rAmAnusa nURRanthAdhi – 58

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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Introduction (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

Earlier in many pAsurams amudhanAr was happy thinking about how emperumAnAr won the other philosophies that do not accept vEdhas; in this pAsruam he is happy about how emperumAnAr won the other philosophies which were giving wrong meanings to vEdhas.

Introduction (given by piLLailOkam jIyar)

Earlier in many pAsurams, amudhanAr celebrated the greatness of emperumAnAr completely winning by debating with those philosophers who did not accept the vEdhas, and made such philosophies to be not in vogue in this world;  in this pAsuram – he is celebrating the greatness of emperumAnAr who won using vEdhanthas, the other philosophies which (accept but) misinterpret vEdhas and try to establish their interpretation as the meaning given by vEdhas.

pEdhaiyar vEdhap poruL idhu enRu unni piramam nanRenRu
Odhi maRRellA uyirum ahdhenRu uyirgaL mey vittu
Adhip paranOdu onRAm enRu sollum avvallal ellAm
vAdhil venRAn em irAmAnusan mey madhik kadalE          58

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Word by word meaning (given by maNavALa mAmunigaL)

pEdhaiyar – Unlike those who did not accept vEdhas as authority, the illiterates who accepted vEdhas as the authority,  but misinterpreted the meaning of vEdhas
vEdhap poruL idhu enRu unni  – who (try to) prove that such is the meaning of vEdhas,
Odhi – and establish that
piramam – brahmam
nanRenRu – is a distinguished one,
mARRellA uyirum – the group of jeevAthmAs (and non-sentient) which are different (from such brahmam)
ahdhu enRu ­– are same as brahmam itself,
in this way even as they establish thathvam and about liberation,
uyirgaL – the group of jeevAthmAs
mey vittu – when leaving from the body (which gives wrong reflections like thinking that there are many moons when looking in mirrors)
onRam – would realize that there is only one (in existence), (they say so),
Adhi – one who is the cause of everything
paranOdu – that is the sarvasmAthparan, emperumAn, (that is, distinguishable from and greater than everything),
enRu sollum  – them saying such things,
avalllal ellAm – all such sayings (were won by)
irAmAnusan – emperumAnAr,
mey madhik kadal – he who is the ocean of knowledge of thathvam,
em – and who is our lord,
vAdhil venRAn – for the upliftment of the world, he debated with them and won them.
Oh! how kind of him to do this! – is the interpretation.
(amudhanAr) saying ‘Adhip paran’ is from own philosophy’s perspective; those others won’t say like this, isn’t it? They only say that the category of jeevas which are (thought of as) the form of brahmam, when they liberate from the body etc., would become one with brahmam;

allal -> making noise; their sound of words;

vyAkyAnam

Starting with pedhaiyar –

pEdhaiyarUnlike the ones like chArvAka who do not accept vEdhas as authority (pramANam), the ones who have agreed vEdhas as authority, while showing the meaning of it, due to their eternal trace of sins, and having bad knowledge without exception (SEshaSEmUshikar), would say wrong meanings due to their own wrong vision,

as said in ‘athayAvath prajAnAthi bhudhdhissA pArtha thAmasee [SrI bhagavath gIthA]’, (their knowledge is based on thamas),  those who are with thamas (laziness, etc), that are Sankara, bhAskara, yAdhava etc., amudhanAr is referring to them as ‘pEdhaiyar’. pEdhaiyar -> illiterate.

vEdhap poruL idhu enRu unnithey (try to) show that this is the inner meaning of vEdhas.

piramam nanRu enRu Odhi – showing that brahmam (almighty) is the most distinguished in all the worlds, and misinterpret by their own fiction when it comes to words of vEdhas that connect the seemingly opposite phrases in it, like ‘sarvam kalvitham brahma’ (everything in universe is brahmam),

sadhEvasOmyEthamagra Aseeth’ (all we see were present as ‘sath’ and not as anything else (there is nothing other than brahmam (sajAtheeya bhEdham, as opposed to multiple trees of same kind; implies their saying that there are no AthmAs)), there is nothing unlike brahmam (vijAtheeya bhEdham, as opposed to different types of trees; implies there are no non-sentients), there is nothing distinguishable within brahmam (svagatha bhEdham, as opposed to a tree having branches, leaves, etc; implies there is no specific qualities in brahmam)),

