Monthly Archives: December 2016

thiruvAimozhi – 4.2.3 – pAviyal vEdha

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Previous pAsuram

trivikrama

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In third pAsuram – mother says “My daughter (parAnkuSa nAyaki) desires for the thiruththuzhAy (thuLasi) from the divine feet of emperumAn who divinely measured the worlds”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, mother says “My daughter calls out for the thiruththuzhAy from the divine feet of thrivikrama who is glorified by all worlds”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Third pAsuram. mother says “My daughter is saying – What is the impediment in getting that which is held by the one who helped the whole world instead of the one who helped just a town?”.

pAsuram

pAviyal vEdha nan mAlai pala koNdu
dhEvargaL mAmunivar iRainja ninRa
sEvadi mElaNi sempon thuzhAy enRE
kUvumAl kOL vinaiyAttiyEn kOdhaiyE

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Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

pA – in chandhas (poetic meter)
iyal – existing
vEdham – vEdha sUkthams (sacred hymns)
nal – divinely
pal – many
mAlai – garlands
koNdu – having
dhEvargaL – dhEvas
mA munivar – eminent sages like sanaka et al
iRainja – to be worshipped
ninRa – (measured the world and) stood
chE adi mEl – on the reddish divine feet
aNi – adorned (by them)
sem – reddish
pon – desirable like gold
thuzhAyenRE -only that thiruththuzhAy (thuLasi)
kUvum – she is calling out;
kOL vinaiyAttiyEn – I have very strong/well-known sins, my
kOdhai – flower garland like daughter, or daughter who is wearing a flower garland.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn (measured the world and) stood to be worshipped by dhEvas and eminent sages like sanaka et al, who are having vEdha sUkthams which are existing in chandhas, with many divine garlands; I, a great sinner, have a daughter who is herself [tender like] a flower garland, and who is calling out only for the thiruththuzhAy which is desirable like reddish gold and is adorned on the reddish divine feet of such emperumAn.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • pA iyal vEdham – vEdham which is composed of hymns. [Alternatively] vEdham which is spoken with poetic meter, i.e., vEdham which has different meters such as anushtup, thrishtup, bruhathI etc. [depending on the number of words in a line]
  • nal mAlai – with the best garlands among such vEdham – that is with SrI purusha sUktham etc. [Why specifically hymns from vEdham?] Though bhagavAn is glorified in other places too, since his nature and qualities are clearly revealed in vEdham, using [such vEdham which says] katavalli upanishath 1.2.15 “sarvE vEdhA yath padhamAmananthi” (the vEdhams which speak about the nature of paramAthmA who is the ultimate goal) and in Sri bhagavath gIthA 15.15 “vEdhaiScha sarvair ahamEva vEdhya:” (I am the object of knowledge in all vEdhams). Alternatively, reading vEdham and nanmAlai separately, it is explained as – with vEdham which speaks about worship of emperumAn and SrI purusha sUktham which speaks about his nithya vibhUthi and leelA vibhUthi.
  • dhEvargaL mA munivar iRainja ninRa – emperumAn standing as the refuge, after divinely measuring the world, to be worshipped by dhEvas (celestial beings) and sages like sanaka et al as said in SrIvishNu dharmam “sankaissurANAm” (When thrivikram measured the world with his foot, he was worshipped by dhEvas, humans and other celestial beings).
  • sEvadi – as said in thiruvAsiriyam 5 “mA mudhal adip pOdhu onRu kavizhththalarththi” (a great lotus flower, placed in an upside-down posture), when the divine foot appears like a flower on the head, AzhwAr lifts his head and sees the enjoyable reddish colour of the foot. It is the rAgam (redness indicates attachment) in the beginning/feet which changed parAnkuSa nAyaki to be in her current situation. Alternatively – it is explained as feet with sevvai (Arjava – honesty). Honesty for the foot is being neutral towards devotees and others and touching all as said in mUnRAm thirvanthAdhi 88 “podhu ninRa ponnam kazhal” (the attractive, beautiful divine feet which are common for everyone). The Arjavam (honesty) of his divine feet makes everyone engage in them as said in thirunedunthANdagam 1 “thaLir puraiyum thiruvadi en thalai mElavE” (His blossoming divine feet are on my head).
  • sEvadi mElaNi sem pon thuzhAy – She was calling out for the gold-like attractive thiruththuzhAy (thuLasi) on such divine feet.
  • enRE kUvumAl – Even if she was given the garland which he wore on his shoulders, she would not accept. Al – exclamation, additional word for poetic sound.
  • kOL vinaiyAttiyEn – I who have sins which will finish me surely. Alternatively – kOl – strong. Sins which can only be exhausted by experiencing the results [of such strong] sins.
  • kOdhaiyE – [kOdhai means flower garland, lock [hair] and a girl who is wearing garland] Four explanations – 1) She, who will torment those who see her garland and lock, is herself being tormented now! 2) She who is having such lock is desiring for another garland [that is worn by emperumAn]. 3) She herself, being a garland on [emperumAn’s] chest, is desiring for another garland! 4) emperumAn is crazy about the garland on his chest and she is crazy on such emperumAn.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thirumAlai – 38 – mEmporuL pOgavittu – Part 2

