Daily Archives: September 6, 2016

thirumAlai – 12 – namanum muRkalanum

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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avathArikai (Introduction)

The samsAris told AzhwAr “you had told us to recite his divine names. Due to our sins, we are only able to talk about various worldly matters and are unable to recite emperumAn’s divine names” Azhwar responded saying “in that case, hearing emperumAn’s divine names would uplift you” and told them about mudhgalOpAkhyAnam (the story of a person called mudhgan). He further added “I am unable to bear the samsAris’ sorrows because they continue to suffer in samsAram instead of being uplifted by saying ‘thiruvarangam is the dwelling place of emperumAn whose divine names are so great’

நமனும் முற்கலனும் பேச நரகில் நின்றார்கள் கேட்க
நரகமே சுவர்க்கமாகும் நாமங்கள் உடைய நம்பி
அவனது ஊர் அரங்கமென்னாது அயர்த்து வீழ்ந்தளிய மாந்தர்
கவலையுள் படுகின்றாரென்று அதனுக்கே கவல்கின்றேனே.

namanum muRkalanum pEsa naragil ninRArgaL kEtka
naragamE suvargamAgum nAmangaL udaiya nimbi
avanadhu Ur arangamennA(dhu) ayarththu vIzhndhaLiya mAndhar
kavalaiyuL paduginRarenRu adhanukkE kavar(l)ginREnE


Word-by-word meaning

namanum – yamadharmarAja (yama, the deity for justice)
muRkalanum – and mudhgala bhagavAn
pEsa – when they were conversing
naragil ninRargaL kEtka – as soon as those in narakam (hell) heard those words
naragamE – that narakam itself
suvargam Agum – would become svargam (heaven)
nAmangaL udaiya – with divine names
nambi avanadhu – the perfect emperumAn’s
Ur – dwelling place
arangam ennAdhu – not saying “thiruvarangam”
aLiya mAndhar – great samsAris
ayarththu – forgetting (emperumAn’s divine names)
vIzhndhu – falling down (into the pit of worldly issues)
kavalaiyuL paduginRAr enRu – being plagued by sorrows
adhanukkE – only for that
kavar(l)ginREnE – I am worrying


namanum muRkalanum pEsa – In ancient times, there was a person by name mudhgalan. He was constantly indulging in vices. Once, to atone for his sins, he gifted a cow made of sesame (til or eLLu). At the time of giving the gift, he said “krishNArpaNam” and gifted it. After he died, he was dragged by the servitors of yama to hell. yama welcomed him which surprised mudhgalan. He told yama “your followers are dragging me here and you are welcoming me and treating me well. What is the reason for this?” yama replied “neither my followers nor you know your greatness. Once you said krishNArpaNam and it is because of that, I am welcoming you and treating you nicely” explaining the greatness of reciting emperumAn’s divine name. As these two people were discussing the greatness of divine names, those who were suffering in hell heard this. As they were hearing, the troubles in hell disappeared for them and they felt as if they were enjoying in heaven. This anectode is given in vishNu dharmam. AzhwAr is quoting this incident in this pAsuram.

namanum muRkalanum pEsa – mudhgala bhagavAn asked yama for the reason for his good treatment and yama responded saying that it was because he had mentioned emperumAn’s divine name. This is all that happened in narakam (hell). yama did not mention emperumAn’s divine name for his own uplifting neither did mudhgalan ask yama and yama preached him. He did not mention it so that people coming to hell to get beaten by him, causing pain to his hands, would get out of narakam. yama once asked a jIvan (an AthmA) “kim thvayA nArchithO dhEva: kEsava: klESanASana:” – was kESavan, with beautifully braided hair, who removes all the sorrows, not worshipped by you? It was not that the jIvAthmA was despised by yama when he reached hell to suffer the punishment for all the wrong doings in samsAram. It was out of sheer fear that he would lose his position since a person who had recited emperumAn’s divine name has come to narakam that yama welcomed mudhgalan and spoke about the greatness of divine names, says the vyAkhyAthA.

