SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
Introduction for this pAsuram
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction
No specific introduction.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction
Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction
See nanjIyar‘s introduction.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction
See nampiLLai‘s introduction.
Fourth pAsuram. When one of our pUrvAchAryas asked another one [presumably mARanEri nambi since similar incident is identified in mudhal thiruvandhAdhi 1st pAsuram with reference to him] “Please tell me a way to remember emperumAn” and he replies “I will do that. But can you tell me a way to forget him?”. This means anything other than bhagavAn does not acquire its form and name without his presence, anything that is seen is seen as a wealth/form of him. Just like for jAthi (species/category) and guNam (quality), there is no sthiti (existence) and upalambha (recognition) without the [particular] entity [that bears the category and quality], though dhravya [separate objects – sentient and insentient beings], without bhagavAn there is no existence and recognition – this is based on pramANam [authentic quotes from SAsthram such as “yasya AthmA SarIram, yasya pruthvI SarIram” (AthmA is bhagavAn’s body, Earth is bhagavAn’s body) – without the soul, the bodies cannot exist],. While others are focussed on the viSEshaNam (attributes/forms – sentient and insentient beings), our AzhwArs/AchAryas are focussed on viSEshyam (object/paramAthmA – bhagavAn). Because of importance for viSEshyam (bhagavAn), only he is seen in everything. This is the nature of one who has heard vEdhAntham. emperumAnAr too explained this in vEdhArtha sangraham “vEdhAntha SravaNE na hi vyuthpaththi: pUryathE” (Only by hearing vEdhAntham, one’s knowledge becomes complete). With this, all objects being prakAram (form) and bhagavAn being prakAri (entity) is explained. In this too, as explained in SrI bhagavath gIthA 10.41 “yadhyadhvibhUthimath sathvam SrImadhUrjithamEva vA | thaththadhEvAvagachcha thvam mama thEjOmSa sambhavam” (You shall know that any object that has wealth/form, glories, efforts in engaging in auspicious activities, all of them came from a fraction of my radiance), though everything is his wealth, he selected the best among them and highlighted them as his wealth; similarly AzhwAr too is enjoying priceless gems etc being his wealth.
sAdhi mANikkam enkO savi koL pon muththam enkO
sAdhi nal vairam enkO thavivil sIr viLakkam enkO
Adhiyam sOdhi enkO Adhiyam purudan enkO
Adhumil kAlaththendhai achchudhan amalanaiyE
Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
Adhum – anything
il – not there
kAlaththu – during the time of deluge
endhai – due to the causeless/eternal relationship, being the AthmA of chith and achith that are in unmanifested state
achchudhan – not having any loss/decay (in his nature, qualities etc)
amalanai – one who is the opposite of all defects (i.e., not being affected by the defects of chith and achith, though he pervades them all)
sAdhi – having the distinguished quality of being born/found in a mine
mANikkam – precious gem
savi – radiance
koL – having
pon – golden
muththam – pearls
sAdhi – found in mines
nal – distinguished in comparison to other rathnams (gems)
vayiram – diamond
thavi(r)vil – indestructible
sIr – having shining qualities
viLakkam – lamp
Adhi – being the primordial
am – having qualities such as beauty etc
sOdhi – having a radiant divine form
Adhi – being the primary person
am – having qualities such as Anandham (bliss) etc
purudan – supreme lord
enkO – Should I say/call?
Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)
emperumAn is the one who is the AthmA of chith and achith that are in unmanifested state due to the causeless/eternal relationship during the time of deluge without having any loss/decay (in his nature, qualities etc) when nothing else is there; he is the opposite of all defects (i.e., not being affected by the defects of chith and achith, though he pervades them all). Should I call such emperumAn as precious gem having the distinguished quality of being born/found in a mine? Should I call him as radiant golden pearls that are found in mines [i.e., best quality]? Should I call him as diamond that is distinguished in comparison to other rathnams (gems)? Should I call him an indestructible lamp that is having shining qualities? Should I call him the primordial radiant divine form that is having qualities such as beauty etc? Should I call him the primary/supreme lord who is having qualities such as Anandham (bliss) etc?