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namperumal-nachiar_serthi

In the previous part of this pAsuram, we had seen the avathArikai (introduction) and meanings of the pAsuram. In this part, we shall see the meanings of the first two lines of the pAsuram and how they reflect the meanings of the uththara bhAgam (latter part) of dhvaya mahAmanthram and meanings conveyed in thirumanthram.

mEmporuL pOgavittu meymmaiyai miga uNarndhu
AmparisaRindhukoNdu aimpulanagaththadakki
kAmbaRath thalai siraiththun kadaiththalai irundhu vAzhum
sOmbarai ugaththi pOlum sUzhpunal arangaththAnE

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vyAkhyAnam (commentary)

mEmporuL – vyAkhyAthA (commentator) has given three different meanings for this word: (1) superficial object; (2) pervasive object; (3) object creating eminence. In all the three meanings, this word indicates [physical] body which in turn is representative for all materialistic objects. Let us consider each of these three meanings. (1) as a superficial object – having an unnatural relationship on account of karma and once knowledge about emperumAn is born, body becomes something that need not be bothered about. Thinking that this is sweet, when jIvAthmA (chEthana or sentient entity) starts enjoying with the help of this body, it would appear superficially that this is indeed sweet; but when looked a bit deeper, since there is nothing sweet about this, we can consider that this body is a superficial object. (2) as a pervasive object – As SrI bhagavath gIthA 7.14 says “dhaivI hyEshA guNamayI mama mAyA dhurathyaya I mAmEva yE prapadhyanthE mAyAmEthAm thanthithE II” (ordained by me, this prakruthi (primordial matter) also called as mAyA, is composed of the three qualities – sAthvic (pure good), rAjasic (passionate) and thAmasic (ignorance). It is very difficult to cross over. Only those who surrender to me cross this prakruthi), this body is intertwined with the AthmA (soul), becoming nearly inseparable. This body makes the person believe that “I am dhEva” (celestial entity) or “I am manushya” (human being) since it is so closely intertwined and hence we can say that this body is pervasive. (3) as an object creating eminence – it makes people to think that they are eminent among all the persons, who know everything. Thus the body can have any of the three connotations as we have seen above, and all the other materialistic objects with which it is connected, can be called as mEmporuL.

pOgavittu – to give up with all the traces (give up completely). As long as one is with this SarIram (body) it cannot be given up. Only when a person gets the knowledge that this SarIram and its connected materialistic objects cannot be the purushArtham (benefit) [on attaining emperumAn] can it be termed as giving it up will all traces. The connection [between the body and the soul] was created by emperumAn. As we had seen in the gIthA Slokam 7.14 [in the previous paragraph] this connection cannot be severed by the chEthana. SrIvishNu purANam 7.11 says “anAthmanyAthma budhdhiryA asvE svamithi yA mathi  I samsAra tharusambhUthi bIjamEthath dhvidhA sthitham  II” (the thought that this body, which is not the true self, is the self, and thinking that those objects which are not one’s, are one’s own, are the seed with dicotyledons which enable the tree called samsAram to grow). Thus, ridding of the thought that this dhEham is AthmA, that the objects in this samsAram which  are connected to this dhEham are one’s own and thinking of AthmA, which is different from dhEham, as svathanthran (one who is independent) is called as pOgavittu (giving up with trace). This is what great gyAnis (highly intelligent persons) such as janaka could do. When two trees, one good and the other, bad, are intertwined so closely that it is not possible to separate them, a person, desirous of separating them, will scratch the surface of the bad tree and apply asafoetida (an organic substance used in cooking) on it so that it will wither away. In the same way, when AthmA and the body are so closely intertwined, if someone wants to rid of the body, he has to remove the thoughts of ahankAram (thinking of body as oneself) and svAthanthriya budhdhi (thinking of oneself as being totally independent). The words which follow later in this pAsuram such as “meymmaiyai miga uNarndhu” and “AmparisaRindhu koNdu” are related to gyAna (knowledge); hence we can consider this word pOgavittu also to be related to knowledge.

meymmaiyai miga uNarndhu – the word “mey” refers to AthmA. Can mey denote AthmA? thaiththirIya upanishath Anandhavalli 6 says sathyanchA nruthancha sathyamabhavath (the paravasthu [greatest entity] was sathyam (without any change) even though it exists as sathyam (chEthana thathvam or sentient entity) and asathyam (achEthana thathvam or insentient entity). Since upanishath calls the constantly changing entity of achEthana as anrutham (false) and the one without any change to its svarUpa, the chEthana entity, as sathyam (mey or true), AzhwAr also calls AthmA as mey. The word sathyam denotes the permanent nature of AthmA, unlike adhvaithis (followers of a philosophy which says that there is no separate chith, achith and ISvaran) who define it as different from asathya, without any distinction. AzhwAr calls this permanent nature as meymmai here.