naragil ninRArgaL kEtka – they [the jIvAthmAs who had gone to hell to suffer for the sins that they had committed] did not listen to the divine names at the time of carrying out penance for indulging in sinful activities, after feeling sad and vowing not to indulge in such activities. It was at the time of suffering in hell as a result of being punished for their sins that they heard the divine names. Even then it was not as a disciple [listening to his AchAryan] with samith (stick used in yagyams or rituals) in hand. During a conversation between two persons, they happened to hear the divine name. This is about all. If someone asks “When you were indulging in sinful activities, did not anyone mention these divine names and did not you not hear them?” they will say that since they were vain while indulging in such activities these words wouldn’t have entered  their ears. It is only now when they are experiencing sorrow that they think “will not someone say a good word?” and listen to the divine names in this status.

naragamE suvargamAgum – the hell itself became heaven which gives pleasure. How did the hell become heaven? It could change if emperumAn changes his sankalpam (solemn vow). SrI rAmAyaNam yudhdha kANdam 116.13 says “vibhIshaNa vidhEyam hi lankaiSvaryam idham krutham” the same lankA which was the repository of all evils during rAvaNa’s time became the repository of good persons due to SrI rAma’s katAksham (glance). Like this, did the hell become heaven due to the possessor of the name (emperumAn)?…….

nAmangaL – This change was the result of the greatness of the names. Even though it is emperumAn who grants the fruits of effort, since he gives that only after divine names are recited, it is not out of place to state that it is the divine names that brought about the change [from hell to heaven].

nAmangaL udaiya nambi – emperumAn becomes perfect because he has these divine names. While everyone attains him and gets benefitted, these divine names add to his greatness. mahAbhAratham says “dhEvO nAma sahasravAn” – the one with innumerable faces, eyes, feet, hands; the one who pervades everything; the one who knows everything – such a dhEvan nArAyaNan has thousands of names. nammAzhwAr says in thiruvAimozhi  9.3.1 “pErAyiram koNdadhOr pIdudaiyan” – he is great because he has thousand names. periyAzhwAr in periyAzhwAr thirumozhi 4.6.1 says “nAraNan thamannai naragam pugAL” – if you name your child as nAraNan, the child’s mother will not enter hell. sahasranAma adhyAya says “nArayaNa SabdhamAthram vimuktha dhukkA: SukhinO bhavanthi” – by merely hearing the sound nArAyaNa, one gets rid of his sorrows and attains comfort.

avanadhu Ur arangam ennAdhu – all  that the samsAris have to say is that the permanent dwelling place of emperumAn who attained perfection due to his names is thiruvarangam (SrIrangam). But what to say of their pApa (sins) that prevent them from saying such an easy to pronounce word, but containing great benefits! This samsAram is full of people who decide not to live near others who recite divine names or drive them out of their places (such as krimi kaNda chOzhan) or torture their sons who recite divine names (such as hiraNya kaShyap). An incident is quoted by our pUrvAchAryas – a person was in his death bed. He was taught thirumanthram (ashtAkshari) and was asked to recite it. He said “AmAgil sollippArkkiREn” (if possible I shall say). Both the thirumantharam and what he said contain 8 syllables; instead of reciting thirumanthram, he said “AmAgil sollippArkkiREn” and breathed his last. Such was the strength of his sins that they wouldn’t allow him to recite divine name and attain emperumAn.

ayarththu vIzhndhu – forgetting the divine names of emperumAn who is the natural relative for all, these samsAris are indulging in worldly matters and losing their balance. thirumangai AzhwAr in periya thirumozhi 6.2.2. says “maRandhEn unnai munnam …… iRandhEn” – I forgot you earlier….and I died. gAruda purANam pUrva 222.22 says “yanmuhUrtham kshaNam vApi vAsudhEvO na chinthyathE I sA hAnisthanmahachchidhram sA bhrAnthis sA cha vikriyA II” – if in a muhUrtha [48 minutes of our time] or in a moment vAsudhEva is not thought of, that is a great loss; that is great sorrow; that becomes illusory; that is deterioration. Thus Azhwars and rishis also said the same meaning. The great samsAris who are qualified to recite the divine names should recite AzhwArs’ pAsurams such as “thAmuLarE” (iraNdAm thiruvandhAdhi 21) – the chEthanars are there (to praise emperumAn with the physical body and the sensory organs given by emperumAn) and “nAvAyil uNdE” (mudhal thiruvandhAdhi  95) – tongue is there inside (to recite thirumanthram).

