Monthly Archives: July 2017

thiruvAimozhi – 5.4.9 – venjudaril

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Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the ninth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “The night is torturing me. The sunrise which supposed to happen has not occurred since it is desired by me; emperumAn too has not arrived; other than the suffering of mine, is there any one who will come and protect me?”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

venjudaril thAn adumAl vIngiruLinuN thuLiyAy
anjudara veyyOn aNi nedunthEr thOnRAdhAl
senjudarth thAmaraik kaN selvanum vArAnAl
nenjidar thIrppAr iniyAr? ninRuruguginREnE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

vIngu – huge
iruL – having darkness
nuN – tiny
thuLi – mist droplet
Ay – having

(the current night)
vem – hot
sudaril – more than fire
adum – burning;

(at this juncture, one who dispels the darkness by his appearance)
am – beautiful
sudar – having rays
veyyOn – Adhithya who is the hot sun, his
aNi – beautiful
nedu – tall
thEr – chariot
thOnRAdhu – not appearing;

(at this juncture)
sem – reddish (highlighting his great opulence)
sudar – having radiance
thAmarai – like a lotus flower
kaN – one who is having eye
selvanum – SrImAn [one who has SrI mahAlakshmi]
vArAn – has not come;

(hence)
ninRu – standing steadily
uruguginREn – I am melting;
ini – now
nenjidar – the suffering in my mind
thIrppAr – destroyer
Ar – who?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

The current night which is having huge darkness and tiny mist droplet(s), is burning more than hot fire; the beautiful tall chariot of Adhithya, the hot sun, who is having beautiful rays, is not appearing; emperumAn, who is SrImAn and is having lotus flower like,  radiant reddish eye(s) has not come; I am standing steadily and melting; now, who is the destroyer of the suffering in my mind?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • vem sudaril … – The appearance of huge darkness along with the tiny mist droplets resembles rAvaNa appearing along with mArIcha. Both [darkness and mist droplets] are favourable for enjoyment [during union with the beloved person]. [Darkness is favourable for enjoyment; are mist droplets too the same?] as said in periya thirumozhi 8.5.8 “ozhugu nuNpani” (dripping tiny mist droplets), during rainy season, the beloved woman should be embraced by the beloved man tightly. Darkness is naturally favourable for enjoyment.
  • vIngiruLin nuN thuLiyAy .. vem sudaril thAn adumAl – Well developed darkness and tiny mist droplets are burning more than hot fire; also said as burning like hot fire. What is more important among these two? – Do we need to explicitly say that? Is it not sufficient to say there are two tormentors? Now, this decad is specifically speaking about the suffering in the night; so there is more importance for the darkness.
  • am sudar … – Just as iLaiya perumAL (lakhsmaNa) stayed away [while rAvaNa came to capture sIthA], the sun stayed away here. The sun  which has beautiful rays which will dispel the sufferings at once on their arrival, did not come.
  • thOnRAdhAl – Just as some one miraculously escaped in the total deluge and will see “have I reached the shore? have I reached the shore?”, throughout the night, she is seeing “Has it dawned? Has it dawned?” [repetition highlights the severity of the suffering].
  • sem sudar … – As said in chAndhOgya upanishath 1.6 “thasya yathA kapyAsam puNdarIkam Evam akshinI” (The divine eyes of SrIman nArAyaNa, the supreme lord, resemble the lotus flower which has been freshly blossomed by the rays of the sun), one who is residing in the sun planet has not come; just as the aruNOdhayam (the arrival of aruNa, the charioteer of sun god) signifies the subsequent arrival of sun, the sun’s arrival signifies the subsequent arrival of bhagavAn. The SrImAn (the one who beholds SrI mahAlakshmi on his chest) who has lotus like eyes which shine like red glow, has not come. Even if sun comes, there is scope for the arrival of darkness too; the never-setting sun (bhagavAn) too has not come; the sun’s glow is limited to certain regions; but bhagavAn illuminates both nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm) and leelA vibhUthi (material realm). It is said in iraNdAm thiruvanthAdhi 81 “pagal kaNdEn nAraNanaik kaNdEn” (I have seen the sun (which sets) and the nArAyaNa (the sun which never sets)).
  • nenjidar thIrppAriniyAr – Who will cure the internal darkness [suffering]? Sun is the one who dispels external darkness; but internal darkness is well-rooted suffering; only a visionary and confidante person [bhagavAn who is greatly capable and is present as antharyAmi (in-dwelling super soul)] can remove it. He is said in thiruchchantha viruththam 114 “gyAnamAgi gyAiRAgi” (he is knowledge, he is sun).
  • ninRurugiginREnE … nenjidar thIrpAr ini Ar – Separation from distinguished emperumAn, having melted, the entity (suffering in separation) will neither be finished nor be able to sustain itself. The desire to see the beloved person who is separated, once more, will not let the person in separation die, and since the beloved person is not seen at once, that loss will not let the person live.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 27 – malaiyAl kudai kaviththu

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avathArikai

AzhwAr, after mercifully mentioning about the way emperumAn came to thirumalai, further says that by looking at the divine hands of thiruvEnkatamudaiyAn (the Lord who has thiruvEnkatam as his dwelling place) one can state with assurance that they have grown in order to topple the enemies. Let us look at the pAsuram and its meanings:

malaiyAl kudai kaviththu mAvAy piLandhu
silaiyAL marAmaram Ezh seRRu kolaiyAnaip
pOrkkOdu osiththanavum pUm kurundham sAyththanavum
kArkkOdu paRRiyAn kai

Word by Word Meanings

malaiyAl – with gOvardhana hill
kudai kaviththu – inverted like an umblrella
mA vAy piLandhu – tearing apart the mouth of demon kESi who came in the form of a horse
silaiyAl – with a bow
marAmaram Ezh seRRu – piercing seven peepal trees
kolai yAnai – the elephant which was placed to kill
pOr kOdu osiththanavum – breaking the tusks which engage in fighting
pUm kurundham sAyththanavum – pushing the kurundha tree
kAr kOdu – Sankam (conch pAnchajanya) which reverberates like the cloud
paRRiyAn kai – is the divine hand of one who holds it.

vyAkyAnam

malaiyAl kudai kaviththu – it is natural for people to open an umbrella when it rains. But what did emperumAn do when indhra, the chieftain of dhEvas (celestial beings), started a hailstorm? He took out a hill and held it as an umbrella! emperumAn reasoned  “indhra is not a demon. Since I have eaten the food meant for him, he is angry and is showering the hailstorm. Let me not harm him. Let me hold this mountain as an umbrella and protect the cowherds and the cows” and hence held the gOvardhana hill as an umbrella.

mA vAy piLandhu – when the demon kESi came in the form of a horse and started indulging in extensive harm, emperumAn tore his mouth and killed him. Even sages such as nAradha et al screamed in fear on seeing the demon. But emperumAn tore him like one would tear a blade of elephant grass by thrusting kESi’s mouth with his hands.

silaiyAl marAmarm Ezh seRRu – with the help of a bow, emperumAn pierced holes in seven peepal trees in rAmAvathAram. It appears to AzhwAr that both rAmAvathAram and krishNAvathAram are alike since he is speaking about the activities of krishNa both before and after this incident but in between he mentions an activity in rAmAvathAram. Wasn’t this action done by emperumAn only in order to create belief in sugrIva (the monkey king), his devotee, on his strength!

kolai yAnaip pOrkkOdu osiththanavum – in rAmAvathAram, since emperumAn was born in the lineage of warriors, he used a bow which is the weapon for warriors. But in krishNAvathAram, he was a cowherd and depended on his physical strength (his hand) to kill the elephant kuvalayApIdam.  This elephant was killing those that it happened to encounter with its tusks, which are useful to it in times of war. krishNa caught hold of those tusks and broke them and pushed the elephant to its death.

pUngurundham sAiththanavum – the tree kurundham (a type of tree) was full of flowers from close to its roots to the top. It was such that children were very much attracted to it. emperumAn went to it as if he were going to pluck flowers from it and pushed it completely.

kArrkOdu paRRiyAn kaiAzhwAr says that all these activities [mentioned above] have been carried out by one whose hands hold kArkkOdu. kAr means cloud. emperumAn’s hand is holding the conch pAnchajanyam which looks like a cloud. Looking beautiful and making loud noise are common to both cloud and pAnchajanya. Alternative explanation – the conch pAnchajanya is holding on to emperumAn whose complexion is like the cloud. In this case, emperumAn’s divine form looks like cloud in terms of its colour and beauty. Thus the meaning here will be that emperumAn is holding the conch with his hand which looks like cloud. His hands are so tender that they will become red by merely holding the conch. With such soft hands, AzhwAr says, he has carried out the difficult tasks as mentioned above. In this pAsuram, in the terms osiththanavum and sAyththanavum reference is to plural number [of hands] while in the end the reference is to the singular form kai [hand]. There is nothing contrary in these terms as what is meant is that emperumAn effortlessly carried out difficult to achieve tasks which require many hands, with his single, soft hand.