‘EkamEvAdhvitheeyam’ (everything was as one and there wasn’t anything second), ‘yathrathvasya sarvam AthmaivAbhavath’ (everything of the universe is as brahmam),

for which they give wrong meanings in ‘aSesha viSesha prathyaneeka chinmAthram brahmaiva paramArtha:’ (brahmam is the true one; it is present as knowledge itself (and there is nothing having that knowledge, and also there is not anything that is known through that knowledge, and there is nothing that is opposite – that is – with no knowledge), and brahmam is not distinguishable from anything (since there is nothing else)).

adhishtAnam is something on which something is rested upon/is attributed – brahmam.

adhyastham is which that is rested /attributed on it – it is agyAnam of brahmam – brahmam’s reflection/imagination that there are many Athmas and things.

As soon as brahmam realizes that these are imaginations, by listening to phrase thathvamasi, then it would be liberated from that imagination. That is, would get mOksham (according to adhvaitham).

maRRellA uyirum aghdhenRu – (they say that)  everything else including jeevAthmAs that are truly different from brahmam are actually the reflection of brahmam, and it is only due to awareness of itself that the brahmam seems to be a separate one;

that is, they establish about thathvam as ‘thadhirEki nAnAvidha gyAthru gyEya thaththakrutha gyAna bhEdhAdhi sarvam thasminnEva parikalpitham mithyAbhUtham’ (many types that are different from brahmam, like the one who has knowledge (gyAthA), what is known (gyEya), and the knowledge, are all imagined by brahmam), and as ‘nirviSesha chinmAthram brahmaiva sathyam’ (only brahmam which is not distinguishable from anything is the only existing).

(Till now it talked about their arguments on what is brahmam (its existence).

Now it describes what they talk about how liberation (mOksham) occurs):

uyirgaL mey vittu Adhip paranOdu onRam enRu sollum – Also when arriving at the meaning about liberation, they say – such jeevAthmAs, when brahmam understands that nothing else exists, it is liberated from the misunderstanding and would become just brahmam – is the wrong meaning they give without knowing the inner meaning of Sruthi’s words like ‘brahmavEdha brahmaiva bhavathi’ (understanding truly about brahmam, becomes brahmam itself), and, ‘paramjyOthir upasampathya svEna rUpENAbhinishpadhyathE’, etc., they do not understand about how He creates, and how others serve Him, the adhvaithis give wrong meaning that these are all one combined and that it is brahmam.

avvallel ellAm – Such non-starter blemishes of such bad interpreters of vEdhas who give baseless arguments;

allal – noise; that is, chorus;

amudhanAr’s saying Adhip paranOdu’ is not meant as the words said by those misinterpreters; because they would not accept about the world,  His being the cause of it, everything else being dependent on Him, Him being the lord for them all;

so amudhanAr divined so based on his philosophy (viSishtAdhvaitham).

(Now we see how emperumAnAr wins these wrong arguments).

vAdhil venRAn – For protecting this world he (emperumAnAr) debated with them and won.

For the Sruthi of sarvam kalvitham brahma’he said – the sound ‘brahmam’ expresses  the one having all auspicious qualities, the sound of ‘idham’, and ‘sarvam’ express what can be clearly seen as His enjoyability, being part of enabling enjoyment (for jeevAthmAs), being the place of enjoyment, and the series (many) class of enjoyment is all in Him, so, it is not possible to conclude that ‘only brahmam exists, and everything else is imagined’ which is pure adhvaitham, and oneness between brahmam and the sentient and non-sentient is attained based on Him being body and other being components of it (Sareeri, Sareeram), so only the qualified oneness (viSishta aikyam) is the meaning given in vEdhas;

and,

for the Sruthi – ‘sadhEvasOmyEdhamagra Aseeth, EkamEvAdhvitheeyam’, (agra -> earlier at one point in time (so there is a differentiation based on time; so there is vijAtheeya bhEdham), sadhEva – it was being sath, adhvitheeyam – so there is something asath (so there is sajAtheeya bhEtham), and it is the reason for change (so there is svagatha bhEtdham), so there is differentiation – ,

as said in ‘avyakthamaksharEleeyathE, aksharam thamasileeyathE, thama:parEdhEva Ekee bhavathi’, in the beginning of the time of cycle of kalpam, He was the only one with sentient and non-sentients being in subtle/feeble (sUkshma) form with Him, So Ekee bhavathi does not mean they become one, but that they would be together in subtle form with brahmam),