kavalaiyuL paduginRArenRu – being caught in sorrow

adhanukkE kaval(r)ginREnE – I suffer because of that itself. While being qualified to recite the divine names and immerse themselves in the ocean of happiness, these samsAris are immersing in the ocean of sorrow and AzhwAr says that he is suffering because of their action. The reason for adding “E” to adhanukku to make it adhanukkE (only for that) is because instead of suffering for self or suffering for self and others, he is suffering only for others (samsAris). The identity of a SrivaishNava is one who cannot bear the suffering of others and AzhwAr shows that quality here. kavalai means sorrow and kaval(r)ginREnE means suffering.

We shall move on to the 13th pAsuram in the next.

adiyEn krishNa ramanuja dasan

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యతిరాజ వింశతి – 1

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శ్రీమతే శఠకోపాయ నమః
శ్రీమతే రామానుజాయ నమః
శ్రీమద్వరవరమునయే నమః

యతిరాజ వింశతి

శ్రీమాధవాంఘ్రి జలజద్వయ నిత్యసేవా
ప్రేమా విలాశయ పరాంకుశ పాదభక్తం |
కామాది దోష హరమాత్మ పదస్రుతానాం
రామానుజం యతిపతిం ప్రణమామి మూర్ధ్నా ||

ప్రతి పదార్థము:

శ్రీమాధవాంఘ్రి జలజద్వయ = సమస్త సంపదలకు నిలయమైన  ” మా ” కు ధవుడైన మాధవుని, తామరలకు పొలిన శ్రీ పాదములకు చేయ తగిన

నిత్యసేవా ప్రేమా విలాశయ = నిత్య సేవా కైంకర్యములలో గల  అమిత ప్రీతి వలన మనసు ద్రవించిన