We shall enjoy the 28th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – pravESam (Introduction)

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श्री पराशरभट्टार्यैरनुगृहीतं भगवद्गुणदर्पणाख्यं श्री विष्णुसहस्रनामभाष्यम् (A treatise on SrI viShNu sahasranAma, ‘bhagavath guNa dharpaNam’ by name, graced by SrI parASara bhattar)

श्री पराशरभट्टार्यः श्रीरङ्गॆशपुरॊहितः |
श्रीवत्साङ्कसुतः श्रीमान् श्रॆयसॆ मॆsस्तु भूयसॆ ||

SrI parASara bhattArya SrIrangESa purOhitha: |
SrIvathsAngasutha: SrImAn SrEyasE mEsthu bhUyasE ||

— thaniyan on SrI parASara bhattar

May SrI parASara bhattar – the priest of SrIranganAtha and the glorious son of Sri kUraththAzhwAn (SrIvathsAnga) – confer upon me all auspiciousness in abundance.

[SrI parASara bhattar’s divine words commence from here]

वन्दॆ गॊविन्दतातौ मुनिमथ मनवै लक्ष्मणार्यं महान्तम्.
ध्यायॆयं यामुनार्यं ममहृदि तनवै राममॆवाभियामम् |
पद्माक्षं प्रॆक्षिशीय प्रथममपि मुनिं नाथमीडॆ शठारिम्
स्तौमि प्रॆक्षॆय लक्ष्मीं शरणमशरणः श्रीधरं संश्रयॆयम् ||

I salute gOvindha (embAr) and my father (kUraththAzhwAn), and meditate upon lakshmaNa muni (emperumAnAr) and mahApUrNa (periya nambigaL). I meditate upon yAmunAchArya (ALavandhAr), and fill my heart with rAmamiSra (maNakkAl nambigal). May I see puNdarIkAksha (uyyakkoNdAr), also along with the first preceptor nAthamunigaL (SrIranganAthamuni) – to whom I prostrate. I pray to SatAri (nammAzhwAr). May I see lakshmi (periya pirAttiyAr). May I, who am with no other refuge, surrender to SrIdhara (periya perumAL).

ॐ नमॊ गजवक्त्राद्यैः पारिषद्यैः प्रशासतॆ I
श्रीरङ्गराजसॆनान्यॆ सूत्रवत्या समॆयुषॆ II

I first salute vishwaksEnar – the consort of sUthravathI and the commander-in-chief of SrIrangarAja, who rules us with many his assistants including the elephant faced one.

नमॊ नारायणायॆदं कृष्णद्वैपायनात्मनॆ |
यदामुष्यायणा वॆदा महाभारतपञ्चमाः ||

I salute krishNa dhvaipAyana (vyAsa), who is nArayaNa himself, and who divided the vEdhas into four and also graced us with the fifth vEdham called mahAbhAratha.

जातॊ लक्ष्मणमिश्रसंश्रयधनात् श्रीवत्सचिह्नादृषॆः
भूयॊ भट्टपराशरॆति फणितः श्रीरङ्गभर्ता स्वयम् |
श्री श्रीरङ्गपतिप्रसादतृषया श्रीरङ्गनाथाह्वयः
श्रीरङ्गॆश्वरकारितॊ विवृणुतॆ नाम्नां सहस्रं हरॆः ||

I, SrIranganAtha by name, the son of the great rishi SrIvathsachihnar (kUraththAzhwAn) – who considered the shelter of SrI rAmAnuja as the biggest wealth, later rechristened as parASara bhattar by SrIranganAtha Himself, have sought to elaborate on the thousand names of the lord SrIranganAtha in pursuit of the His grace, having been inspired by Himself.

संसारॊsयमपण्डितॊ भगवति प्रागॆव भूयः कलौ
पूर्णं मन्यतमॆ जनॆ श्रुतिशिरॊगुह्यं ब्रुवॆ साहसात् |
तत्र स्तॊत्रमिदं प्रकाशयति यः स्तुत्यश्च यस्तावुभौ
व्यासः कारुणिकॊ हरिश्च तदिदं मौर्ख्यं सहॆतां मम ||

This samsAra (material realm) is full of people unlearned about the supreme self, more so in this age of kali. I have sought to an adventurous deed of elaborating the thousand names of the Lord to people who are full of arrogance, who think they know the secrets of vEdhas and upanishaths in completeness. May vyAsa maharishi – who gave us this sthOthra of SrI viShNu sahasranAma, and SrI vishNu Himself – who is the subject of this sthOthra, tolerate this stupidity of mine.

अर्थॆ हरौ तदभिदायिनि नामवर्गॆ
तद्व्यञ्जकॆ मयि च बन्धविशॆषमॆत्य |
सॆवध्वमॆतदमृतं प्रणिपत्य याचॆ
मध्यस्थमत्सरिजना इह मा च भूवन् ||

I prostrate and pray to you with folded palms please believe firmly in SrIhari as also in the thousand names that connote Him, as well as in me – who has resorted to elaborate their meanings. Please drink in this elixir of “SrI viShNu sahasranAma” (in order to be released from the clutches of samsAra). May there not be any mediocre people with hatred (lest they prevent others from enjoying the bliss of the thousand names).

1. Justification for accepting mahAbhAratha as a pramANa in par with SrImadh rAmAyaNa

In this world, every learned soul should distinctly identify the subject of knowledge from the various available sources. If the subject of such knowledge is conducive to their welfare, they should happily accept it – just as they would accept beautiful jewellery, sandal paste and gold. If they determine the subject of knowledge to be marring their welfare, they should shun it – just as they would shun a blade or a thorn. If the subject of knowledge is known to be different from either of these options, it should be disregarded, just as a log of wood or a bag of sand.

With this background, when we analyze the three pramANas namely prathyaksha (perception), anumAna (inference) and Agama (authentic scriptures), we conclude that the various subjects professed by them leading us to wealth (artha) and other material desires (kAma) are to be shunned due to their nature of being limited, spoiling, frightening, momentary, sadness-filled and difficult-to-earn, and hence being respite with unlimited faults. On the other hand, the qualities of righteousness (dharma) and salvation (parathathva/moksha) professed by the scriptures (SAsthras) are full of auspiciousness, and are opposite in nature to the former two. Hence the latter need to be sought by the learned people.

The authors of ithihAsas and purANas (historical scriptures) unanimously declare thus: “It is true. It is true. We reiterate that it is true. With raised shoulders (palm over head), we repeat it is only true that there is no scripture higher than the vEdhas and there is no God superior to kESava”.

vEdhas hold the prime position as the source of all the fourteen vidhyAs expounded by the ithihAsas and purANas. It is said that the vEdhas should be explained with the help of ithihAsas and purANas, without which the vEdha mAthA (SAsthram in the form of a mother) fears deception by the expounder. When the vEdhas are to be expounded thus, more prominence is given to ithihAsas than purANas. Among the ithihAsas, the learned people give the same prominence to mahAbhAratha as much as they revere SrImadh rAmAyaNa.

Even in the mahAbhAratha itself, the chapter of SrI viShNu sahasranAma is to be held in high reverence in comparison to the others. The reasons are thus:

  1. This is the essence of mahAbhAratha
  2. This has been sung by various sages (rishis) in various forms
  3. This has been compiled by none other than the vEdhAchArya SrI vyAsa maharishi
  4. This has been glorified as the supreme of all prayers by bhIshma himself
  5. This has been accepted with high reverence by the most learned people of yore
  6. This has been held in par with the SrI bhagavath gIthA in expounding esoteric meanings

2. SrI viShNu sahasranAmam – essence of mahAbhAratha

Many learned scholars have accepted mahAbhAratha as the source of all knowledge, with special reverence. It has been accepted thus, due to its properties of flawlessness and crystal-clear elucidation. This has also been held in high esteem by the various purANas due to the fact that this is a historical account (and not just a story).

