SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
Introduction for this pAsuram
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
No specific introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
In tenth pAsuram – AzhwAr explains that kaivalya purushArtham (the goal of self-enjoyment) is very difficult to attain and an inapt goal [for the nature of jIvAthmA who is an eternal servitor of bhagavAn].
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
Subsequently, AzhwAr says “kaivalyam though is not temporary [as in the case of worldly pleasures which are temporary], since it is not as enriching as parama purushArtham (the ultimate goal of serving bhagavAn eternally), attaining of bhagavAn who is the all controlling supreme lord, is the most wonderful purushArtham (goal)”.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
See nanjIyar‘s introduction.
Tenth pAsuram. AzhwAr previously explained that both the earthly wealth and experience in heaven are temporary; when asked “unlike these, isn’t self-enjoyment a permanent goal?”, AzhwAr replies “While it is better in comparison to worldly pleasures [in the sense that kaivalyam is permanent while the worldly pleasures are temporary], since it is inferior when compared to the bliss of bhagavAn, kaivalyam is also very lowly; this being the case, try to hold on to bhagavAn”.
kuRuga miga uNarvaththodu nOkki ellAm vitta
iRugal iRappennum gyAnikkum appayan illaiyEl
siRuga ninaivadhOr pAsam uNdAm pinnum vIdillai
maRugalil Isanaip paRRi vidA vidil vIdahdhE
Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
kuRuga – in proximity (of self instead of going astray in worldly pleasures)
uNarvaththodu – with the AthmA who is identified by his gyAnam (knowledge)
miga nOkki – meditating upon it intensely (to attain vision of self)
ellAm – all goals (other than AthmA)
vitta – the one who has given up
iRugal – exclusively ending on AthmA
iRappu – mOksha (liberation)
ennum – considering as the goal
gyAnikkum – for the gyAni (wise)
appayan – accepting (bhagavAn, who is the ultimate exclusive goal) as the means
illaiyEl – if not present
siRuga – lowly goals
ninaivadhu – to think about
Or pAsam – attachment
uNdAm – will exist;
pinnum – further
vIdu – mOksham (in the form of attaining self-enjoyment)
illai – will not be attained;
(this being the case)
maRugal il – being the opposite of all defects
Isanai – (natural) controller of all and the lord who is the abode of all auspicious qualities
paRRi – surrendering unto him (considering him as the goal and the means)
vidA vidil – not leaving him ever (like the others who accept ulterior benefits from bhagavAn [and leave him])
ahdhE – that itself
vIdu – is parama purushArtham (the ultimate goal)
Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
The gyAni (wise) who has given up all goals (other than AthmA), meditating upon the AthmA intensely being in close proximity of the self who is identified by his gyAnam, is considering mOksha which ends in AthmA exclusively as the goal; for such gyAni, if accepting bhagavAn as the means is not present [in him], attachment to think about lowly goals will exist; further mOksham (in the form of attaining self-enjoyment) will also not be attained. This being the case, surrendering unto bhagavAn who is the opposite of all defects, who is the controller of all and the lord who is the abode of all auspicious qualities and not leaving him ever in itself is parama purushArtham (the ultimate goal).
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam
See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
- kuRuga … – To start with, only for the one who has his mind fully focussed on the internal self is qualified for Self-enjoyment. The mind which grasps which go far away and engage in external matters, should be focussed on AthmA. That is, seeing eyes with ones own eyes [eye indicates gyAnam – here first gyAnam indicates dharma bhUtha gyAnam [knowledge of AthmA] and the second gyAnam indicates dharmi gyAnam [AthmA – Self which itself is knowledge/consciousness. So with the knowledge one sees/knows AthmA]. To focus one’s intent/attachment which was focussed on worldly pleasures for a very long time, into the self.
- ellAm vitta – Giving up everything including SrIman nArAyaNa – even if he arrives with beautiful garlands on his shoulders, on garudAzhwAr, without the mind getting attached to his enjoyable nature, just using him like cow dung which is used to purify a contaminated place but thrown out after the use [using bhagavAn to purify the self and achieve self-enjoyment instead of achieving servitude at his lotus feet].
- iRugal iRappu ennum gyAnikkum – For the Athma gyAni (the wise person who is focussed on AthmA), who considers this contraction (of enjoying the miniscule AthmA) as mOksham (liberation). Though self-enjoyment is considered to be greater than worldly enjoyment, since AzhwAr has seen the bliss of bhagavAn, he considers this to be very lowly. iRappu – mOksham (liberation).
- appayan illaiyEl – If one does not engage in bhagavath upAsanam [engaging the mind in bhagavAn, by considering him as the means], one cannot meditate upon AthmA. Since upAsanam is a joyful act, it is said as “payan” (goal). bhagavAn, who is the means, is the goal for AzhwAr.
- siRuga … – [when such bhagavath upAsanam is not present] One will become more fallen than even before [starting the pursuit of AthmA], ignorance which is the cause for bondage will grow like hundreds of branches in a tree; the bondage which will lead one to think “I am dhEva (celestial being); I am manushya (human)” [which is opposite to the truth of “I am the soul, servitor of bhagavAn“], will occur.
- pinnum vIdillai maRugalil Isanaip paRRi vidA vidil – Even for the one who has full control of his senses, performed bhagavath upAsanam, exhausting the karmas (virtues/vices), at the time of attaining AthmA, unless he focusses his thoughts on bhagavAn during his last moments while shedding the body, such (kaivalya) mOksham will not be achieved.
- maRugal il Isanai – sarvESvara who is opposite of all evil aspects. Alternatively, “maRugal il” indicates the agony one goes through at the time of death.
- Isanaip paRRi vidAvidil – If there is no anthima smruthi (remembering bhagavAn during the last moment), one will be born as the object that one thought of at the end, just as in in the case of Adhi bharatha who was born as a deer since he thought of a deer at the last moment.
- vIdu ahdhE – What I (AzhwAr) explained in pAsuram 1 “thirunAraNan thAL kAlam peRach chindhiththu uymminO” (Quickly meditate upon the divine feet of SrIman nArAyaNan and be uplifted) is the real goal.
In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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