quality) of being a dependent servitor.

siRusamayam – lowly means unlike SrIman nArAyaNa as mentioned in nArAyaNa sUktham  “nArAyaNam pArAyaNam” (nArAyaNa who is the superior means).

samayap pandhanai – the opinion here is that these are means which bind the jIvAthmA (soul) to samsAram (materialistic realm) but which go in the name of being the means for attaining mOksham; in reality, these means take the jIvAthmA far away from matters relating to emperumAn for a very long time, just as nammAzhwAr mentioned in periya thiruvandhAdhi 6 “neRi kAtti nIkkudhiyO” (will you reject me by showing me other means?)

vAzhvEl pazhudhu – if one analyses, it would be clear that there is no benefit for these jIvAthmAs by following such means.

samayamAzhwAr refers to these means as samayam since they have been classified based on the interest of each jIvAthmA. It should be understood here that these jIvAthmAs, who are siRusamayap pandhanaiyAr, are firmly engaged with pravruththi mArgam (the path of carrying out deeds on one’s own efforts to attain emperumAn) as opposed to nivruththi mArgam (in which the jIvAthmA entrusts the responsibility of making him attain emperumAn with emperumAn himself) which is indicated by the words seyal thIrach chindhiththu vAzhvAr. It should not be taken here that AzhwAr is talking about jivAthmAs who are following other philosophies since AzhwAr has already corrected these jIvAthmAs who are following other philosophies through his instructions and there is no need to talk ill of them now. One of the vyAkyAthas for this prabandham, SrI appiLLai, says here that through the verse pandhanaiyAr vAzhvEl pazhudhu AzhwAr is rejecting the other means since even for those who follow karmayOgam etc, unless emperumAn is convinced, he will not grant mOksham and also due to the fact that many persons such as kshathrabandhu, gantAkarNan et al reached mOksham without carrying out any karmayOgam.

We will move on to the 89th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – pUrva pItikA – Part 3

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“vEdhanam or knowledge refers to upAsanam or worship, as discussed in previous part 2. Just like upAsanam (worship), result of bhakthi is also ‘mOksha’ .  As it is said, “His form cannot be beheld with our vision; none can see him with these naked eyes. Those who know him from their heart with full of devotion and knowledge will only attain immortality”.

‘hrudhA’  (हृदा मनीषा मनसाsभिक्लृप्तः) – refers to bhakthi. Not just the vEdhas, but also the smrithis begin by saying “His form cannot be beheld with our limited vision”, and proceed to declare thus: “Only he who has a composed mind with true devotion and equanimity  shall see the Supreme Self, who is the form of knowledge”. bhagavAn also declares in the bhagavadh-geethA thus: “Oh pArtha! That supreme brahman – purusha – is known only by true devotion, and nothing else”, “He can be reached by bhakthi alone, and not by any other means”, and “He knows me by true devotion”.

The angirasa smrithi declares “Only constant uninterrupted devotion leads to salvation”. Similarly, the vaishNava Dharma declares “Pure devotion towards the Supreme Soul gOvindha bestows upon men the Supreme Abode of salvation, let there be no doubt about it”. The rAmayaNa also says “Devotees of You – the Supreme Soul – who are firmly rooted in devotion shall attain all their desires, both in this world as well as the nether”, “Those who are devoted to you shall be invincible”.

The vAmana purANa says thus: “To whom vishNu is ever loveable, and those who are ever loveable to Vishnu, they shall never be born again, and shall attain Him forever”.

The form or object of meditation in both worship as well as devotion (upAsana and bhakthi) should be the Lotus eyed Supreme Brahman alone. That is also a command, as it is said “upAsva (worship)”, “bhajasva (serve)” Both the verbs ‘upAsthi’ and ‘bhajathi’ are two variants, which both mean “service”. For the same reason, the dictionaries refer to ‘service, devotion and worship’ as equivalents (सॆवा-भक्तः-उपास्तिः).

The linga and mArkaNdEya purANas  declare thus: “The root ‘bhaj’ is known to mean servitude. Thus, the learned have inferred the word bhakthi as service to the Lord”.