The vAyu purANa and Siva purANa declare that vEdha vyAsa churned the ocean of vEdhas with his mind and gave the moon named “mahAbhAratha” for the welfare of this world. The bhavishyath purANa says – the essence of all Sasthras has been given in a beautiful poetic work by vEdha vyAsa, since a common man would shudder at the very thought of learning the deep meanings of the endless vEdas, just as he would shudder at the thought of drinking a bitter medicine. The mathsya purANa says – from whom SrI vEdha vyAsa was born, who in turn was the cause for the birth of the moon called “mahAbhAratha”. SrI parASara maharishi proudly declares in SrI vishNu purANa thus – “Hey maithrEya, know my son krishNadhvaipAyana or vyAsa to be nArAyaNa himself, for – who else on earth, if not him, would author a scripture of the magnitude of mahAbhAratha?” The mArkaNdEya purANa says – the flood of vyAsa’s words started from the mountain of vEdhas and uprooted the trees of unrighteousness, thus purifying this world. In addition to all these and more, the mahAbhAratha itself declares thus:

“A brAhmaNa by knowledge of all four vEdhas, along with knowing the limbs of vEdhas as well as the upanishaths, would still be considered as unlearned as long as he has not studied the ithihAsa called mahAbhAratha in detail”.

Since the mahAbhAratha is in line with vEdhas along with its limbs, smrithis (works born out of memory), ithihAsa and purANas, it is rightly said “What can be found here, can surely be found everywhere else; what is not found here will never be found anywhere else”. The mahAbhAratha – due to its expounding of all material and spiritual meanings in line with vEdhas in a fully unbiased manner – is studied by the most learned scholars as being superior to even the purANas.

In the very heart of such mahAbhAratha is where the SrI viShNu sahasranAma chapter lies. This chapter is befittingly placed in the anuSAsanika parva, in the context of explaining the various righteous deeds such as charitable activities (dhAna-dharma) after discussing the various meanings in the SAsthras. This chapter truly lies as the essence of all the discussions regarding righteousness in this parva. For all the aforesaid reasons, it can certainly be concluded that the SrI viShNu sahasranAma is one ultimate source of true knowledge, and that the true intention of this chapter is to preach the esoteric meanings of all the vEdhas. Also, since this is considered as a pramANa (source of knowledge) beyond doubts, and since it propounds the highest philosophy of all, the seekers genuinely in pursuit of true knowledge and their own welfare should give in to SrI viShNu sahasranAmam for the best results.

3. SrI viShNu sahasranAma – sung by hermits, and compiled by vyAsa

The viShNu sahasranAma chapter has been sung by various sages with all devotion. This can also be stated as a sole reason for holding this chapter in high esteem.

Also, the vEdhAchArya SrI krishNadhvaipAyana vyAsa maharishi is the supreme Lord SrIman nArAyaNa Himself – the most compassionate. Being an incarnation of the Supreme Lord, and hence possessing a multitude of auspicious qualities such as boundless knowledge, power etc, and also having no limiting qualities such as forgetfulness, confusions etc, He had the capacity to divide the vEdhas into four. With this capacity, He authored the fifth vEdha known as the mahAbhAratha in order to uplift the less knowledgeable people affected by the kali age. He authored the mahAbhAratha in order to clear all confusions and doubts that could be raised by the dull-heads due to their ignorance in practicing the principles laid down by the scriptures in this age.

Being the great grandson of the glorious vaSishta maharishi – who, by his own words, made a warrior viSvAmithra perform penance and turn into a brAhmaNa (by knowledge); being the son of parASara maharshi – who gained the divine knowledge about the Supreme Self by the grace of vaSishta and pulasthya and hence authored many purANas and samhithAs, and who has also greatly gained accolades in many other purANas including linga purANa etc;  having gained a high reverence among the most learned scholarly sages (parama rishis), due to His extraordinary penance, and experience of God; sage vEdha vyAsa has given us the SrI viShNu sahasranAma chapter with the thousand names strung into a sthOthra form, which were previously sung and glorified by the sages of the rank of vaSishta and parASara. Thus the vishNu sahasranAma chapter is to be considered as the most sacred and should certainly be sought by one and all.

4. SrI viShNu sahasranAma – glorified by bhIshma 

Further, SrI viShNu sahasranAma is glorified by bhIshma as his best choice of prayers. bhIshma is also to be trusted as much as vEdha vyAsa himself. For the same reason, bhagavAn vyAsa – while explaining the royal duties and rights to yudhishTira – speaks thus:

“Hey yudhishtra, if you wish to listen to all the righteous duties, go to the elderly and wise bhIshma pithAmaha. He – being the son of gangA, and the all-knowing wise man – will clear all your doubts in the esoteric scriptures. He is the one who has seen indra and other Gods in reality, and all the brahmarishis approach him as his audience (in learning the deep hidden meanings in the scriptures). There is nothing that he doesn’t know. He is full of knowledge, and can clear all your doubts”.

The Supreme Lord Himself speaks thus, in glory of bhIshma – “bhIshma, who is reclining on the arrow-bed, is now slowly giving up his life, just as fire dies down slowly. He – the lion among men – is contemplating upon me during his last moments in this world. Therefore, even my mind has reached him. He is the valiant one who holds many glorious weapons, and is truly intelligent. He is the one who has filled in his mind all four vEdhas along with their limbs. Therefore, I have reached him mentally. He only knows what happened in the past, what would happen in the future, and what is happening at present. He is the best among men practicing righteousness. Thus my mind has reached him. If that grandsire of the kuru clan – bhIshma – passes away, the knowledge in this world is sure to decline. Thus, oh king yudhishtra! I recommend you go to him (to learn all the royal duties and righteousness, before he passes).”

krishNa has also addressed bhIshma thus: “Oh bhIshma, that which the pANdavas ask you and that which you advice them to follow would be well rooted in this Earth as the very own words of vEdas for all the future generations to benefit from. All that has happened in the past, all that happens in the future, and all that is happening right now are clearly known to you – the most learned – like a fruit in your palm. I (The Supreme Self) know what you are! With the powers that you have gained out of your penance, you are capable of creating all worlds and all creatures in them. Your powers know no contraction; your knowledge has no taints. Your mind is well rooted and always residing in sattva guNa. It is untouched by rajas and thamas, and is distinctly shining like the moon in the sky that is untouched by the passing clouds.

Sage nAradha has spoken thus, in praise of bhIshma: “All dharmas that need to be known by all four classes of people – brAhmaNa, kshatriya, vaishya and SUdra – are known to bhIshma. So rush to him and get all the doubts nested in your minds cleared right away”. Having praised bhIshma as the one who has spent his lifetime serving many learned sages and the elderly people, the one who has strictly adhered to the vow of celibacy for a long time, the one who has performed penance and the one who has attained a spiritual union with the Supreme Self and thus possesses boundless knowledge, bhagavAn nAradha has granted him the powers to profess the supreme philosophy and righteousness in this world, and has appointed him for this purpose.

By the blessings that he obtained having served his parents, bhIshma has himself spoken thus: “Hey gOvindha! Thirst, passion, weakness and pain have all subsided now by your grace. Hey achyutha! All the past, present and future are now known to me as clearly as a fruit in my palm, by your divine grace. All dharmas spoken in the vEdhas and upanishaths are now seen by me due to your grace, oh achyuta! Hey janArdhana, having meditated upon you endlessly, I am now as energetic as a youth. I have now become capable of preaching the dharmas that bestow welfare to this world, and this – again – is by your grace!” Having spoken thus, bhIshma has clearly indicated his knowledge of the Supreme Self. Such well learned bhIshma has declared “This is – in my knowledge – the best of all dharmas”. Thus, the vishNu sahasranAma is to be considered as the most sacred and sought by one and all.