miga uNarndhu – [vyAkkhyAthA periyavAchchAn piLLai brings in here, a few philosophies and contrasts them with the philosophy of viSishtAdhvaitham]. Unlike lOkAyathan (also called as chArvAkan) who says, “only body is AthmA”; unlike pUrvamImAmsakan who says “AthmA, who is different from body and who is permanent, is independent”; unlike vaiSEshikan who says “the knowledge of AthmA is acquired [it is not natural]; when he remains like a stone, he attains mOksha (liberation)”; unlike all these philosophies, knowing AthmA as per its true nature – i.e. AthmA is self-radiant, permanent, having knowledge forever, as a quality, having a svarUpam which is like an atom [Sasthra defines the size of AthmA: take a grain of paddy, take out the sharp end, divide it into a hundred parts, take one of these parts, divide this into a hundred pieces, the size of the AthmA is less than the size of this finally divided piece], always belonging to ISvaran, being subservient to his followers also – this is knowing AthmA completely.

AmparisaRindhu koNdu – After realising that dhEham, which is the result of prakruthi (primordial matter), and those which are connected to dhEham [relatives, possessions etc] are fit to be given up, and after knowing AthmA’s true nature [as explained in the previous paragraph], the benefit that results is Amparisu  which is bhagavath kainkaryam (carrying out service to emperumAn). Amparisu (benefit) is the cause for growth. The cause for growth will vary, depending on what the AthmA thinks of itself. If the AthmA is inside the body of animals like cow, a bundle of grass is the cause for its growth. When the AthmA resides in the body of man, food is the cause for its growth. When the AthmA is inside the body of a celestial entity, amrutham (nectar) is the cause for its growth. In whichever body the AthmA resides, if it feels that it is an adiyEn (servitor), then kainkaryam (carrying out service) is the reason for its growth. Since the person’s intellect gets blunted due to the body and its connected entities [in this samsAram], this subject matter is not well known in this world. On reaching paramapadham (SrIvaikuNtam), gaining the inner knowledge and realising the true nature, AthmA’s natural servitorship will be its benefit and cause for its growth.

aRindhu koNdu – just as one says “carrying wealth”, AzhwAr explains its pre-eminence. The wealth for every chEthana is the knowledge that dhEham and its complements are to be given up, that AthmA is always dependent on emperumAn, that servitorship is its purushArtham. If this is present, there will be no need for any other means. It is emperumAn’s efforts to rid the chEthana of his bondage to samsAram and of puNya and pApa (virtue and vice) and to make him hold on to himself [emperumAn] as the means. It is pertinent to remember the following incident: A person asked nanjIyar (bhattar’s disciple) as to which is the means – renouncing [worldly desires] or holding on [to emperumAn]? nanjIyar responded “neither; the one who makes him renounce and hold on to [emperumAn himself] is the means”. While mEmporuL , meymmai and Amparisu may not directly mean  dhEham [body], Athma svarUpam [true nature of AthmA] and kainkaryam [service] respectively,  since there is a connection for each of these words to the respective meaning, AzhwAr brings forth these meanings indirectly, due to the greatness of the meanings.

aimpulan agaththadakki – keeping the sensory organs under one’s control. At the beginning of this pAsuram, AzhwAr had said mEmporuL pOgavittu  in which he said that one should keep under one’s control everything connected to dhEham (body) and its complements. This being the case, would not saying aimpulan agaththadakki now, be a repetition of the earlier one? In the previous word Amparisu aRindhu koNdu, when carrying out kainkaryam [to emperumAn], a happiness could be felt by the jIvAthmA itself [that it is carrying out the kainkaryam]. Renouncing this happiness for self is the meaning conveyed by the words aimpulan agaththadakki. Hence there is no repetition. Even while carrying kainkaryam, one thought should be removed – i.e. kainkaryam carried out for one’s happiness or kainkaryam carried out for emperumAn’s and one’s happiness will not be termed as purushArtham (goal), but the kainkaryam carried out exclusively for emperumAn’s happiness is purushArtham. AzhwAr conveys this meaning here. nammAzhwAr, in his thiruvAimozhi 2.9.4thanakkEyAga enaikkoLLumIdhE” (consider me only for your kainkaryam) and ANdAL in her thiruppAvai 29unakkE nAmAtcheyvOm” (we will be subservient only to you) conveyed the same meaning. In dhvayam, the meaning of the word nama: in the end is also the same as in this. In SrI rAmAyaNam AraNya kAndam 1.31 it says “ramyamAvasatham kruthvA ramamANA vanE thraya: I dhEvagandharvasankASAs thathra thE nyavasan sukham II” (the three of them (rAma, lakshmaNa and sIthA) who were like dhEvagandharva (celestial entities) and who were very happy in the forest, built a beautiful cottage and lived happily in it). While the SlOkam says that perumAL (SrI rAma), pirAtti (sIthA) and iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) were happy, from the context it will be clear that lakshmaNa’s happiness is derived from carrying out kainkaryam to the duo of perumAL and pirAtti.