If a soul develops taste only in being of eternal servitude to the Supreme Soul due to His unlimited divine auspicious qualities and boundless affection towards the souls,as also in His unconditional ownership of the entire world, it is called ‘upAsana’. Another name given to it is ‘bhakthi’.

bhagavAn declares “I am the most loveable to all learned men”, “They serve me with all their love”, “They are ever satisfied with their minds firmly fixed in me”. The vishNu purANa refers to parahlAdha as the best among demons who filled his heart with bliss born out of constant contemplation, and who was exalted by chanting the divine names of the lord .

The vishNu thathva also says thus: “The service done unto the Supreme Soul with the exertion of knowledge is called bhakthi. When such bhakthi is born in the mind, the love towards God automatically develops”.

The bArhaspathya smrithi says “the one who is attached to the Supreme Soul and totally detached from the world shall be freed from all bondage and shall enjoy the eternal bliss enjoyed by the Supreme brahman”.

The thaiththirIya nArAyaNIyam  prays thus “May that Lord engage us in good thoughts”.

anusmaraN – “Repeated remembrance of krishNa is the best” indicate to us the importance of developing taste only in eternal servitude to the Supreme Self alone. The word ‘anu‘  is inferred to mean lowliness by the scholars. The lowliness refers to the natural servitude of the soul to
the Supreme Self. Serving the Supreme Soul with conscious remembrance of the natural servitude is upAsana. That itself is called ‘anusmaraNam’ – remembrance of eternal natural servitude.

Display of simple means such as meditation to those who know no way out :

In response to third question bhIshma shows the simple means  of ‘praising Him and singing His glory’, in response to the third question ‘sthuvantha: kam’. He replied to this question in three SlOkas, starting with ‘thamEva’ and ended with ‘sarvabhUtha-bhavOdhbhavam’. bhIshma proceeded to uniquely demarcate the qualities exclusive to bhagavAn, as against the other lowly demigods. He explained with His characteristic of being eternal, and continued with ten such unique qualities:

अनादिनिधनं विष्णुं सर्वलॊकमहॆश्वरम्
लॊकाध्यक्षं स्तुवन् नित्यं सर्वदुःखातिगॊ भवॆत् ॥ ६ ॥
ब्रह्मण्यं सर्वधर्मज्ञम् लॊकानां कीर्तिवर्धनम्
लॊकनाथं महद्भूतं सर्वभूतभवॊद्भवम् ॥ ७ ॥

‘anAdhinidhanam’ – the One who factors everything without Himself being bound by time .

‘vishNum’ – the One who is not bound by place .

‘sarvalOka-mahESvaram’ – the One who possesses all the wealth required to grant all wishes of all seekers .

‘lOkAdhyaksham’ – the One who is represented by the property of being boundless in any way .

‘brahmaNyam’ – the One who confers wellness upon brahmA by being propounded by the unlimited branches of the vEdhas; for the same reason, the One who is the subject of prayers by everyone .

‘sarvadharmagyam’ – thus, being the knower of all dharmas that glorify Him .

‘lOkAnAm kIrthivardhanam’ – the One who becomes the cause for all the inmates of all worlds who pray sincerely to Him in attaining unsurpassed glory, as spoken in the numerous scriptures and vEdhas, such as in the statement “Having praised whom he shall also attain the glory that should be praised by everyone”.

‘lOkanAtham’ – the master of all worlds, and hence the recipient most eligible for being praised and served by all .

‘mahadhbhUtham’ – the One who is with all the glorious wealth by nature; thus, the One who is very easily worshipped by one and all with just a simple prayer. Great people are only the ones who are most satisfied even with just the signal of people approaching them for their blessings. They do not expect much from the seekers.

‘sarvabhUtha-bhavOdhbavam’ – the One who is indeed the cause of knowledge among the ‘sath’ or knowledgeable entities (individual souls), and who is thus inseparable from those knowledgeable entities, and hence the One who grants them all that they want .

‘sthuvan’ – although lacking in complete devotion, singing the glories of such a Supreme Master.

‘sarvadhu:khAthigO bhavEth’ – one should cross the fires caused by three heats (thApa-thrayam) and attain the Supreme, Blissful, and Pacific hearted bhagavAn. Finally the above two SlOkas explains the simple means of worship, namely prayer .