5. SrI viShNu sahasranAma – upheld by all SAsthras as well as unlearned and the dumb

The vishNu sahasranAma chapter has been well accepted by everyone in this world due to its greatness. Thus, bhagavAn athri maharishi has addressed the Supreme Self as ‘the God with thousand names’ in the sabhA parva of mahAbhAratha, and thus upheld the greatness of the sahasranAma chapter. Even in the vishNudharmam, the Supreme Self is referred thus during SrI gajEndhra-mOksham: “The one with thousand auspicious names, the absolute cause of all creations, the one who has no births (due to karma) and the all-pervading Self”. Even here, the great limitless auspicious qualities of bhagavAn are expounded – both at the beginning and at the end of the work.

Even in many other material and spiritual sciences such as Ayurvedha, the greatness of the thousand names of the Lord are extensively discussed. The charaka samhithA, for instance, declares thus: “A sick man would be free from all diseases if he sincerely prays to vishNu – the thousand (infinite)-headed, the ruler of all moveable and immoveable entities, and the all-pervading Self – with His thousand names”. Even in the current times, the remedies to various urinary complications indicate the chanting of purusha sUktham at first, and also strongly recommend chanting of the thousand names of the Lord contained in the mahAbhAratha. The chanting of sahasranAma – the thousand glorious names of the Lord – has been suggested as a sure remedy to various respiratory disorders as well. As a remedy to various kinds of fevers, the scriptures recommend performing the oblations (hOmas) as detailed by them, followed by chanting of the vishNu sahasranAmam. The remedial procedures for planetary positions also suggest the chanting of SrI viShNu sahasranAma in addition to the maruth-sUktham. It is further recommended that the true seeker search for more of such proofs as desired.

Even the ordinary poets and other mortals also project these thousand names of the Lord as the saviour of all lives. For instance, bhattabANa – while picturing the maternity room – says that the vishNu sahasranAma is chanted endlessly. These thousand names of vishNu are considered as the best for listening, chanting, singing, writing, commenting, and sincere worshipping. Chanting of these names is the best suited remedy for curing all types of difficulties posed by poisons, demons, diseases, planets, bad dreams, bad omens, and all other inauspicious entities in this world. It is also considered the best for gaining both material and spiritual benefits, releasing oneself from the bonds of this samsAra, reaching the Supreme abode SrIvaikuntham of vishNu, as also in enjoying the sweetness of the nectar of the divine qualities of vishNu to the fullest. This is also considered as the best for all classes of people such as children, the dumb, the stupid, women, and the non-believers of God. It is in fact considered as the best medicine for all these classes of people. Such wide acceptance is not found even for the vEdhas, since the ignorant wouldn’t accept them, and also since the vEdhas have wide restrictions in terms of who can study them and who cannot. Thus, the vishNu sahasranAma with such wide acceptance should certainly be sought by the wise.

6. SrI viShNu sahasranAma – Equivalent to SrI bhagavath gIthA, nArAyaNIyam, yAna sandhi

SrI viShNu sahasranAma chapter provides us with the same meanings as expounded in the other parts of mahAbhAratha, namely SrI bhagavath gIthA, nArAyaNIya, yAna sandhi, agra pUjA, uththama anushAsana etc. Even for this reason, the sahasranAma adhyAyam is to be considered as very sacred and sought by the wise men.

In light of the six reasons as detailed here, it can be concluded that the chapter of thousand names of the Lord – SrI viShNu sahasranAmam – should be studied by one and all for their own benefit. In addition, the initial discourse on the thousand names of vishNu by bhIshma pithAmaha in the war field from the arrow-bed was graced by the greatest of sages like vyAsa, dhEvashravas, dhEvasthAna, nAradha, vAthsya, Ashma, sumanthu, and other brahmarishis and dhEvarshis – who are the authorities of all knowledge expounded in the vEdas – as his audience. The session was also attended by none other than the Master of all, the expounder of SrI bhagavath gIthA (gIthOpanishath), the foremost among the Acharyas, the Lotus eyed bhagavAn SrI krishNa Himself, and was accepted by Him as a prayer par excellence. I seek to write a treatise on these thousand glorious names of bhagavAn – the vishNu sahasranAma adhyAyam – with an intention of elaborating on His most auspicious qualities.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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జ్ఞానసారము 8

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పాశురము-8

vishnu
ముఱ్ఱ భువనం ఎల్లాం ఉండ ముగిల్వణ్ణన్
కఱ్ఱై తుళాయ్ సేర్ కళలన్ఱి – మఱ్ఱొన్ఱై
ఇచ్చియా అన్బర్ తనక్కు ఎంగనే సెయిదిడినుం
ఉచ్చియాల్ ఏఱ్కుం ఉగందు

ప్రతిపదార్థము

భువనం ఎల్లాం = సకల భువనములు
ముఱ్ఱ  ఉండ =  ఒక్కటి కూడా విడువక భుజించి తన గర్భమున దాచుకున్న
ముగిల్వణ్ణన్ = నీలమేఘ చ్చాయ గలవాడి
కఱ్ఱై తుళాయ్ సేర్ = సువాసనలు వెదజల్లు తులసి మాలను ధరించిన వాడి
కళలన్ఱి = శ్రీపాదములు తప్ప
మఱ్ఱొన్ఱై = వేరొక ప్రయోజనమును
ఇచ్చియా అన్ బర్ = కోరని భక్తులు
తనక్కు = భగవంతుడైన తనకు
ఎంగనే సెయిదిడినుం = కైంకర్యములు ఎలా చేసినా
ఉగందు = సంతోషించి
ఉచ్చియాల్ ఏఱ్కుం = తల మీద పెట్టుకుంటాడు

అవతారిక

శేషత్వము తప్ప మరే ఇతర ప్రయోజనములను ఆశించక ఆయన మీద అపారమైన ప్రీతిని కలిగివున్న వారు ,దాసత్వములో క్రమము తప్పినను భగవంతుడు దానిని దోషముగా భావించక ప్రేమతో స్వీకరిస్తాడు. గీతలో తన భక్తులు భక్తితో ఇచ్చిన పత్రం,పుష్పం, ఫల, తోయం ఏదైనా ప్రీతితో స్వీరిస్తానని చెప్పాడు. ఆ భావమే ఈ పాశురములో చెప్పబడింది.

వ్యాఖ్యానము

” ముఱ్ఱ భువనం ఎల్లాం ఉండ ముగిల్వణ్ణన్ ” ప్రళయ కాలములో సమస్త జీవరాశులను నాశము కానీయకుండా తన ఉదరములో భద్రపరచిన చరిత్ర చెప్పబడుతున్నది.ఈ విధముగా లోక రక్షణ చేసి అది చేతనోధ్ధరణ కోసము కాక తన కోసమే  అన్నట్లు ఆయన నీల మేఘ వర్ణ  శరీరము తెలియజేస్తున్నది. ఎందుకంటే మేఘములు లోక కల్యాణార్థము వర్షిస్తుంది, భగవంతుడు తన భక్తుల కోసమే దయను కురిపిస్తాడని బోధ పడుతున్నది. పాశురము లో  ‘తాయిరుక్కుం వణ్ణమే ఉమ్మై తన్ వయిఱ్ఱిరుందు ఉయ్యకొండాన్ ‘ ( సృష్టి చేసే క్రమములోఅనే నిన్ను రక్షించాడు) అని చెప్పినట్లుగా ప్రళయ కాలములో లోకములను వాటికి తెలియని తనకు మాత్రమే తెలిసిన సంబంధమే కారణముగా రక్షించి, అది కూడా తనకోసమే  చేసినట్లుగా భావించి తన రూపములో ఆ విషయమును స్పష్టము చేసాడు అని చెప్పబడింది.

కఱ్ఱై తుళాయ్ సేర్ కళలన్ఱి – ఇక్కడ భగవంతుడీ శ్రీపాదములను మహత్యము చెప్పబడింది. భూమిలో పరిగే తులసి కమే ఆయన శ్రీపాదములపై ఉన్న తులసి ప్రకాసమానముగా వుంటుంది . ఎందు వలన అంటే ఆయన తిరుమేని సంబంధమే కారణము.  ఈ వర్ణన వలన భగవంతుడీ శ్రీపాదములకు అందము,ఔన్నత్యము అనేక రెట్లు పెరుగుతుంది.