Thus, in these two lines [of this pAsuram], the meaning of prApyam (the benefit of attaining emperumAn) has been mentioned. Now we shall see how the meaning of thirumanthram [the first of the three rahasyams in our sampradhAyam] is being mentioned. In the terms memporuL pOgavittu, the meaning of Om nama: and in the terms aimpulan agaththadakki the meaning of namO nArAyanAya have been mentioned. In the words meymmaiyai miga uNarndhu which is the SEshathvam of AthmA (being subservient to emperumAn) the meaning of the word nAra in the word nArAyaNa has been mentioned. Since that SEshathvam succeeds only because of emperumAn, his SEshithvam (being the master for all) is also mentioned in this meaning. Thus the meaning of the word nArAyaNa has also been mentioned. In the term AmparisaRindhu koNdu, the meaning of the fourth case Aya [in nArAyaNAya], which is kainkaryam, has also been mentioned. Since the term uNarndhu refers to the jIvAthmA who knows [has knowledge], the meaning of praNavam (OmkAram) which includes jIvAthmA, has also been mentioned. Thus these two lines establish the meaning of thirumanthram.

Now, over the next two lines of this pAsuram, the upAyathvam (being the means of attaining emperumAn) as mentioned in the first line of dhvayam and the first part of charama SlOkam are being mentioned. We shall see this, along with the meanings of the remaining two lines, in the next part.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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Arththi prabandham – 31

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emperumAnAr-nammAzhwAr

Introduction

In the earlier pAsuram, maNavALa mAmunigaL sang mangaLams (glories) to SrI rAmAnuja more than once. This is a habit / trait that one needs to yearn for. In this pAsuram, maNavALa mAmunigaL salutes SrI rAmAnuja and sings glories to him for his valor while destroying the arguments of those who (a) construe something outside of vEdhas and (b) those who do not understand the true purport of vEdhas. If the earlier pAsuram served as mangaLams to SrI rAmAnuja’s body parts/thirumEni, this pAsuram serves as one that is for his character.

pAsuram 31

arusamayach chediyadhanai adiaRuththAn vAzhiyE!!!
adarndhuvarum kudhittigaLai aRaththuRandhAn vAzhiyE!!!
seRu kaliyaich chiRidhum aRath thIrththu vittAn vAzhiyE!!!
then arangar selvam muRRum thiruththi vaiththAn vAzhiyE!!!
maRaiyadhanil poruL anaithum vAy mozhindhAn vAzhiyE!!!
mARanuRai seydha thamizh maRai vaLarththOn vAzhiyE!!!
aRamigu naR perumbUdhUr avadhariththAn vAzhiyE!!!
azhagArum ethirAsar adiyiNaigaL vAzhiyE!!!

Word-by-Word Meanings

vAzhiyE – Live for eternity!!!
adi aRuththAn – the one who annihilated the roots of
arusamayach chediyadhanai – six trees of philosophies that does not live by what is told in vEdhas.
vAzhiyE – Live for eternity!!!
aRaththuRandhAn – The one who drove away completely
adarndhuvarum – those who came united in large numbers,
kudhittigaLai – construed vEdhAs inappropriately and thus are referred as “kudhrushtis” as in the phrase “nAn maRaiyum niRkak kuRumbusey nIsarum mANdanar”
vAzhiyE – Live for eternity!!!
thIrththu vittAn – The one who destroyed
seRu kaliyai – the dangerous, widely spread and evil force known as “kali”
aRa – without leaving
chiRidhum – a small trace of it ever.
vAzhiyE – Live for eternity!!!
thiruththi vaithAn – The one who ordered and administered
selvam muRRum – the entire gamut of treasures of
then arangar – periya perumAL (the presiding deity at SrIrangam), who is replete with beauty
vAzhiyE – Live for eternity!!!
vAy mozhindhAn – The one who blessed us by giving his divine commentaries (also known as “SrI bhAshyam”) which talks about
poruL anaiththum – all the SAsthras
maRaiyadhanil – that is being dealt/propagated in vEdhas.
vAzhiyE – Live for eternity!!!
vaLarththOn – The one who propagated and spread
thamizh maRai – the thamizh vEdham
uRai seydha – that was given by
mARan – nammAzhvAr
vAzhiyE – Live for eternity!!!
avadhariththAn – The one who appeared in
naR perumbUdhUr – the auspicious place known as “SrIperumbUthUr” to
aRamigu – spread the concept of “total surrender” as mentioned in the aforementioned thamizh vEdham.
vAzhiyE – Live for eternity!!!
adiyiNaigaL – the sole refuge, the twin lotus feet of
ethirAsar – SrI rAmAnuja/yathirAha who is
azhagArum – replete with a lot of qualities starting from beauty etc.,

Simple Translation

In this pAsuram, maNavALa mAmunigaL says, “Long live SrI rAmAnuja (1) destroyed the six trees of philosophies that stood outside the boundaries of vEdhas and explained the principles (2) scared away the miscreants of the vEdhas (3) annihilated kali and its impact without leaving any trace of it in this world (4) restored, streamlined and ordered the treasures of SrIrangam (5) gave us the true meaning of vEdhas through his “SrI bhAshyam” (6) spread the essence of thiruvAimozhi to the interested masses and (7) appeared in the glorious SrIperumbUthUr. Long live SrI rAmAnuja’s beautiful lotus feet, the sole refuge for everyone”.

