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SrIvaikuNta gadhyam – 3rd chUrNai Part 2

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 In this part, we shall look at the meanings of the following, which forms part of chUrNai 3

sarvadhA anubhUyamAnairabi apUrvavath
AScharyam Avahadhbhi: krIdASailaSatha
sahasrair alankruthai:, kaiSchin nArAyaNa dhivyaleelA asAdhAraNai:,
kaiSchith padhmavanAlayA dhivyaleelA asAdhAraNai:,
sAdhAraNaischa kaiSchith Suka SArikA mayUra kOkilAdhibhi:, kOmalakUjithai:, Akulai:
dhivyOdhyAna Satha sahasrairAvruthE, maNimukthA pravAlakrutha sOpAnai:
dhivyAmala – amrutha rasOdhakai: dhivyANdajavarai: athiramaNIya dharSanai:
athimanOhara madhura svarai: Akulai:
anthastha mukthAmaya dhivya krIdA sthAna upaSObhithai:,
dhivya saugandhika vApI Satha sahasrai: dhivya rAjahamsAvalee virAjithai: AvruthE,
nirasthAthiSaya Anandhaika rasathayA cha
AnanthyAchcha pravishtAn unmAdhayadhbhi: krIdOdhdhESai: virajithE,
thathra thathra krutha dhivya pushpa paryanka upaSObhithE,
nAnA pushpa Asava AsvAdha maththa brungAvaleebhi:
udhgeeyamAna dhivya gAndharvENa ApUrithE,
chandhanAgaru karpUra dhivya pushpa avagAhi mandha anilAsEvyamAnE,
madhyE (dhivya) pushpa sanchaya vichithrithE,
mahathi dhivya yOga paryankE anantha bhOgini,
SrImath vaikuNta aiSvaryAdhi dhivyalOkam Athma kAnthyA viSvam ApyAyayanthyA,
SEsha SEshASana Adhi sarva parijanam bhagavatha:
thath thath avasthOchitha paricharyAyAm AgyApayanthyA, Seela rUpa
guNa vilAsAdhibhi: Athma anurUpaya, SriyA saha Asinam,
prathyagra unmeelitha saraSija sadhruSa nayana yugalam,
svachcha neela jImUtha sankASam, athyujjvala bItha vAsasam,
svayA prabhayA athinirmalayA athiSIthalayA svachchayA mANikyAbhayA
kruthsnam jagath bhAsayantham, achinthya dhivyAdhbhutha nithya yauvana
svabhAva lAvaNyamaya – amrutha sAgaram
athisaukumAryAth Ishath prasvinnavath AlakshyamANa
lalAtapalaka dhivyAlakAvalee virAjitham,
prabhudhdha muktha ambhuja chArulOchanam, savibhrama bhrUlatham ujjvalAdharam,
Suchismitham, kOmala gaNdam, unnasam,
udhagrapInAmsa vilambi kuNdala alakAvalee bandhura kambu kandharam,
priyAvathamsa uthpala karNabhUshaNa
SlathAlakAbandha vimardha Samsibhi: chathurbhI:
AjAnu vilabibhi: bhujai: virAjitham, athikOmala dhivyarEkhAlankrutha
AthAmra karathalam, dhivyAnguleeyaka virAjitham,
athikOmala nakAvalee virAjitham, athirakthAnguleebhi: alankrutham,
thathkshaNOnmileetha puNdarIka sadhruSa charaNayugalam

sarvadhA anubhUyamAnairabi apUrvavath AScharyam Avahadhbhi: – sarvadhA – always; anubhUyamAnairabi – even if experienced; apUrvavath – incomparable; AScharyam – wondrous; Even if these are experienced on a daily basis, the novelty in them is incomparable. The happiness derived out of each moment is different from the previous moment.

krIdASailaSatha sahasrair alankruthai: krIdA – for playing; Saila – mountains; Satha – hundreds; sahasrair – thousands; alankruthai: – decorated. There are hundreds and thousands of mountains for indulgence.

kaiSchin nArAyaNa dhivya leelA asAdhAraNai:kaiSchith – some; nArAyaNa dhivya leelA – for the pastime of nArAyaNa; asAdhAraNai: – special. There are some special orchards which are exclusively for the use of nArAyaNa.

kaiSchith padhmavanAlayA dhivyaleelA asAdhAraNai: padhmavanAlayA – one who has lotus orchards as dwelling place (SrI mahAlakshmi). Similarly there are exclusive orchards for the pastime of SrI mahAlakshmi.

sAdhAraNaischa kaiSchithThere are some orchards which are common to both mahAlakshmi and nArAyaNa.

Suka SArikA mayUra kOkilAdhibhi: Suka – parrots; SArika – a sub-species of parrots; mayUra – peacocks; kOkila – cuckoo; Adhibhi: – many others such as swans etc. There are many species of birds in these orchards.

kOmalakUjithai:, Akulai: kOmala – sweet; kUjithai – cooing (making sounds); Akulai: filled with. The entire place is filled with the sweet calls and cooing of these birds.

dhivyOdhyAna Satha sahasrairAvruthE dhivya – divine; udhyAna – gardens; Satha sahasrai: – hundreds and thousands; AvruthE – surrounded. The ponds and lakes are surrounded by hundreds of thousands of divine gardens

maNimukthA pravAlakrutha sOpAnai: maNi mukthA pravAla – ruby, pearl, coral; krutha – made of; sOpAnai: – steps to tank or lake or river. Inside the gardens and orchards are tanks/lakes with steps made of gems such as ruby, pearl, coral etc.