The loftiness of Remembrance, Praising, Prostration :

bhIshma then proceeds to reply to the fifth question (which – of all dharmas – is the highest?) with the SlOka beginning with ‘Esha mE’

ऎष मॆ सर्वधर्माणां धर्मॊsधिकतमॊ मतः
यद्भक्त्या पुण्डरीकाक्षं स्तवैरर्चॆन्नरस्सदा

‘Esha:’ – The various forms of pleasing the Lord – as detailed before – namely worship, prayers, etc, as per the scriptural prescription with the necessary authorities, and also considering the various ranks of complexities attached to each of them .

‘sarvadharmANAm madhyE adhikathamO matha:’ – is the most superior among all the dharmas.

The word ‘dharmas’ mostly refers to the following four forms: (a) material benefits such as cattle, progeny, wealth,(b) the spiritual benefits such as the attainment of swarga, (c) the salvation characterized by complete knowledge of the Supreme Entity and its enjoyment, with the knowledge being born out of detached worship of the Lord and contentment, (d) worshipping bhagavAn in various forms such as affectionately thinking about Him, singing His praise and prostrating before Him, and thus performing extraordinary service unto Him.Out of these four categories, the fourth category of unconditional servitude to bhagavAn stands as the
supreme dharmA.

‘yadhbhakthyA’ – The unconditional servitude to bhagavAn is the supreme
form of dharmA, because it is filled with the most desirable qualities such as true devotion .

‘bhakthyA’ – bhagavadh-geethA refer ‘bhakthyA’  as ‘the easiest and happiest job to do’ . This is indeed comprehensible, because it is well known that the unrelenting contemplation about a loveable husband is always the  sweetest and most desirable task for a spouse. Thus, bhIshma differentiates the happiness of performing unconditional servitude to bhagavAn from the onus of engaging in similar activities with the servile demigods – which on the contrary is akin to drinking a bitter concoction.

‘puNdarIkAksham’ – The servitude to multi-fold beauty of the Lord with lotus eyes from the servitude to other ugly, horrific and lowly entities.

‘sthavai:’ – intends to differentiate the simplicity of accomplishing the task of pleasing the Lord by words alone, from the complexity of performing the multitude of vows such as viSwajith, chandhrAyana .

bhagavAn vyAsa also says thus: “May the people who are desperate, downcast, flaccid, afraid, and are stuck amidst horrible diseases be freed from all their sorrows and difficulties and lead a happy life, with the chanting of the word’ nArAyaNa’.

The vaishNava dharma says in various instances, thus:

“Irrespective of whether one chants the names of vAsudhEva and sings his glories with or without knowledge, all his sins shall disappear just like the salt put in water.”

“The tools required to reach mOksham are easily acquired by that person who utters the two lettered name ‘hari’ just once”. “All diseases shall be cured with the medicine of chanting the names achyutha, anantha and gOvindha” . “Sing the glories of jagannAtha – the master of the worlds. If not, at least study the Vedas”

The vishNu sUktha says: “Those who sing His glory shall reach His divine abode from where there is no return” (ध्रुवासॊ अस्य कीरयॊ जनासः)

‘asya kIraya:’ – those who sing His glories

‘dhruvAsa:’ – shall reach His divine abode from where they do not return any more .

The word ‘archEth’ indicates the duty of happily worshipping the manifest form of the Supreme Lord. This is also indicated in the bhagavadh-geethA  as ‘understood to be manifest’. Pleasing the Supreme Lord by such worship is not just blandly prescribed by the scriptures like penance and pilgrimage, but it can really be experienced.

(to be continued…)

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 7.5.11 – theLivuRRu vIvinRi

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Full series >> Seventh Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the end, AzhwAr says “Those who practice this decad, are pure-natured even while being in samsAram”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

theLivuRRu vIvinRi ninRavarkku inbak kadhi seyyum
theLivuRRa kaNNanaith then kurugUrch chatakOpan sol

theLivuRRa AyiraththuL ivai paththum vallAr avar
theLivuRRa sindhaiyar pAmaru mUvulagaththuLLE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

theLivu – clarity (that emperumAn is both upAyam (means) and upEyam (goal))
uRRu – acquire