Explanation

maNavALa mAmunigaL sings glores to SrI rAmAnuja’s characteristic traits. Firstly, he starts to sing glories by praising SrI rAmAnuja as the one who annihilated the roots of six trees of philosophies. As per the phrase, “sAkhyOlukhyAkshapAdhakshpaNaka kapilapathanjali madhANusAriNa:”, there are six philosophies that exist outside the realms of vEdhas. SrI rAmAnuja destroyed their roots completely. Then, maNavALa mAmunigaL sings glories to SrI rAmAnuja who made some people run helter-skelter. These people were none other than those who misinterpreted vEdhas as described by the phrase “nAn maRaiyum niRkak kuRumbu sey nIsarum mANdanar (irAmAnusa nURRandhAdhi 99)”. All these aforementioned people and the ideas that they were able to spread hitherto was due to the evil force known as “kali” that was widely prevalent and that which engulfed this whole world. This was described by the phrase “aRusamayam pOnadhu ponRi iRandhadhu venkali (irAmAnusa nURRandhAdhi 49)”. However, SrI rAmAnuja ensured that there is no trace of kali and its effects in this world. maNavALa mAmunigaL sings glories to such a benevolent SrI rAmAnuja. After this, he sings glories for SrI rAmAnuja who ordered, administered and streamlined the treasures of srIrangam and its routine, as per the phrase “SrIman SrIrangaSriyam anubhadhravAm anudhinam samvardhayA”.

The vEdhas were in a constant state of fear for it depended on the person who explains it. Those who does not construe it comprehensively would not be able to the true purport and hence a lot would be lost in translation. SrI rAmAnuja removed this fear of vEdhas as he wrote his famous “SrI bhAshyam” (a commentary of vEdha vyAsar’s brahma sUthram). With the aid of “SrI bhAshyam”, he spread the true essence of esoteric meaning of vEdhas, after understanding them completely. mAmunigaL sings glories to SrI rAmAnuja who did this. In the invocatory verses (thaniyan) of thiruvAimozhi, there is a phrase that says “vaLarththa idaththAi irAmAnusan”. maNavALa mAmunigaL sings mangaLams to SrI rAmAnuja who helped the thamizh vEdham, also known as “thiruvAimozhi”, to grow and spread among people. The essence of SaraNAgathi (total surrender to SrIman nArAyaNan) that was extolled in thiruvAimozhi was spread to the masses. It’s reach to the common man can be solely attributed to SrI rAmAnuja who appeared in SrIperumbUthUr to do just this task. maNavALa mAmunigaL salutes him for this wonderful service to the human kind. Finally, maNavALa mAmunigaL concludes by saying “Long live the glorious wonderful feet of SrI rAmAnuja, the one replete with beauty”. The adjective “azhagArum” can be used for the noun “adiyiNaigal” (twin feet). When used in this manner, it would mean that the twin feet are akin to two beautiful lotus flowers. Not only that, it would also mean the inherent and natural beauty of SrI rAmAnuja‘s feet as such. The phrase “aRamigu naR perumbUdhur” can also mean that SrI rAmAnuja is someone who has a lot of dharmam, as shown by the phrase “irAmAnusan mikka puNNiyan (irAmAnusa nURRandhAdhi 91)”.

Translation by santhAna rAmAnuja dhAsan

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आर्ति प्रबंधं – ४

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आर्ति प्रबंधं

<< पासुर ३

ramanuja showing paramapadham

उपक्षेप

शरीर, जो पिछले पासुरम में विरोधी चित्रित किया गया था, यहाँ आत्मा का कारागार बताया जाता है। इस पासुरम में मणवाळमामुनि, श्री रामानुज से उस कारागार से मुक्ति कि प्रार्थना करते हैं और बताते हैं कि यह कार्य केवल श्री रामानुज को ही संभव हैं।

पासुरम ४

इंद उडरचिरै विटटु एप्पोळुदु यान ऐगी
अन्दमिल पेरिन्बतुळ आगुवेन – अन्दो
इरंगाय एतिरासा ! एन्नै इनि उय्क्काइ
परंगान उनक्कु उणर्न्दु पार

शब्धार्थ :