unlike in kANAdha matham which says that for an effect there are many causes –  (emperumAnAr showed that) for the effect of the form of this world,  without having to have any other cause, braham is the only cause, brahmam would be the reason for everything (abhinna nimiththOpAdhi karaNam);

and thus showing the meaning of the phrases of vEdhas mentioned above;

and for the Sruthi – ‘yathrathvasya sarvamAthmaivAbhavath’, (what is seen is all AthmAs) since He is being the life support for the world, and being spread everywhere in it, is the controller of it, and is inside of it (antharyAmi) – due to this reason it is said that everything seen is being that brahmam (thus showed emperumAnAr);

and more, as they gave wrong meanings due to their ignorance,

and the discussed Sruthi words such as ‘thaththvamasi’, (that brahmam is being you is their interpretation; viSishtAdhvaitham shows – the brahmam which is being antharyAmi of everything is antharyAmi for you as well);

and now emperumAnAr shows (about bhEdha Sruthi) for the meaning of Sruthi that are agreeable to the meaning he showed, like in ‘bhOkthA bhOgyam prErithAram cha mathvA jUshtasthadhasthE nAma na amruthathvamEthi, pruthakAthmAnam prErithAram cha mathvA’ (jeevAthmA (who enjoys), sandal (what is enjoyed), and the ISvaran who instigates, and – understand that AthmA is different, and understand Him as the one who instigates you – otherwise you cannot get liberated),

‘dhvAsuparNAsayujAsakAyAsamAnam vruksham parishasvajAthE, thayOranya:pippalam sAdhvaththi anaSnannanyO abhichAkaSeethi’,  (in the tree that is the body, the two birds that are paramAthmA and jeevAthmA, where jeevAthmA enjoys the fruits of the tree (body) is becoming lean due to immersion in this material world (due to karmas) – thus it shows the three thathvams of ISvaran, sentient and non-sentient),

and

‘nithyO nithyAnAm chethanaSchEthanAnAm Eko bahUnAm yOvidhadhathi kAmAn’  (He is eternal as are AthmAs, He is the lord, sentients are His servants, He is one, AthmAs are many), He fulfills all that the AthmAs wish for from Him), etc.,  which explain the difference between jeevAthmAs and brahmam,

and, (now about those phrases of Sruthi which combine these two meanings (gataka Sruthi)) :

ya:prithivyAmthishtan’, ‘yasyaprithivee Sareeram’,’Esha sarva bhuthAntharAthmA apahatha pApmA’, ‘dhivya dhEvO EkO nArAyaNa:’, (He is antharyAmi – is inside the AthmAs and directs them, the world is His body and He directs them; He is the only one that is nArAyaNan who is inside everything and directs them; He is thus being inside sentient and non-sentient but is different from them) etc., Sruthis that connect (the seemingly contradicting phrases of Sruthi),

and so then what is left of their argument is similar to baudhdhas’ arguments that the universe is imaginary, etc., and emperumAnAr established that there is nothing lowly than such arguments which have no basis, and so won such philosophies,

(and now it talks about arguments of purushArtham (what is to be reached/goal)):

and if others show ‘brahma vEdha brahmaiva bhavathi’ (when knowing about brahmam, it becomes brahmam itslef), ‘sa EnAn brahmagamayathi’ (becomes brahmam), svEnarUpENAbhi nishpadhyathE (~becomes true to His nature), etc., to mean oneness (with brahmam) at the time of liberation,

(adhvaithi: it is like adding water to water and becoming one; emperumAnAr: but there would be more water, which contradicts that brahmam does not grow or shrink); adhvaithi: no, it is like adding salt to water, where the volume would not change; emperumAnAr: well, that is true, but it would not be pure water anymore, which contradicts with Sruthi that says that brahmam does not undergo any change).

then since that contradicts with the words of Sruthi, such as ‘imAn lOkAn kAmAn nikaramarUpyanusamcharan (AthmA liberates and goes anywhere, takes any form, and performs services to Him),

Ethath sAma gAyan nAsthE’ (he will go and sing sAma vEdham (thus there is song, there is this place, time, and the community of them, one who goes is jeevAthmA, and one who is reached is paramAthmA –  are all true),