పరాంకుశ పాదభక్తం = పరాంకుశులనే నమ్మాళ్వార్ల శ్రీపాదములపై పరమ భక్తి గలవారైన

ఆత్మ పదస్రుతానాం = తమ శ్రీపాదములను చేరిన వారి

కామాది దోష హరం = కామాది దోషములను హరించ గల వారు

యతిపతిం = ఆత్మనిగ్రహము పొందిన యతులకు నాయకుడైన

రామానుజం = రామానుజులకు

మూర్ధ్నా = శిరసా

ప్రణమామి = నమస్కరిస్తున్నాను


శ్రీ “ అనునది మాధవునికి విశేషణముగా అమరినది. శ్రీ వంటి మాధవుడని అర్థము. ” శ్రీ ” అంటే మహాలక్ష్మి. ఆమె స్వరూపము అందము, సువాసన,సౌకుమార్యము మొదలగునవి. స్వభావమనగా ప్రేమ, దయ, సౌశీల్యము, సౌలభ్యము మొదలైన ఆత్మ గుణములు. అందున తన దాసులను రక్షించు దృడవ్రతము గలది అని అర్థము. వీటన్నినంటితో పాటు శ్రీని ధరించినవాడు, ఆమెకు తగినవాడు, మాధవుడయిన శ్రీమన్నారాయణుని శ్రీపాదములని అన్వయము. శ్రీమహాలక్ష్మి నిత్యవాసము చేయు శ్రీమన్నారాయణుని శ్రీపాదములు అని కూడా అన్వయించుకోవచ్చు. అందువలననే ” శ్రీమతౌ హరిచరణౌ సమాస్రితొస్యహం” ( పిరాట్టి నిత్యనివాసము చేయు హరి శ్రీపాదములను శరణు జొచ్చాను నేను )సుందర బాహు స్తవము-1 లో కూరత్తళ్వాన్ అనుగ్రహించినట్లుగా మేల్కొటలో పిరాట్టితో కూడిన పెరుమాళ్ళను ప్రస్తావించారు. శ్రీకృష్ణునకు కైంకర్యము చేయాలని చాలా ఆశపడ్డ నమ్మళ్వార్లు ,ఆయన తానే వచ్చి చూడవలసి వుండగా తమ పారతంత్ర్యమును తొలగించుకొని ఆయన కోసము ‘ మడల్ ‘పాడు స్థితికి చేరుకున్నారు. “మాధవాంగ్రి జలజత్వయ నిత్య సేవా ప్రేమావిలాసయ పరాంకుశ ” అని పాడారు. ఎంపెరుమానార్లు కూడా అలాంటి భక్తినే కలిగి వున్నారు.  అందుకే ” మారన్ అడి పణిందుయందవన్ -ఇరామానుసన్ ” అన్నారు అముదనార్లు. వారి శ్రీపాదములను పట్టి వుండుటచే పరాంకుశ పాదభక్తం రామానుజం “అని వీరు పాడుతున్నారు.  వేదమును ప్రమాణముగా అంగీకరింపని జైన ,బౌద్ద మతవాదులు,  వేదమునకు విరుద్దముగా అర్థములను చెప్పు అద్వయితులు మొదలగు పరులకు అంకుశము వంటి వారగుట చేత రామానుజులు కూడా పరాంకుశులని పిలవ బడుతున్నారు.”ఒన్రుం దేవు “(తిరువాయిమొళి-4-10)లో  చేప్పారు.

రామానుజులు అంటే ఇక్కడ లక్ష్మణుల పునరవతారమని గ్రహించాలి. అళ్వార్లు పది మందిని కలిపి అభినవ దశావతారము అని కూడా అంటారు. వీరిలో నమ్మాళ్వార్లది రామావతారము. అందువలన అన్నావప్పంగారనే పూర్వాచార్యులు రామానుజులను లక్ష్మణుల పునరవతారమని నిర్ణయించారు. దానికి హేతువు ఏమిటంటే  రామానుజులకు ఉన్న పరమ భక్తి లక్ష్మణులకు శ్రీరాముడి మీద వున్న పరమ భక్తికి ఏమాత్రము తీసిపోదు. అంతే కాక శ్రీ రామానుజులు ముని పుంగవులు, ఇంద్రియములను జయించిన వారు. అర్థాత్ ఇంద్రియ నిగ్రహము కల వారే ఇతరుల దోషాలను పోగొట్ట్గల శక్తిని కలిగి వుంటారు. మాధవుని పాదములను తామరతో పోల్చడానికి కారణము దానికి గల మృధుత్వము, సువాసన మొదలైనవి. అందు వలన నమ్మళ్వార్లకు ఆ పాదముల మీద భక్తి ఉద్భవించినది. నమ్మళ్వార్ల పాదములను తామరతో పోల్చబడ లేదు.  వారు నమ్మళ్వార్ల శిష్యులు కావున రామానుజులకు ఆ పాదముల మీద భక్తి సహజముగానే ఏర్ప్డడినది. ఇలా సహజముగా ఏర్పడిన ఆచార్య భక్తి, భగవంతుడి గుణముల వలన ఏర్పడిన భక్తి కన్నా ఉన్నతమైనదిగా శాస్త్రములలో చెప్పబడినది.