एतिरासा – हे यतिराज ! यतियों (सन्यासियों ) के नेता
एप्पोळुदु – कब
यान – में
विटटु – से मुक्ति
चिरै – कारागार
इंद उडल – यह शरीर
ऐगी – और अर्चिरादि मार्ग द्वारा परमपद पधारे ( अर्चिरादि, मुक्तात्माओं को श्रीमन नारायण के नित्य निवास परमपद पहुँचाने वाला मार्ग है। )
आगुवेन – (कब अनुभव मुझे ) प्राप्त होगा ?
पेरिन्बत्तुळ – नित्यानंद की निवास परमपद में प्रवेश
अन्दम – अंत
इल – कम, न्यूनतर
अंदो ? – अहः / हाय !
इरंगाय – (हे यतीराजा ) कृपया आशीर्वाद कीजिये
एन्नै – मुझे
इनि – अब से
परम काण – संभव है केवल
उनक्कु – आपको
उय्क्काइ – मुझे (और मेरे जैसे अनेकों) रक्षा करना
उणर्न्दु – (इसलिए कृपया) सोचिये
पार – और विचार कीजिये

सरल अनुवाद

मणवाळ मामुनि शरीर को, आत्मा वास करने वाला कारागार मानते हैं। जन्म और मृत्यु के बंधन से छूट कर अर्चिरादि मार्ग द्वारा परमपद पहुँचने पर ही आत्मा विमुक्त माना जाता हैं। तब तक आत्मा अविरल पीड़ित रहता है। श्री रामानुज से मणवाळ मामुनि अपने आत्मा के मुक्ति केलिए प्रार्थना करते हैं , की वे (श्री रामानुज) ही कुछ कर सकते है और इस विषय पर विचार करे।

स्पष्टीकरण

श्री कृष्ण अपनी भागवत गीता में , शरीर को “क्षेत्र”, वर्णित करते हैं (इदं शरीरं – श्री भागवत गीता १३.२ ) .क्षेत्र जाने वाला शरीर इस पासुरम में, परमपद के मार्ग में आत्मा के प्रतम विरोधी कहा गया है। शरीर से विमुक्त आत्मा के, श्रीमन नारायण के नित्य निवास परमपद तक का आरोहण के वक्त की मणवाळ मामुनि को एहसास हैं। यह जगह नित्यानंद संपन्न है। परमपद तक पहुँचाने वाला मार्ग, अर्चिरादि प्रकाशमान है। परमपद में उपस्तिथ परम-ज्ञानीयों और साँसारिक बंधनों से मुक्त भक्तों के सत्संग केलिए मणवाळ मामुनि तरस्ते हैं। अपनी संकट प्रकट करते हुए मणवाळ मामुनि “अहः”, यानि “हाय” कहते हैं। अपने अनुष्ठान के अनुसार वे तुरंत श्री रामानुज पर ध्यान बढ़ाते हैं और पूछते हैं , हे यतीराजा ! आप यतियों के स्वामी हैं (सन्यासी ) और मेरे जैसे अन्य आश्रय-हीन आश्रितो के स्वामी भी हैं। हमारे असंख्येय पापो के कारण श्रीमन नारायण भी रक्षा न कर पाएंगे और “क्षिपामि” (श्री भगवद गीता १६.१९ ) कह कर अस्वीकार करेंगे। आपके चरण कमलों के सिवाय हमारी अन्य गति नहीं हैं। आप ही मेरा रक्षण कर सकते हैं। कृपया इस पर विचार करें।

अडियेन प्रीती रामानुज दासी

आधार :  http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2016/06/arththi-prabandham-4/

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thirumAlai – 38 – mEmporuL pOgavittu – Part 1

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githacharya-3

Note: The vyAkhyAnam for this pAsuram is a fairly lengthy one; hence we shall see this in three parts. In the first part, we shall see the avathArikai and the pAsuram, with its meanings. In the second part, we shall see the vyAkhyAnam for the first two lines of the pAsuram and in the last part, the vyAkhyAnam for the last two lines.

avathArikai (introduction)