 ‘sakalvEvam varthayan yAvadhAyusham brahmalOkamabhi sampadhyathE (the one from here goes and reaches the place of brahmam),

nacha punarAvarthathE nacha punarAvarthathE’ (does not return to this place, does not return to this place (thus show that there are multiple places existing, etc.),

‘niranjana:paramam sAmyamupaithi’ (he becomes one not having any blemishes, and becomes equal to brahmam in many (eight) qualities),

‘mamasAdharmyamAgathA: [Sri bhagavath gIthA] (He comes near me and does not die/born at the beginning/end of annihilations)’,

‘bhOgamAthra sAmya lingAScha’ (there is similarity in jeevAthma and paramAthmA only in the enjoyment),

and many such phrases,

showed the meaning in many ways that they (the ones liberated) are having many equalities with brahmam and is like a brahmam,

and that if adhvaitham were to be accepted then that would contradict with the many phrases showed previouly,

and so like said in ‘brahma bhUtha prasannAthmA naSochathi na kAngshathi’ (he reaches brahmam and becomes equal, does not get affected by sadness, and so becomes equal  to brahmam (in eight qualities), and stays with Him without separation),

sarvagathvAthananthasya sa EvAhamupasthitha:’,  (I am (like) Him, because I got the joy similar to Him, I can go to all places like how He could)

and emperumAnAr won them in arguing in such many ways;

immersed in such acts of emperumAnAr, jeeyar divined thus – ‘kURumAkuru madhaththodOngiya kumArilan madham avaRRin mEL, kodiya tharkka charam vitta pin kuRugi mAyavAdhiyarai venRida, meeRi vAdhil varu bhARkaran madha vilakkadik kodi eRindhu pOy, mikka yAdhavar madhaththai mAyththa peru veerar nALumiga vAzhiyE’ [Arththi prabandham – 29] (~emperumAnAr won the other philosophies, long live such emperumAnAr).

em irAmAnusan – As he performed such activities, coming like an elephant and winning (or, doing such activities and winning), and to lift me up from this material world in which I am immersed with full of adverse attitudes and indifference, he incarnated  (says amudhanAr) – such emperumAnAr’s –

mey madhik kadal –true knowledge is unbounded like the sea; Or, it can be read to mean emperumAnAr who is like the ocean of knowledge of thathvam, for the reason of protecting the people, had debated with those others and won them;

emperumana-apemperumanar-debateemperumAnAr debating, for the well-being of this world

He (amudhanAr) himself had divined ‘vAdhiyargAL ungaL vAzhvu aRRadhE’.

abhiyukthar (vEdhAnthAchAryar) too divined this meaning, ‘Athmaikyam dhEvadhaikyam samadhikathAththulaydh aikyam thrayANAm anyathra aiSvaryam ithyAdhi anipuNa paNithee: AthriyanthEna santha: tharyanthai: Eka gaNtai: thadh anuguNa manu vyAsa mukyOthibiktha SrImAn nArAyaNa: nAha pathi: akhila thanu: mukthidha: muktha bhOgya: (there are some who say AthmA and paramAthmA are same; there are some who say that the three mUrthis are same or are equal, and they say that vEdham says this, and say without any congruence with vEdham; our preceptors destroyed such arguments, in one voice, and in the same way as how the sages such as manu, vyAsar have explained – that is, SrIman nArAyaNan is our lord; He is having everything else as His body; He gives liberation to others;  He is enjoyed by those who got liberated by Him (thus showing difference and oneness between emperumAn and other AthmAs).

From AzhwAr thirunagari SrI u.vE. vidhwAn thirumalai nallAn chakravarththi rAmakrishNa iyengAr’s ‘amudha virundhu’ :

(Swami has provided a very long detailed treatise of various philosophies and how emperumAnAr won those philosophies).

In SrIbAshyam, where emperumAnAr has said in the beginning of mahA sidhdhAntham, ‘anadhigatha padhavAkya svarUpa thadhartha yAthAthmya prathyakshAdhi sakala pramANa thadhithikarthavyathArUpa sameecheena nyAya mArgANAm’ (word, nature of sentences, real purport of the meaning, self evidence (prathyaksham) – what these pramANams (authentic literature) tell us, and the proper ways of knowing what are part of these pramANams – the ones who do not know these..)

amudhanAr follows this and says ‘pEdhaiyar’ (the illiterate who give wrong meanings to vEdhas).

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