– మఱ్ఱొన్ఱై ఇచ్చియా అన్ బర్ – పరమ భక్తులైన వారు అటువంటి శ్రీపాదములను తప్ప మరి ఇతరములను ఆశ్రయించము, అంటున్నారు .  లోకములో భగవంతుడిని పూజించేవారు ఆయన మీది ప్రీతితో కాక తమ కోరికలు తీర్చుకోవటము కోసామే చేయడము మనము చూస్తూనే ఉంటాము. అలా కాక ఆండాళ్ తల్లి చెప్పినట్లుగా ,’ నూరు తడా అక్కార వడిశలుం సొన్నేన్ నూరు తడావిల్ వెణ్ణై వై నేర్దు పరావివైత్తేణ్ ( నీకు ఇష్టమైన నూరు గంగాళాల అక్కర వడిసల్, నూరు గంగాళాల వెన్న సమర్పిస్తాను) .దీనిని నువ్వు స్వీకరిస్తే ఒక్కొదానికి నూరు చొప్పున ఇంకా సమర్పిస్తానూ అనే వారెవరు? నిజమైన భక్తులు భగవంతుడు స్వీకరించడమే పరమ ప్రయోజనముగా భావిస్తారు. వీరినే అన్య ప్రయోజనమాశించని భక్తులని లోకము కీర్తిస్తుంది.

తనక్కు ఎంగనే సెయిదిడినుం- అఒతటి భక్తి గలవారు భగవాంతుడికి కైంకర్యము చేయునపుడు క్రమము తప్పినను….

ఉచ్చియాల్ ఏఱ్కుం ఉగందు –  మహా ప్రీతితో తల మీద పెట్టుకుంటాడని అర్థము. అనగా భక్తుడు కాలితో విసిరి వేసినా తలతో స్వీకరిస్తారనీ అంటున్నారు. ఉదాహరణకు.. పెరుమాళ్ళ కోసము కట్టి వుంచిన పూల మాలను ఆండాళ్ తల్లి తాను ధరించి అందము చూసుకున్నది . అప్పుడు ఆ మాలలో ఆమె తల వెంట్రుక ఒకటి చిక్కుకున్నది. ఆమాలను చూసిన పెరియాళ్వార్లు దానిని విసిరివేశి మరొక మాలను కట్టి తీసుకు వెళ్ళారు.   కాని పెరుమాళ్ళు తనకు ఆమాలె కావాలని అడిగి ధరించిన విషయము జగద్విదితము. ఇటువంటివి ఎన్నో ఉదాహరణలు భక్తులపై భగవంతుది  ప్రీతిని తెలియజేసేవి చూడవచ్చు.

అడియేన్ చూడామణి రామానుజ దాసి

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 26 – ezhuvAr vidai koLvAr

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avathArikai

AzhwAr says that emperumAn entered thirumalai only in order to solve the problems of those who missed out during his various incarnations.

Let us enjoy the pAsuram and its meanings:

ezhuvAr vidai koLvAr InthuzhAyAnai
vazhuvA vagai ninaindhu vaigal thozhuvAr
vinaich chudarai nandhuvikkum vEnkatamE vAnOr
manach chudaraith thUNdum malai

Word by Word Meanings

ezhuvAr – the aiSvaryArthis (those who go after wealth) who leave (after obtaining  the wealth that they wanted)
vidai koLvAr – the kaivalyArthis (those who enjoy their own souls instead of emperumAn) who leave (permanently from emperumAn)
een thuzhAyAnai – emperumAn who has sweet thuzhAy (thuLasi) garland
vazhuvA vagai ninaindhu – thinking that they should never leave
vaigal – every day
thozhuvAr – the bhagavath prApthi kAmars (those who desire to attain only emperumAn) who worship
vinaich chudarai – the fire of pApa (bad deeds) [of all the three types of followers mentioned above]
nandhuvikkum – putting out
vEnkatamE – only the thiruvEnkatamalai (thirumalai)!
vAnOr – nithyasUris’ (permanent dwellers of SrIvaikuNtam)
manach chudarai – the lamp of their hearts
thUNdum malai – is the mountain which stimulates

vyAkyAnam

ezhuvAr vidai koLvAr vaigal thozhuvArkUraththAzhwAn once said that these three terms denote aiSvaryArthi (those who desire wealth), kailvalyArthi (those who desire their own AthmAs or souls) and bhagavath prApthi kAmars (those who desire to attain emperumAn). From then onwards, these terms carry these meanings. In SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.16, emperumAn says “chathurvidhA: bhajanthE mAm janA: sukruthinOrjuna, Artho jigyAsu: arthArthi gyAnI cha bharatharshabha” (Oh arjuna! Four types of followers worship me – one who wants to get back the wealth that he had lost; one who wants to get wealth for the first time; one who wants to enjoy his own soul and one who wants to attain only me) [of these four, the two types namely those who want to get back lost wealth and those who want to become wealth for the first time are combined into one and thus we have three types of followers in this pAsuram].

ezhuvAr – Just as nammAzhwAr says in thiruvAimozhi 9-1-3 “poruL kai uNdAi sellak kANil pORRi enRu ERRu ezhuvar ” (those who get some wealth in their hands will praise the person who gave it and leave), the aiSvaryArthis will leave once their desired wealth has been given to them by emperumAn.

vidai koLvAr – these are the kaivalyArthis who take leave of emperumAn permanently. They are the ones who tell emperumAn “we do not want the experience of enjoying you; it is enough if we are able to enjoy ourselves”. This is similar to a person inviting someone with lot of presents in order to sever his own head! The experience of enjoying one’s own AthmA is endless. Thus there is nothing like redemption from kaivalyam. Hence these people have to leave emperumAn permanently.

een thuzhAyAnai vazhuvA vagai ninaindhu vaigal thozhuvAr – these are the followers who desire to be with emperumAn permanently. They like to experience emperumAn who has decorated himself with thuLasi garland, without any separation at any point of time. Just as it says in paramasamhithA “yEna yEna dhAthA gachchathi thEna thEna saha gachchathi ” (in whichever way emperumAn goes, these mukthars will follow him in all these ways), these followers would also want to enjoy being with emperumAn like iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa, in SrI rAmAyaNam). Is it possible for them to experience this in thirumalai? One could say that it is only in SrIvaikuNtam that everyone’s thoughts and words would be aligned. But the nithyasUris, who dwell permanently in SrIvaikuNtam, also come to thiruvEnkatam to enjoy the simplicity of emepeumAn. Hence AzhwAr says that it is possible in thiruvEnkatam.

vinaich chudarai nandhuvikkum – their vinaich chuddar is nothing but the brightness of their sins. That is put out by thiruvEnkatam. The enemies for getting wealth, the enemies for getting to enjoy oneself and the enemies for attaining emperumAn are removed by thiruvEnkatam like putting out a fire. For those who desire wealth, the hurdles are inimical persons and sorrows. For those who desire to enjoy themselves, the enemies are the sensory perceptions. For those who desire to enjoy emperumAn, the separation from him is the hurdle.

vAnOr manach chudarai thUNdum malai – for those who have hurdles, thiruvEnkatam hill will remove these hurdles. For nithyasUris who do not have any hurdles, the hill will stimulate them to come down and enjoy emperumAn’s qualities such as simplicity (of giving dharSan (audience) to all his followers) etc.   thiruvEnkatam will make people, who are here, to say as in thiruvAimozhi 3-3-1ozhivil kAlamellAl udanAy manni vazhuvilA adimai seyya vENdum nAm” (we should carry out continuous service to emperumAn at all times, by being with him) and it will make those in SrIvaikuNtam to say as in thiruvAimozhi 6-10-10 “agalagillEn iRaiyum” (we cannot go away from him even for a moment).

We shall take up pAsuram 27 next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 5.4.8 – dheyvangAL

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Full series >> Fifth Centum >> Fourth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the eighth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “A single night feels like many eons and is hurting very much; emperumAn has also not come; and moreover even the breeze is torturing me”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, parAnguSa nAyaki tells those dhEvathAs [who were called out in previous pAsuram] “krishNa who eliminates the enemies by taking up arms, has not come; moreover even the breeze is torturing; what can I do?”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

dheyvangAL en seygEn? Oriravu EzhUzhiyAy
mey vandhu ninRu enadhAvi melivikkum
kai vandha chakkaraththu en kaNNanum vArAnAl
thai vandha thaN thenRal venjudaril  thAn adumE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

dheyvangAL – Oh dhEvathAs (celestial beings, who are awake)!