Just as gIthA charama SlOkam  (the ultimate SlOka of SrI bhagavath gIthA) is the centrepiece of mahAbhAratham, this pAsuram is the centrepiece of this dhivya prabhandham (divine composition of thoNdaradippodi AzhwAr). mahAbhAratham is  the essence of vEdhas as could be gauged from the SlOka “mathimandhAnamAvidhya yEnAsau SruthisAgarAth I jagadhdhithAya janithO mahAbhAratha chandhramA: II” (the moon called as mahAbhAratha was created by churning the seas of vEdhas by vyAsa for the well being of this world). emperumAn churned thiruppARkadal (the ocean of milk on which he lies) and gave nectar to dhEvas (celestial people). The sage vyAsa churned vEdhas and gave mahAbhAratha, which brings forth happiness among those who read it, for the well-being of samsAram. The nectar which emperumAn gave to the dhEvas was not necessarily for their well-being since it would not even allow them to die when they are in serious trouble; it is more of a millstone to them. On the other hand, the mahAbhAratha which vyAsa gave the samsAris is capable of ridding them of samsAram. Such mahAbhAratha can be termed as chakkai (residue such as from sugarcane after the juice has been extracted) when compared to SrI bhagavath gIthA. The essence of SrI bhagavath gIthA is its charama SlOkam. gIthAchAryan (krishNa), in order to highlight the lowliness of other upAyams (means for attaining emperumAn such as karma yOga, gyAna yOga etc), explained these before reciting charama SlOkam. After reciting charama SlOkam, he recited the following SlOkam highlighting the greatness of charama SlOkam “idham thE nAthapaskAya nAbhakthAya kadhAchana I nAchASuSrUshavE vAchyam na cha mAm yO’bhyasUyathi II” (this SAsthram which was recited (by me) to you should not ever be told to one who has not done any penance, to one who does not have devotion (towards you and me), to one who is not interested in it and to one who hates me). In the same way, this entire thirumAlai was created only for reciting this 38th pAsuram, mEmporuL pOgavittu. The pAsurams coming after this highlight the greatness of those who are deeply involved in the meanings of this 38th pAsuram. Thus it will be clear that just as charama SlOkam is the essence of mahAbhAratha, this pAsuram is the essence of thirumAlai. Apart from giving the meanings of charama SlOkam, this pAsuram gives the meanings of dhvayam also [dhvayam is one among the three secretive exponents of our philosophy, the other two being thirumanthram and charama SlOkam]. [dhvayam is composed of two lines, of which the first line expounds on the upAyam (means or path) for attaining emperumAn and the second, on the purushArtham (benefit or goal on attaining him)]. In this pAsuram, the benefit is mentioned in the first two lines and the means, in the next two lines. What is the reason for this reversal (from the order in which they appear in dhvayam)?

For any advantage or benefit, there are two different periods – one is vyuthpaththi vELai (time of origin) and the other is anushtAna vELai (time of execution). The time of origin is when one knows about the advantage and the time of execution is when he engages through some means in attaining that advantage. For example, there is a SAsthra vAkhyam (a sentence from sacred text) svargakAmO jyOthishtOmEna yajEtha (one who is desirous of svargam should carry out jyOthishtOma yagyam). Here SAsthram tells a chEthana (sentient entity) about the advantage, svargam. This is in the time of origin. This is why it first informs about the advantage, svargakAma, and later, it tells about the means of attaining that advantage, which is doing the jyOthishtOma yagyam.  However, at the time of execution, one has to first carry out jyOthishtOma yagyam (means) and only then attain svargam (goal). It is clear from this that the means and goal will be reversed during time of origin and time of execution. In this pAsuram, AzhwAr is talking about goal and means. Hence it is structured on vyuthpaththi vELai (time of origin). Thus, AzhwAr is talking about the goal first and then the means. In order to reach the goal, the observance of means, which is reciting the dhvaya manthram, is in the execution time. In dhvayam, the sAdhanam (means) is given first and the sAdhyam (the goal) is given next. nammAzhwAr in his thiruvAimozhi 6.10.10 “agalagillEn”  gave the meaning of the first part of dhvayam. ANdAL, in her thiruppAvai 29th pAsuramsiRRam siRukAlE” gave the meaning of 2nd part of dhvayam. This (thoNdaradippodi) AzhwAr alone has given the meanings of both halves of dhvayam in one pAsuram.

What is the link for this pAsuram with the previous (37th) pAsuram?

After AzhwAr had recited with lot of sorrow, the words “aLiyan nam paiyal ennAr ammavO kodiyavARE”, periya perumAL felt very happy in his divine mind that “despite staying in samsAram which incites involvement in worldly pursuits, he is praying for kainkaryam (service) to me as his purushArtham (benefit), in line with his svarUpam (true nature); for attaining that, instead of resorting to his own efforts, he is looking up to me; on top of that, he is feeling saddened that there is a delay in getting that purushArtham. What a great mahAthmA he is!  How great that I have got him!” The happiness in his divine mind manifested into happiness in his divine face, blessing AzhwAr. After seeing this happiness, AzhwAr says in this pAsuram “Oh one who has done me favours! Is this how your divine mind feels happy when someone attains you, gives the responsibility of protecting him to you and withdraws from protecting himself?” charama SlOkam ordains “hold on to me as means, with deep belief”, dhvayam is the manthram that those who are steadfast in this means, will recite. This pAsuram shows how happy emperumAn becomes with those who are fully involved in dhvayam and its meanings.

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings.