(for that)
vIvu – break
inRi – without
ninRavarkku – those who remain (firm)
inbam – in the form of unlimited bliss
gathi – goal
seyyum – one who grants
theLivuRRa – (even when AthmAs are unclear in this principle) he who protects with clarity in this principle
kaNNanai – krishNa who is easily approachable for his followers
then – attractive
kurugUr – leader of AzhwArthirunagari
satakOpan – nammAzhwAr
sol – mercifully spoken
theLivuRRa – which bring clarity in those who relate to [by learning, reciting]
AyiraththuL ivai paththum – this decad among the thousand pAsurams
vallAravar – those who are capable of practicing
pA – vastness restricted by karma
maru – having
mUnRu – having differences due to the three qualities (sathva, rajas, thamas)
ulagaththuLLE – in the universe
theLivu – full expansion of knowledge, which is a result of Sudhdha sathva guNam (pure goodness)
uRRa – having
sindhaiyar – will have the heart

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Having acquired the clarify, those who remain without break in that state, are granted the goal in the form of unlimited bliss by krishNa who is easily approachable for his followers and who protects with clarity in this principle of his being the means/goal; nammAzhwAr, the leader of the attractive AzhwArthirunagari, mercifully spoke this decad among the thousand pAsurams which bring clarity in those who relate to them; those who are capable of practicing this decad, will have the heart which has full expansion of knowledge, which is a result of Sudhdha sathva guNam, while being in this universe which has vastness restricted by karma and having differences due to the three qualities.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • theLivuRRu … –  For those who have firm faith in “Only emperumAn is the prApya (goal) and prApaka (means)”, and subsequently do not waver seeing the actions of the worldly people or superficial words [of other philosophers]. In mahAbhAratha war, [after explaining the important principles in SrI bhagavath gIthA] krishNa asked arjuna “Did you understand what I explained or not?”, arjuna replied in SrI gIthA 18.73sthithO’smi” (standing firm, with realisation of truth); emperumAn asked “So, how are you going to perform my work?”, arjuna replied “karishyE vachanam thava” (will act according to your instructions) – “I will act according to the orders of your highness”. nampiLLai asked nanjIyar “Did arjuna get emperumAn [i.e. did he get liberated]?” nanjIyar mercifully replied “How does it matter to you? As the one [emperumAn] who spoke this, is common to all, and as bhagavAn’s words are certain, one will get according to their acts and desire; we are not trying to surrender unto him analysing who else has got it”. When a thirsty person sees cool water, to drink it and quench his thirst, he does not wait for someone else to quench his thirst first.
  • inbak kadhi seyyum – he will grant the reward of unlimited bless.
  • theLivuRRa kaNNanai – To compensate the lack of clarity in him (AthmA), krishNa who is very clear in granting eternal kainkaryam to him. As said in varAha charama SlOkam “… aham smarAmi …” (When my devotee surrenders to me when he is stable, I will think about him and uplift him at the time of death when he can neither think nor say my names).
  • theLivuRRa Ayiram – Just as water, which is muddy in mountain, will become clear after travelling and reaching certain spots, and be usable for everyone, the principles of vEdham which are to be pursued only by qualified persons [brAhmaNa, kshathriya and vaiSya – males], and are mixed with chaff and sticky substances which makes it difficult to separate the real principles from the extraneous ones, became pursued by all, and cleared of all doubts, only after being revealed by AzhwAr.
  • ivai paththum vallAravar theLivuRRa sindhaiyar –  Those who can practice this decad, will have a clear heart/mind like this AzhwAr.

When asked “Would we have such clarity once we reach paramapadham?” AzhwAr says,

  • pAmaru mUvulagaththuLLE – “pApa” is shortened to be “pA” – implies the land which has abundance of sins. The clarity one will acquire after reaching paramapadham, will be acquired in this samsAram itself, which is contrary to paramapadham; those who will acquire clarity in this samsAram itself where even when sarvESvaran descends, he is put through sorrows and bewilderment; they will become pure-natured while being in this samsAram which will bring emperumAn himself who is opposite to all defects, in line with its nature.

In the next article we will enjoy the next decad.

AzhwAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
emperumAnAr thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
piLLAn thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nanjIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
nampiLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
periyavAchchAn piLLai thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam
jIyar thiruvadigaLE SaraNam

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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nAnmugan thiruvandhAdhi – 87 – imayap perumalai pol

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai

Just as AzhwAr mentioned in the previous pAsuram “ennoppArkkuth thAnAyuLan”, he demonstrates through varied examples in this pAsuram as to how emperumAn helped those who are without any means, just like him [AzhwAr].