(I who am not capable to act in my own protection)
en – what
seygEn – can (I) do?
Or – one
iravu – night
Ezhu – seven
UzhiyAy – feeling like kalpa (brahmA’s day, eon)
mey – truthfully
vandhu – coming in forefront
ninRu – standing

(afflicted by suffering in separation)
enadhu – my
Avi – prANa (life, vital air)
melivikkum – weakens;
kai vandha – obedient (to act knowing the inner thoughts fully)
chakkaram – having divine disc
en kaNNanum – krishNa
vArAn – has not come (to eliminate this night with the help of that chakra);

(knowing that he has not come)
thai vandha – caressing (like those who come to torture)
thaN – cool
thenRal – [southerly] breeze
vem – hot
sudaril – more than fire
adum – burning.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Oh dhEvathAs! What can I do? One night comes to the forefront and stands, and makes me feel like seven kalpa and weakens my prANa; krishNa who has the obedient divine disc, has not come. Knowing that he has not come, the caressing cool breeze is burning more than hot fire. Also explained as burning like hot fire.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • dheyvangAL en seygEn – She can only inform those who are awake, if present.
  • Or iravu Ezh UzhiyAy – Previously, when she said “UzhiyAy“, she meant “the night alone tortured her”, and here, she is saying “it is torturing in many eons”. As saubhari assumed many forms to enjoy, the night assumed many forms to torture parAnguSa nAyaki.
  • mey vandhu ninRu – As rAvaNa came at the right time [to capture sIthA when she was alone], the night came knowing well that parAnguSa nAyaki is suffering in separation. Not just it has come to obey the rules laid out by bhagavAn [that night sets out naturally at the end of the day], it appears as though it specifically wants to torture me and appeared in front of me.
  • enadhu Avi melivikkum – It brings back my life and tortures it; the life which is declared to be “dead”, is brought back and tortured; similar to the case of those who steady the already tired persons by giving them some nutrition and then beating them severely again.
  • kai vandha chakkaraththu – Is he without the tool which is required to eliminate this suffering? He has the divine chakra in his hand which follows his thoughts and stays in his hand even if does not invite it. That is, he has the tool which is most obedient towards him. He has the tool which acts according to his mood. SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kANdam 15.29 is explained here. bhAvagyEna – When iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) was building the hermitage for SrI rAma and sIthA to stay in the forest, SrI rAma told him to have an assembly hall to meet with rishis and a hall to perform fire rituals; he did not mention specifically to build a private quarters for him to spend with sIthA; but lakshmaNa built that as well, knowing SrI rAma’s heart. He says something through his eyes, he too listens to them through his eyes and completes the task. kruthagyEna – not just following SrI rAma’s thoughts; lakshmaNa also knows the heart of dhaSaratha chakravarthi who remained childless for 60000 years and begot SrI rAma, and built palaces which satisfy his desires. dharmagyEna – He did not do these tasks just as being a brother, but did them as “duty which must be done”. He performs these tasks considering them to be those duties which are the cause for uplifting himself. thvayA puthrENa – You (lakhsmaNa) are the one who delivers dhaSaratha from hell, after his death. dhaSaratha always worried “I will protect rAma as long as I am present; but after me, who will protect him; what shall I do?”; since you fulfil his responsibilities, you are the one who relieves him from his sorrows. dharmAthmA – How great of our father! He is a very righteous person; he took care of my protection while he was alive, and like those who establish water shelters for the benefit of others even after their death, he arranged you for my protection. nasamvruththa:pithAmama – You may have lost your father but I have not [since you are there as my father]. He is having the obedient tool which will complete all tasks as said in SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 28.25 “rAmasya dhakshinO bAhu:” (lakshmaNa is like the right arm of SrI rAma).
  • kaNNan – When krishNa set out to attack SrI bhIshma, the divine chakra appeared at once in his hand. As SrI bhIshma attacked arjuna relentlessly for long time, arjuna became weakened; when sarvESvaran saw that, he forgot his own vow [of not taking up arms], jumped out of the chariot and chased bhIshma with his divine chakra and bhIshma said “come and mercifully kill me”. He said in mahAbhAratham bhIshma parvam 59.98 “Ehi Ehi pullAmbhuja pathra nEthra ..” (Come on! come on! Oh one with blossomed lotus petal like eyes) – if I get to enjoy your beautiful eyes shining with anger, even if you discard your vow, there is no loss! prasahya – Mercifully severe my head ordering me to lay down my arms, as I am not fearful of you or your bravery. lOkanAtha – Though I won’t be defeated by your bravery, I will be defeated by your supremacy.
  • en kaNNan – One who gives up his own vow for the benefit of his devotees. Whatever is done for one devotee is as good as doing it for all of them. Everyone who surrenders to him is doing so thinking “he will even give up his own vow for the benefit of his devotees”. If it is said that emperumAn has some rules which never breaks, there is no guarantee for those who surrender unto him.
  • thai vandha thaN thenRal – The cool breeze which came in cool season [January-February]; thai varugai – caressing, the cool breeze which reminds the touch of her beloved lord. It is commonly used in the sentence “thAn senRu maN magaLaith thaivandhAn” (he went and gently caressed the bhUmi dhEvi).
  • vem sudaril thAn adumE – Explained as burning more than hot fire as well as burning like hot fire. The favourable aspect [cool breeze] appears different during separation, like the difference between ordinary fire and hellish fire.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 25 – urai mERkondu

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avathArikai

After seeing the continuous crying of emperumAn [in the previous pAsuram], AzhwAr thought about his simplicity and became deeply involved in that. With that, he started praising him. Just as emperumAn’s thoughts were on stealing butter, AzhwAr’s thoughts were focussed on emperumAn.

Let us enjoy the pAsuram and its meanings:

uraimERkoNdu en uLLam OvAdhu eppOdhum
varai mEl maradhagamE pOla thirai mEl
kidandhAnaik kIndAnaik kEzhalAy bhUmi
idandhAnai Eththi ezhum

Word by Word Meanings

varai mEl – on top of a mountain
maradhagamE pOla – embedded like an emerald
thirai mEl – on top of thiruppARkadal (milky ocean)
kidandhAnai – reclining
kEzhalAy – in the form of a wild boar
bhUmi – the world
kIndAnai – removing from the wall of universe
idandhAnai – taking it on his tusks
en uLLam – my heart
OvAdhu – continuously
eppOdhum – at all times
urai mERkoNdu – involved in speaking
Eththi – praising (his auspicious qualities)
ezhum – will be uplifted

vyAkyAnam

urai mEl koNdu – with words of significant meanings; i.e. on matters relating to words. Or, while speaking about something, carrying on with it. In other words, being fully engaged in it.

en uLLam OvAdhu eppOdhum – my heart is continuously worshipping him. Since the svarUpam (basic nature) of jIvAthmA is to be subservient to emperumAn, there will be a change in being subservient only if the svarUpam is destroyed. Since svarUpam cannot be destroyed, this also will not change.

varai mEl maradhagamE pOlath thiraimEl kidandhAnai – isn’t he reclining on thiruppARkadal just as an emerald gem is embedded on a mountain!

kidandhAnaik kIndAnai –  once his follower had any difficulty, he could not stay on his bed. Did he not immediately get up and tear apart the enemy!

kIndAnai – we can also consider that he tore apart hiraNyakashyap (father of his follower prahlAdha)

kEzhalAyk kIndAnai bhUmi idandhAnai – the two verses can be combined and meaning derived. In this case, it will refer to his varAha avathAram (incarnation as wild boar), with kIndAnai referring to his removing the earth from the walls of the universe and idandhAnai referring to taking the earth on his tusks.

Eththi ezhum – by continuously praising these activities in his incarnations, my heart will get uplifted, says AzhwAr.

We shall consider pAsuram 26 next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAsiriyam – thaniyan

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nammAzhwAr

aruLALa perumAL emperumAnAr

aruLALap perumAL emperumAnAr

thaniyan for thiruvAsiriyam was divined by aruLALap perumAL emperumAnAr.

avathArikai

kAsiniyOr thAmvAzha – This thaniyan says “you should keep the dhESika (AchArya) who visualized/compiled thiruvAsiriyam in your pure heart and eternally perform mangaLASAsanam to him without forgetting”.

thaniyan

kAsiniyOr thAm vAzhak kali yugaththE vandhudhiththu
Asiriyap pAvadhanAl arumaRai nUl viriththAnaith  
thEsikanaip parAngusanaith thigazh vaguLath thArAnai
mAsadaiyA manaththu vaiththu maRavAmal vAzhththudhumE

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The vyAkhyAnam for this thaniyan was divined by SrI piLLai lOkam jIyar.