మామునులు శ్రీ రామానుజులను ‘ఫరాంకుశ పాద భక్తం యతిపతిం రామానుజం’ అన్నారు . ఇక్కడ మామునులు  రామానుజులకు గల భక్తికి కారణమును చెపుతున్నారు.   తమ ఆచార్యులకు వారి ఆచార్యులైన నమ్మళ్వార్లు కూడా గొప్ప మునీశ్వరులు, భక్తి ఉందని చెపుతున్నారు. అందు వలననే వారిని ‘పరాంకుశ పాద భక్తం ” అని గౌరవముతో రాజా అన్నారు.” యతిపతిం ” అన్న పదానికి రెండు అర్థాలు ఉన్నాయి. ప్రాదమిదికంగా పతి(యతినం పతిహి యతిపతిహి ) అంటే శేషి అనగా రక్షింపబడువాడు. వుత్పత్యర్థములో పతి (పతి ఈతి పతిహి) అంటే రక్షించువాడు. రామానుజులు యతులకు పెద్ద, వారిని రక్షించువారు కావున వారు యతిపతి. తిరుమంత్రము ఈ అర్థాన్నే చెపుతుంది. కైoకర్యపరులకు ఆచార్యులే ఉన్నతులు వారే రక్షకులు. రామానుజుల గొప్పగుణాలను యతిరాజ వింశతిలో మామునులు వర్ణించారు.

అడియేన్ చూడామణిరామానుజదాసి

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thiruvAimozhi – 3.5.7 – nIrmaiyil nURRuvar

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Third Centum >> Fifth decad

Previous pAsuram


Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In seventh pAsuram – AzhwAr says “Those who do not melt thinking about the qualities of emperumAn who eliminated the enemies of pANdavas who are his devotes, are the ones who cause pain to their mothers”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “What use is to bhAgavathas of such persons who do not become attracted to emperumAn‘s partiality towards his devotees?”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Seventh pAsuram. AzhwAr says “Those who are not attracted to emperumAn‘s great quality of partiality towards his devotees and just roam around feeding their own bodies – what purpose do they serve being born for vaishNavas?”.


nIrmaiyil nURRuvar vIya aivarkkaruL seydhu ninRu
pAr malgu sEnai aviththa param sudarai ninaindhAdi
nIr malgu kaNNinarAgi nenjam kuzhaindhu naiyAdhE
Un malgi mOdu paruppAr uththamargatken seyvArE


Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

nIrmai – compassion (of wanting to share with relatives)
il – not having
nURRuvar – starting with dhuryOdhana, the hundred brothers
vIya – to be killed
aivarkku – for the pANdavas
aruL – unlimited mercy
seydhu – gave
ninRu – standing there for them (as all types of relative for them as said in mahAbhAratham dhrONa parvam 183.24 “krishNASrayA: krishNabalA: krishNanAthAScha pANdavA:” (pANdavas are surrendered to krishNa; krishNa is their strength and krishNa is their lord))
pAr – earth
malgu – filled
sEnai – army
aviththa – destroyed (effortlessly like turning off the wick in an oil lamp)
param sudarai – having beautiful form which has infinite splendor
ninaindhu – think (as having such beauty etc)
Adi – dance (due to overwhelming love)
nIr – happy-tears
malgu – filled
kaNNinarAgi – having eyes
nenjam – heart (that thought about him)
kuzhaindhu – losing its hardness
naiyAdhE – instead of having weak body (with goose bumps etc)
Un malgi – having more muscles
mOdu paruppAr – growing their bodies which are having huge shoulders
uththamargatku – for the best bhAgavathas (who are most knowledgeable)
en seyvAr – what purpose will they serve?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn who is having beautiful form which has infinite splendor, destroyed (effortlessly like turning off the wick in an oil lamp) the army which filled the earth, standing there for pANdavas (as all types of relative for them as said in mahAbhAratham dhrONa parvam 183.24 “krishNASrayA: krishNabalA: krishNanAthAScha pANdavA:” (pANdavas are surrendered to krishNa; krishNa is their strength and krishNa is their lord)) and gave them unlimited mercy to have the hundred brothers starting with dhuryOdhana killed, for not having compassion (of wanting to share with relatives). Those who do not think about such emperumAn (as having such beauty etc), dance (due to overwhelming love), have eyes filled with happy-tears, lose hardness of heart (that thought about him), have weak body (with goose bumps etc) and instead have more muscles, growing their bodies which are having huge shoulders – what purpose will they serve for the best bhAgavathas (who are most knowledgeable)?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • nIrmai … – krishNa first sent sanjaya and subsequently he himself went and tried to unite pANdavas and kauravas. But kaurava did not agree in any manner and arrogantly said “If they live, we cannot live. We will not give them any land. Since we are many, we need the whole earth for our own use. They have krishNa and dharmam (virtuous ways) and will enjoy heaven as a result of that [kauravas thought – when they come fight us considering their own virtue, we will eventually kill them and they will attain vIra svargam (heaven for those who fought in battle with valour and died) – they were very confident in this manner] and we will continue to rule the earth”. krishNa observed that they absolutely have no compassion and decided to kill them. krishNa protected pANdavas [for their compassion] since they said “we cannot live without our relatives”; as said in SrI bhagavath gIthA 1.33yEshAm arthE kAnkshitham nO rAjyam bhOgA:sukAnicha …” (For the purpose of those teachers et al we are desiring kingdom, pleasures, joy etc., those teachers et al are standing here willing to give up their lives, wealth etc.), “people seek out for wealth and win over kingdoms, to enjoy the result with their relatives. In that case, we will not kill our relatives and desire to enjoy” – such was their compassion. But dhuryOdhana et al said “we will not even give a small piece of land, if they live, we can’t live”. Seeing this, krishNa thought “They are demoniac. If we don’t kill them, the whole world will be destroyed” and set out to kill them. To have dhuryOdhana et al who don’t have any compassion, killed.
  • aivarkku aruL seydhu ninRu – for the pANdavas who have no other refuge than himself. They are as said in mahAbhAratham dhrONa parvam 183.24 “krishNASrayA: krishNabalA: krishNanAthAScha pANdavA:” (pANdavas are surrendered to krishNa; krishNa is their strength and krishNa is their lord). ninRu – Standing for them in all aspects as said in mahAbhAratham rAjasUya yAga parvam “yasya manthrI cha gOpthA cha suhruchchaiva janArdhana:” (sanjaya said “since krishNa, the lord of all worlds, is the minister, protector and friend for yudhishtra, what can yudhishtra not achieve?”).
  • pAr malgu sEnai aviththa – He burnt the demoniac persons who were causing great burden to the earth, like turning off the wick of a lamp, so that even their dead bodies are not traceable.
  • param sudarai – They requested him not to take up arms; to fulfil that he assumed the form of a charioteer with the dust of the army on his head, a stick to drive the horses of the chariot, a small rope to keep the horses in control, having his feet firm on the ground under the chariot, with beautiful anklets in his feet [In piLLai lOkAchAryar‘s mumukshuppadi, 218th sUthram resembles these words of nampiLLai in a very similar manner].
  • ninaindhu Adi – Thinking about his subservience towards his devotees, and such thinking leading to not staying in one place, and dancing.
  • nIrmalgu kaNNinarAgi – As said in SrIvishNu thathvam “AhlAdhaSIthanEthrAmbu:” (Having happy-tear filled eyes due to meditating upon bhagavAn), they are having eyes that are identified by the tears.
  • nenjam kuzhaindhu – Not just external weakness, even the heart has become weak.
  • Un malgi mOdu paruppar – They grow their body which is muscular, having strong shoulders and strong physique.
  • uththamargatku en seyvArE – Will they be companions for those great personalities who have lean body due to constant meditation of bhagavAn‘s qualities? AzhwAr says – the purpose of taking birth is to help/serve vaishNavas. Iswara makes himself and his wealth available for his devotees. [An incident where AzhwAn explains this principle of everything existing for devotees] When krimikaNda chOLa king in AyiraththaLi (the town) tortured and drove out periya nambi and kUraththAzhwAn, periya nambi ascends to the spiritual realm (giving up his body) placing his head on AzhwAn’s lap. At that time, some people who usually say “we will help those orphans who die without help in cremating them” came there and saw AzhwAn with periya nambi’s remains and said “there is one person to help” and started leaving. At that time AzhwAn who never has the habit of blaming any one, said “Come on sons! are you seeking out for a vaishNava who is orphan who needs to be cremated? While Iswara and his whole wealth (worlds) exist to do menial services to vaishNavas, where are you going to find vaishNavas who are orphans/helpless?”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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