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

imayap perumalai pOl indhiranArkkitta
samaya virundhu uNdu Ar kAppAr samayangaL
kaNdAn avai kAppan kArkkaNdan nAnmuganOdu
uNdAN ulagOdu uyir

Word for Word Meanings

imayap perumalai pOl – being like a huge himAlaya mountain
indhiranArkkitta – cooked for the sake of indhra (lord of celestial entities)
samayam virundhu – usual worship
uNdu – when he was eating

(from the danger of hailstorm which happened)
Ar kAppAr – who saved?
samayangaL – philosophies based on sacred texts
kaNdAn – one who saw (in the beginning)
Ar – who?
avai kAppAn – one who protects (without their being ruined)
Ar – who?
kArkkaNdan nAnmuganOdu kAppAn Ar – who protects brahmA and Siva (from huge dangers)?
ulagOdu uyir uNdAn Ar – (during deluge) who swallowed and protected the worlds and the creatures (in the world)?

(Is it not emperumAn who did all these?)

vyAkyAnam

imayap perumalai pOl indhiranArkkitta samaya virundhu uNdku Ar kAppAr – every year, the herdsmen at gOkulam used to offer food to indhra as a way of expressing their gratitude for giving them good rain, as mentioned by periyAzhwAr in his periyAzhwAr thirumozhi “attukkuvi sORRup paruppadhamum thayir vAviyum neyyaLaRum ”(food cooked and heaped like a mountain, with a stream of curd and rice made with ghee (clarified butter)). One year, the food, which was as huge as the himAlaya mountain, was denied to indhra and eaten by someone else [krishNa himself]. Out of anger of being denied the annual food, indhra started raining hailstorm on gOkulam. Who ate the food and lifted the hill gOvardhana for seven days, protecting the herdsmen from the hailstorm?

Ar kAppAr – when a favourable person such as indhra himself turned into an unfavourable person and rained hailstorm, did the herdsmen protect themselves or did emperumAn save them? Can this not be analysed?

AzhwAr shows through the subsequent incidents that it was not only here that emperumAn became a protector to those who are without means, like himself (AzhwAr) but in other places too.

samayangaL kaNdAn Ar – just as it has been mercifully mentioned in SrI rangarAja sthavam 2-1 “mAnam pradhIpamiva kAruNikO dhadhAthi ” (sarvESvaran who is like an ocean of mercy offers vEdhas (sacred texts) like a lamp), who has seen the philosophy of vEdhas and spread it in the world?

samayangaL – instead of saying it in the singular (samayam) why is AzhwAr saying it in plural (samayangaL)? Since the sacred texts show that there are different end goals such as aiSvaryam (going after wealth), kaivalyam (AthmA enjoying itself) and bhagavath prApthi (attaining emperumAn) and there are different means to attain them such as bhakthi (devotion towards emperumAn), prapaththi (surrendering to emperumAn), thirunAma sangIrththanam (reciting the divine names of emperumAn) etc, these can be considered as a collection of different philosophies and usage of plural noun is acceptable. Since this is quoted as proof of helping those without any means, we cannot construe this to mean other religious beliefs.

avai kAppAn Ar – who protects these philosophies so that they do not get ruined? This act is also carried out to protect those who are helpless.

kArkkaNdan nAnmuganOdu kAppAn Ar – Who protects brahmA, rudhra et al when they are troubled by rAvaNa et al and become helpless and who removes their sorrows?  Alternatively

kArkkaNdan nAmuganOdu uNdAn ulagOdu uyirAzhwAr says that during deluge, when very knowledgeable people such as brahmA, rudhra et al, along with other jIvAthmAs (souls) were caught and were wandering here and there [not knowing how to protect themselves] without any distinction between them, it was emperumAn who kept them safely in his stomach and protected them. thirumangai AzhwAr mentioned mercifully in his periya thirumozhi 11-6-2 “ellArum aRIyArO emperumAn uNdumizhndha echchil dhEvarallAdhAr thAmuLarE” (doesn’t everyone know that there is no deity who has not been swallowed during deluge and has later been spat out?)

ulagOdu uyir uNdAn Ar – Who kept all the worlds and the chEthanas [and achEthanas] living in those worlds in his stomach and protected them? It was based on this that ALavandhAr (one of our preceptors) wrote  mercifully in his sthOthra rathnam 11kasyOdharE haravirinchimukha: prapancha:” (in whose divine stomach brahmA, rudhra, the universe took shelter).

We will take up the 88th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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