Word by word meaning

kAsiniyOr thAm – the people of this world
vAzha – to prosper
kali yugthathE – in this kali yuga
vandhu udhiththu – incarnated
Asiriyap pA adhanAl – through this prabandham called thiruvAsiriyam
arumaRai nUl viriththAnai – he has explained vEdha SAsthram, which is difficult to understand
dhEsikanai – dhESika (AchArya)
thigazh vakuLam thArAnai – who wears the garland of magizham pU (flower)
parAngusanai – nammAzhwAr
mAsadaiyA manaththu vaiththu – placing in the pure mind bereft of impurities like ahankAra and mamakAra
maRavAmal – without forgetting him
vazhththudhumE – let us glorify him by doing mangaLASAsanam to him.

vyAkhyAnam

kAsiniyOr thAm vAzha kali yugaththE vandhudhiththu, dhEsikanai parAngusanai – this describes the greatness of AzhwAr’s birth (avathAram).

kAsiniyOr thAm vAzha – For the prosperity of the people in this earth who do not know anything beyond the earth which they have seen. [“kAsathE ithi kAsinE (because of the visible brightness, the earth is called kAsinE). The thamizh word “kAsini” came from the samskritham word “kASin” (shining) which indicates the earth (bhUmI). kAsiniyOr – the one who cannot see anything beyond earth]

kali yugaththE vandhu udhiththu – In every yuga, emperumAn appears in different varNam. In this kali yuga, nammAzhwAr incarnated to uplift us all from the mire of samsAra – “kalau puna: pAparathAbhibhUthE bhakthAthmana sa udhbabhUva” (bhagavAn appeared in the form of his devotee in this kali yuga where people involved in the sinful activities). (In the krutha yugam, bhagavAn incarnated as dhaththAthrEya and paraSurAma in brAhmaNa varnam. In threthA yugam, he incarnated as SrI rAma (chakravarthi thirumagan) in kshathriya varNam. In dhvApara yugam, he incarnated as kaNNan for vasudhEva and dhEvakI in vaiSya varNam. In this last and fourth kali yugam, empermAn kaNNan himself has incarnated as AzhwAr (SatakOpa) for udaiyanangai and kAriyAr in SUdhra varnam).

vandhu udhiththu – It appears that Azhwar incarnated in this earth from another world (nithya vibhUthi – paramapadham). maNavALa mAmunigaL says in his upadhEsa raththina mAlai 7th pAsurammaRRuLLa AzhvArgaLukku munnE vandhu udhiththu”. azhagiya maNavALap perumAL nAyanAr, the author of AchArya hrudhayam also said following the words in SatakOpAshtakam “vagulabUshana bAskarOdhayaththilE” (the appearance the vakuLa bhUshaNa, the radiant sun). In this thaniyan also AzhwAr is called “vagulaththArAnai (who wears magizham pU garland)”. [He is our prathamAchArya (primary AchArya) as said in sthOthra rathnam 5 “Adhyasya na: kulapathE: vakuLAbhirAmam”. He is also called SrIvaiShNava kula pathi and prapanna jana kUtastha (leader of the vaiShNava clan)]

His actions, after incarnating, are explained further:

Asiriyap pA adhanAl – In thamizh grammar there are different types of “pA” (poems) and among them AzhwAr mercifully chose Asiriyap pA for this prabandham. The style followed here is andhAdhi (ending of one pAsuram is the beginning of the other).

arumaRai nUl viriththAnai – The one who explained the very rare “SAsthras” in a detailed manner and was famously known for that; he is one who made the very rare principles to be in easily understandable thamizh. [This is highlighted in thiruvAimozhi 4.5.10vaN thamizh nURka“; this is praised by madhurakavi AzhwAr also in his kaNNinun siRuth thAmbu 8th pAsuram as “aruLinAn avvarumaRaiyin poruL aruL koNdu Ayiram in thamizh pAdinAn” (AzhwAr mercifully explained the worthy vEdham’s meanings in sweet thamizh language)]

dhEsikanaip parAngusanai – parAnguSa dhESika who is the seer of the principles of vEdham.

[He is called as parAngusa due to two reasons:

  1. AzhwAr is the anguSam for the paras (kudhrushti matham followers – those who accept SAsthram but misinterpret that to their convenience) who propagated the idea that bhagavAn has no parathvam. AzhwAr has goaded and controlled such persons who don’t accept emperumAn and vEdham.
  2. AzhwAr is the anguSam for the parAthparan (paramapurushan) himself. AzhwAr himself says so in thiruvAimozhi 6.4.9 “valakkaiyAzhi idakkaich changam ivaiyudai mAl vaNNanai malakku nAvudaiyErkku”. He proudly says about his special relation with emperumAn and states that he can be like anguSam for the lord to respond to him. Hence AzhwAr is called parAngusan]

thigazh vakuLath thArAnai – nammAzhwAr is called “vakuLAbaraNan” as he wears magizham pU garland on his chest. It is said in a well known poem about nammAzhwAr “thAmam thuLavO vaguLamO” (Is he wearing thuLasi garland or magizham garland, i.e., is he SrIman nArAyaNa or AzhwAr) ,”thandulabaththArAnai” (adorned by thuLasi garland)”.

mASadaiyA manaththu vaiththu – One should place in his/her pure/clean heart as said in thirumAlai 22mAsaRRAr manaththuLAnai” (one who is residing permanently in the minds of those blemishless persons who have left aside other benefits), thiruvAimozhi 9.2.4 “theLintha en chindhai agam kazhiyAmE” (to reside in one’s pure and clean mind); placing in one’s heart as said in “van kurugaik kOnArum nammudaik kudi vIRRirunthAr” (to place AzhwAr, the leader of AzhwArthirunagari, in one’s heart). Since he is paramahamsa (a superior swan, indicating his most pure nature), he sits in the flower of heart; “vakulaththArAnai mAsadaiya mannaththu vaiththu” – One has to do bhakthi by placing AzhwAr in the heart as the SubASrayam (auspicious target) as said in rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi 18 “Ayiram in thamizhAl seydhaRku ulagil varum SatakOpanaich chinthai uLLE peydhaRku isaiyum periyavar seerai” (The glories of great madhurakavi AzhwAr who kept in his heart – nammAzhwAr who came to compile thiruvAimozhi in sweet thamizh) ; that is, AzhwAr who is known as in thiruvAimozhi 4.10.11 “nAtkamazh magizh mAlai mArbinan mARan satakOpan” (nammAzhwAr who is known mARan and SatakOpan who is wearing fresh mgaizham pU garland on his chest).

maravAmal vazhththudumE – one should do mangaLASAsanam and meditate upon him in his/her mind always, to not forget AzhwAr ever. He too said in thiruvAsiriyam 4th pAsuram “UzhithORUzhi OvAdhu vAzhiya enRu yAm thozha isaiyum kol?” (Will I be fortunate to remember emperumAn always and to glorify Him?).

So with this thaniyan – it is explained that AzhwAr’s divine form is SubASrayam (auspicious target) and is the target of our mangaLASAsanam.

adiyen booma ramanuja dasi

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 24 – viralOdu vAy thOyndha

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avathArikai

emperumAn asks AzhwAr “I am known for having all my desires fulfilled already. [When such is the case] Would I need to steal a material because it is not possible for me to get it and would I need to get caught and be tied?” AzhwAr responds saying “Do you not know how you were tied!”