Adhi am sOdhi – primordial form means the form in paramapadham. Adhi purusha means his divine nature. The divine forms and nature are as enjoyable as the radiant gems etc for AzhwAr.
Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam
See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.
Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam
See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.
- sAdhi mANikkam enkO – Should I call him as a gem that was fetched from the best source/mine?
- savi koL pon muththam enkO – If savi is taken as an adjective for pon (gold), it means radiance; if taken as an adjective for muththam (pearls), it means beauty and coolness. Should I call him as radiant gold or beautiful pearl?
- sAdhi nal vayiram enkO – Should I call him as the best diamond that was fetched from the best source/mine?
- thavivil sIr viLakkam enkO – thavivu means vichchEdham (break/end). Should I call him as the lamp that is having endless beauty? This can be taken as explaining the source of light and the light itself – for example, both Adhithya (sun) etc and their radiance.
- Adhi am sOdhi enkO – As said in jithanthE sthOthram “kAryANAm kAraNam pUrvam …” (They know that your paramapadham is the cause of all effects …), Should I call you as the owner of paramapadham that is being present even before the creation of these [radiant objects in material realm], is itself being in a singular/unchanging form, and is infinitely radiant as said in mahAbhAratham AraNya parvam “athyarkAnaladhIptham thath sthAnam …” (SrIman nArAyaNan’s divine abode parampadham is many thousands of times more radiant than the sun and moon)? When asked “How is paramapadham the cause?”, it is explained that “when something exists exactly before the effect, that is called the cause” [since paramapadham always existed, when the material realm is created (transformed from subtle to gross manifestation), the paramapadham is seen as cause here]. Alternatively (second explanation), Adhi refers to bhagavAn being ISwara (controller) too. Here Adhi (cause) is also explained based on asthrabhUshaNa adhyAyam in SrIvishNu purANam. There it is explained that SrIvathsa [divine mole in bhagavAn’s chest] bears the primordial matter, SrIkausthuba [jewel in his chest] bears the collection of all AthmAs. Third explanation – That divine radiant form is also part of the nithya vibhUthi (paramapadham). But why is nithya vibhUthi (spiritual realm) mentioned here while talking about the gems etc which are in leelA vibhUthi (material realm)? That is because, for AzhwAr both feel the same [since he considers both to be the wealth of emperumAn].
- Adhi am purudan enkO – Now, AzhwAr is talking about the vibhUthimAn (owner of the vibhUthi (wealth)). Should I call him as sarvESvaran who is the cause of all, is together with both vibhUthis (spiritual and material realms), and is known by the names/words purusha and purushOththama [in SAsthram]?
- Adhum il … – Adhumil kAlam – samsAra kAlam (that time when I did not have anything good in me like adhvEsham (no hatred), Abhimukhyam (friendliness) towards bhagavAn). That is, [Adhumil kAlaththu] at that time when I had nothing in me to attain him, [endhai] he himself announced his eternal fatherly relationship with me, [achchudhan] protected me without leaving me ever, [amalan] doing all these unconditionally without expecting anything from me in return and uplifted me as if it is his fortune; Alternative explanation – [Adhumil kAlaththu] during praLaya kAlam (the time of deluge when nothing exists) when everything is in subtle state [where I cannot do anything], [endhai] considering that he is the lord, when there is no name or form for these AthmAs, [achchudhan] bearing them and protecting them, [amalan] though he mingled with everyone as one with these chith and achith, still their defects did not touch him. bhagavAn when pervaded in all chith (sentient) and achith (insentient) whether they are in gross (manifested) forms or in subtle (unmanifested) forms, their defects don’t touch him. This is due to the fact that bhagavAn is present in them out of his own will/desire [unlike jIvAthmAs who enter into a material body due to being pushed by their karma – so their knowledge gets impacted by the type of their body and the bodily activities].
In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.
adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan
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