மேம் பொருள் போகவிட்டு மெய்ம்மையை மிக உணர்ந்து
ஆம்பரிசறிந்து கொண்டு ஐம்புலனகத்தடக்கி
காம்பறத் தலை சிரைத்துன் கடைத்தலை இருந்து வாழும்
சோம்பரை உகத்தி போலும் சூழ் புனல் அரங்கத்தானே.

mEmporuL pOgavittu meymmaiyai miga uNarndhu
AmparisaRindhu koNdu aimpulanagaththadakki
kAmbaRath thalai siraiththun kadaiththalai irundhu vAzhum
sOmbarai ugaththi pOlum sUzh punal arangaththAnE

Listen

Word-by-word Meaning

punal sUzh – surrounded by kAvEri
arangaththAnE – one who is sleeping in the temple
mEm poruL – the worldly matters which give an impression of being great
pOgavittu – casting aside, with trace
meymmaiyai – the Athma svarUpam (true nature of AthmA, the soul)
miga uNarndhu – knowing, as it is [completely]
Am parisu – bhagavath kainkaryam (service to emperumAn) which is the purushArtham (benefit) for AthmA’s true nature
aRindhu koNdu – knowing it
aim pulan – the five senses
agaththu adakki – controlling (instead of enjoying them)
kAmbu aRa – removing the attachment (in other means)
thalai siraiththu – removing the weight from head
un thalaikkadai irundhu – standing at your door step (as a guard)
vAzhum – those who live
sOmbarai – followers who are lazy (in looking after themselves)
ugaththi pOlum – do you not enjoy them?

 We shall consider vyAkhyAnam for the first two lines of this pAsuram, in the next part.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 4.2.2 – valli sEr

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Full series >> Fourth Centum >> Second decad

Previous pAsuram

krishna-gopis

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In second pAsuram – Mother says “parAnkuSa nAyaki desires to witness the divine activities of krishNa with the gOpikAs (cowherd girls) in rAsa leelA”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, mother says “She (my daughter) is constantly and incoherently reciting [about] the thiruththuzhAy at the divine feet of krishNa who performed rAsa leelA”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Second pAsuram. Mother says – When she [my daughter] was asked “if sarvESvaran who is sarva rakshaka (protector of all), protected his own wealth [the material realm] during total deluge, would that be a reason for [me to have faith in] me attaining the goal [with his help]?”, she replies “that may not be the reason, but since he helped [the cowherd] girls of my age, why should he not help me?”.

pAsuram

valli sEr nuNNidai Aychchiyar thammodum
kollaimai seydhu kuravai piNaindhavar
nalladi mElaNi nARu thuzhAy enRE
sollumAl sUzh vinai AttinEn pAvaiyE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

valli – creeper
sEr – like
nuN – thin
idai – having waist
Aychchiyar thammodum – with the cowherd girls, mingling freely

(to rid their limits of shyness etc)
kollaimai – actions which cross the limits
seydhu – performed
kuravai – rAsa leelA [divine interactions between krishNa and gOpikAs]
piNaindhavar – the one who engaged, his
nal – beautiful (having steps that follow the dance)
adimEl – on the divine feet
aNi – worn
nARu – very fragrant
thuzhAy enRE – “thiruththuzhAy” (thuLasi) only
sollum – tells/recites;
sUzh – surrounded (to see her without any escape route)
vinaiyAttiyEn – I am having sins, my
pAvai – daughter.

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

krishNa engaged in rAsa leelA mingling with the cowherd girls who have creeper like thin waist, performing actions which cross the limits; my daughter keeps reciting the very fragrant thuLasi which were on the beautiful divine feet of such emperumAn; I am having sins which have surrounded me to make me witness such state of my daughter.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • valli sEr nuN idai – As said in periya thirumozhi 3.7.1 “vaLLi marungul” (having creeper-like thin waist), the girls who are having “vaLLi” (a type of creeper) like thin waist; Having a form like valli (creeper) and since there is no exact example for their waist, AzhwAr is saying “nuN idai” (very thin waist).
  • Aychchiyar thammodum – My daughter said – if he can help many girls of my age, why can’t he help me who has all their cravings put together? In thirvAyppAdi (SrI gOkulam), emperumAn helped many girls of her age.
    • kollaimai seydhu – engaging in activities that cross the limits of decency; ridding of their limits by manifesting his beauty etc.
  • kuravai piNaindhavar – he strung himself in between them.
  • nalladi – My daughter is desiring to get the thuLasi which were repeatedly trampled by the cowherd girls and krishNa. She is not of the nature of desiring for the thuLasi from the divine feet of brahmachAri emperumAn.
  • nARu thuzhAy – By smelling the fragrance of the thuLasi, she can tell whether it was trampled by both of them or not. [How does she know?] “kalambagan” (a term to identify a garland made of two different flowers] has a unique fragrance [That is, when thuLasi comes in contact with lotus feet of the girls and the lotus feet of krishNa, it will have a special fragrance].
  • enRE sollumAl – Chaste women would think about their dear consort but will not speak out their emotions. What happened to such chastity?
  • sUzh vinaiyAttiyEn – I have sins which will surely keep me entrapped in this situation. It is due to my sin, I am revealing the words of her who is as said in SrI rAmAyaNam 58.85 “naivamAm kinchith abhravIth” (sumanthra’s words after leaving perumaL (SrI rAma), pirAtti (sIthA) and iLaiya perumAL (lakshmaNa) – sIthAp pirAtti was overwhelmed with grief and could not speak a word).
  • pAvaiyE – My daughter who has the nirupAdhika sthrIthvam (top-most, unconditional chastity) who will never reveal her mind, is not in a situation where she needs to express herself vocally to attain her goal.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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