Let us look at the pAsuram and its meanings:

viralOdu vAy thOyndha veNNey kaNdu Aychchi
uralOdu uRap piNindha nAnRu kuralOvA
dhEngi ninaindhu ayalAr kANa irundhilaiyE
OngOdha vaNNA urai

 Word by Word Meanings

viralOdu vAy thOyndha – stains on your fingers and your mouth
veNNey – of  butter
Aychchi – yaSOdhA pirAtti (mother yaSOdhA)
kaNdu – seeing
uralOdu – with mortar
uRap piNindha nAnRu – securing well
kural ovAdhu – without stopping (your) crying
Engi – yearning
ninaindhu – thinking of stealing butter (even then)
ayalAr – all the others
kANa – to look at in amusement
irundhilaiyE – were you not!
Ongu Odha vaNNA – Oh the one who has the divine form with the complexion of an ocean with agitating waves
urai – please tell the truth yourself.

vyAkyAnam

viralOdu vAy thOyndha veNNey kaNdu – kaNNan (krishNa) was caught by yaSOdhA even as he stole butter and tried to eat by taking it near his mouth. He was caught before the butter, which he relishes the most, could reach his throat! If he had been caught after he ate it, he would have tolerated it. AzhwAr says, even as he was about to consume it he got caught red-handed. In one place (siRIya thirumadal) thirumangai AzhwAr says “thArAr thadam thOLgaL uLLaLavum kai nItti ArAdha veNNey vizhungi” (he swallowed the butter, which never gives him satisfaction however much he eats, by dropping his garlanded shoulder down to the bottom of the pot) implying that he ate the entire quantity of butter before being caught. Here, it says “viralOdu vAy thOyndha veNNey kaNdu” which means that he was caught even as he was about to eat the butter. nanjIyar, disciple of parASara bhattar (celebrated son of kUraththAzhwAn) asked of bhattar “the two do not match; which is correct?” to which bhattar responded “until he reached the age when he went after girls, krishNa’s main pastime was stealing butter. Hence, one day he would get caught and one day he would be able to eat the butter before getting caught”. Will a thief, who is used to stealing, give up the habit? Moreover, krishNa was born at midnight, which is the time when thieves are at work. Thus, as nammAzhwAr says in thiruvAimozhi 1-8-5vaigalum veNNey kai kalandhu uNdAn”, stealing butter is a daily exercise for krishNa.

Aychchi uralOdu uRap piNindha nAnRu – seeing this, yaSOdhA pirAtti bound kaNNan’s divine body with the mortar in such a way that there were identification marks (scars) on his body. She tied him so tightly that it was difficult to differentiate between kaNNan and the mortar.

kural OvAdhu Engi – unable to disengage himself from the rope with which yaSOdhA tied him, kaNNan started crying continuously. Immediately, yaSOdhA threatened him with the stick in her hand so that he would stop crying. kaNNan shut his mouth but had a forlorn look on his face. Just as emperumAn needs to take the effort to release us from the bondage that he had put us in, he himself needed the assistance of the one (yaSOdhA) to release him from his bondage! Who will believe him if he unties himself, thus disproving that he remains tied to his followers? Only to prove that he does not give up his followers that he puts on acts such as this! For an avApthasamasthakAman (one who has no unfulfilled desires) such as he, we have to believe that he has a desire to steal a material (butter); that, unable to get it, he gets caught while stealing; that the omniscient that he is (one who knows everything), does not know how to untie himself from the bondage that yaSOdhA had put him in; that this happens as an everyday affair – what a wonderment is this!

ninaindhu – even as he remains tied to the mortar, kaNNan thinks “there is so much of butter all over thiruvAyppAdi (SrI gOkulam). How terrible is it that I am not able to steal them and eat them, being tied down like this”

ayalAr kANa irundhilaiyE – is there any one among the five lakhs of girls in thiruvAppAdi who did not get to see you being tied to the mortar? All the girls who were troubled by you, were waiting for such a day when you would get caught like this. vihakESvara samhithai says “athyuthkatai: puNyapApai: ihaiva palamaSnuthE” (people experience the results of their puNya (good deeds) and pApa (bad deeds) here itself). The girls also got to see you in this condition, so that they could forget all the troubles that they had to endure because of you. Even as kaNNan was crying, they were laughing, saying “he deserves this. He needs more of this”.

irundhilaiyE – you remained like this! Just as rAvaNa could not forget the arrows of SrI rAma, you also could not forget this incident.

OngOdha vaNNA – even though you were tied down like this, your divine form was such that it resembled the complexion of an ocean with agitating waves! The act of tying you to a mortar looked like holding all the water in an ocean!

urai – please tell the truth. In mahAbhAratham udhyOga parvam 70-48 krishNa tells dhraupadhi “dhyau pathEth pruthivI SIryEth himavAn SakaleebhavEth, SUshyEth thOya nidhi: krishnE na mE mOgham vachO bhavEth ” (Oh dhraupadhi! The sky may fall, the earth may crumble, the himAlaya mountain may get powdered to pieces, the ocean may dry up; but my word will never be false). Since your words will never be false, you please tell the truth yourself.

OngOdha vaNNA uraiAzhwAr implores emperumAn to tell the truth so that he could enjoy the beauty of his divine form which resembles the ocean and the beauty of his words.

We shall next take up the 25th pAsuram.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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mudhal thiruvandhAdhi – 23 – thazhumbirundha sArnganAN

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avathArikai

emperumAn tried to hide the scar [mentioned in the previous pAsuram] saying “How can I, the sarvESvaran (supreme entity), be afraid of a woman? How can I be tied down by her? How can the world know about it?”. AzhwAr responds saying “if it is a single scar you could probably succeed in hiding it. When there are many scars formed all over your divine form when you carried out tasks to protect your followers, how can you hid them all?”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

thazhumbirundha sArnga nAN thOyndhavAm am kai
thazhumbirundha thAL sagadam sAdi thazhumbirundha
pUngOdhaiyAL veruvap pon peyarOn mArvidandha
vIngOdha vaNNar viral

Word by Word Meaning

am kai – in beautiful hands
sArnga nAN – the cord of bow
thOyndha – formed due to constant touching
thazhumbu – scars
irundha Am – were present
thAL – in the divine feet
sagadam sAdi – formed due to kicking the demon who had entered the wheel
thazhumbu irundha – scar was present
pUm kOdhaiyAL – piratti with beautifully platted divine hair
veruva – being fearful (of what will happen to the world)
pon peyarOn – the demon hiraNyakashyap’s
mArbu idandha – tearing his chest
vIngu Odha vaNNar – emperumAn who has the complexion of ocean with agitating waves
viral – on his fingers
thazhumbu irundha – scars are present

vyAkyAnam

thazhumbu irundha sArnga nAN thOyndha Am am kaiemperumAn’s divine hand will have multiple scars due to the cord of his bow touching his hand constantly. His hand had to bear the scars since he had to hold the divine bow [constantly to protect his followers].

thAL sagadam sAdith thazhumbu irundha – his divine feet are so soft and gentle that even pirAttimArs (SrI mahAlakshmi and other consorts) would hesitate to touch them. emperumAn kicked the demon Sakata with those feet and hence scars were formed there. His purpose in kicking his feet was to cry out for milk, which infants would do when they cry for milk. It so happened that the wheel came there at that point of time and got kicked and the demon, who had pervaded the wheel, died. This, of course, created joy in emperumAn.

vIngu Odha vaNNar viral – how will the fingers of the person whose complexion is like that of the ocean with agitating waves, be? ….

pUngOdhaiyAL veruvaemperumAn tore the chest of hiraNyakashyap in order to help his child devotee prahlAdha, so that pirAtti will feel happy. But even that pirAtti was fearful, wondering what will happen to the world due to narismha perumAn’s anger (the form taken by emperumAn to kill hiraNyakashyap was a combination of human body and lion’s head.

pUm kOdhaiyAL – pirAtti feels happy when emperumAn carries out any task for the sake of his devotees. She knows the greatness of his valour. She once told (SrI rAma) to remain in the garb of rishi (sage) so that he would not harm anyone [this is a backhanded compliment paid by sIthAppirAtti in dhaNdaka AraNyam (forest) when SrI rAma had forgotten to keep his word of protecting the sages there by killing demons who were troubling the sages and she nudged him in a playful way to remind him of his promise, since protecting followers is dear to her heart].

vIngu Odha vaNNar – Since emperumAn narasimha’s anger was tumultuous, AzhwAr is comparing him to the complexion of an ocean with agitating waves. thirumangai AzhwAr says in periya thirumozhi 2-5-8 “adal ariyAyp peruginAnai” (emperumAn grew in to the form of powerful narasimha). In nararsimha manthram (hymns in praise of Lord narasimha) emperumAn’s ability to pervade everything is identified with the name “mahAvishNum

Thus AzhwAr is asking of emperumAn “when scars have been formed on your divine fingers, divine feet and divine hands, in various incarnations, how can you hide them all?”

We shall take up the 24th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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