dhivyAmala  amrutha rasOdhakai: dhivya – aprAkrutha (divine); amala – without any fault; amrutha – nectar like; rasOdhakai: – taste of water body. The divine water bodies inside the orchards have the taste of faultless nectar.

dhivyANdaja varai:dhivya – divine; aNdaja – born from egg (birds); varai: – different species. Around the water bodies are trees which have many species of divine birds.

athi ramaNiya dharSanai:athi – very; ramaNIya – pleasant; dharSanai: – to see. These birds are very pleasant to look at.

athi manOhara madhura svarai: Akulai: athi – very; manOhara – enchanting; madhura – mellifluous; svarai: – voice or sound. Akulai: – filled with. Their voices are very enchanting and honey-like and the place is filled with such birds.

anthastha mukthAmaya dhivya krIdAsthAna upaSObhithai: anthastha – inside; mukthAmaya – made of pearls; dhivya – divine; krIdAsthAna – locations for playing; upaSObhithai: – adorned with. Inside the orchards are places which are made of pearls.

dhivya saugandhika vApi Satha sahasrai:dhivya – divine; saugandhika – sweet smelling (white or blue lily); vApi – lake ; Satha sahasrai: – hundreds of thousands of. There are hundreds of thousands of lakes or ponds with sweet smelling divine flowers.

dhivya rAjahmasa Avalee virAjithai: AvruthEdhivya – divine; rAjahamsa – royal swan; Avalee – row of; virajithai: – adorned; AvruthE – surrounded with. The ponds are beautified by the flock of sudhdha sathva, royal swans.

nirasthAthiSaya Anandhaika rasathayA cha – incomparable, wondrous, joyful pleasure

ananthyAchcha – unlimited

pravishtAn unmAdhayathbhi:pravishtAn – one who entered; unmAdhayatha – mad. Making those who enter such places (orchards, lakes etc), go mad (make them excited, losing their senses)

krIdOdhdhESai: virAjithEkrIda – play; dhESai: – location; virAjithE – adorned. Adorned with such locations for playing

thathra thathra krutha dhivya pushpa paryanka upaSObhithEthathra thathra – here and there; krutha – carried out; dhivya – divine; pushpa – flower; paryanka – bed; upaSObhithE – adorned. Decorated with aprAkrutha (divine) flowery beds, here and there.

nAnA pushpa Asava AsvAdha maththa brunga Avaleebhi: udhgeeyamAna dhivya gAndharvENa ApUrithEnAnA – different types; pushpa – flowers; Asava – nectar (honey) of flowers; AsvAdha – drink; maththa – drunken (overjoyed); brunga – bee or wasp; Avalee–  a collection of wasps; udhgeeyamAna – singing (humming); dhivya – divine; gAndharvENa – like divine singers; ApUrithE – filled with. Wasps drink nectar dropping from different types of flowers and in an over-joyous mood sing like gandharvas (celestial singers) and the entire place is filled with their music.

chandhana agaru karpUra dhivya pushpa avagAhi mandha anila sEvyamAnEchandhana – sandal; agaru – kind of sweet smelling grass; karpUra – camphor; dhivya pushpa – divine flowers; avagAhi – immersed; mandha – gentle; anila – breeze; sEvyamAnE – worshipped. Gentle breeze wades through different types of sweet smelling materials (such as sandalwood, agaru (a kind of grass), camphor and divine flowers) and worships…

madhyE pushpa sanchaya vichithrithEmadhyE – in the centre; pushpa sanchaya – cluster of loose flowers; vichithrithE – like an art work.

mahathi dhivya yOga paryankEmahathi – huge; dhivya – divine; yOga – total; paryankE – on the bed.

anantha bhOginiananthathivananthAzhvAn (AdhiSEshan, 1000 hooded serpent) bhOgini – serpent.

Till now, SrI rAmAnuja has described various parts of SrIvaikuNtam, starting with hundreds of thousands of lakes, ponds, tanks, how these are decorated with steps made of precious stones such as ruby, sapphire, pearl, coral etc, different types of trees that surround these lakes, the types of flowers that grow on the orchards, the pillars in the garden studded with precious stones, the floor made with precious stones, the bees and wasps that drink the nectar from the flowers, the gentle breeze that wades through several sweet smelling substances, how in the midst of all these, on a serpent bed, bedecked with flowery arrangement – emperumAn, along with his consorts, is giving audience to his ASrithars, as described below.

SrImath vaikuNta aiSvaryAdhi dhivyalOkamSrImath – filled with kainkarya SrI (serving bhagavAn) , vaikuNtaSrIvaikuNtam (nithya vibhUthi) aiSvarya – wealth; Adhi – starting with this; dhivyalOkam – divine realm. in the divine realm called SrImath vaikuNtam, with all its wealth

Athma kAnthyAAthma – self (refers to pirAtti here); kAnthyA – radiance. With her radiance

viSvam ApyAyayanthyAviSvam – entire realm; ApyAyayanthyA – relaxed; gladden. Keeping the entire realm in a relaxed, peaceful state

SEsha SEshASana Adhi sarva parijanamSesha – AdhiSEshan; SEshASanavishvaksEnar (head of emperumAn’s army); Adhi – and many others following them; sarva – all; parijanam – servitors.

bhagavatha: thath thadhavasthOchitha paricharyAyAm AgyApayanthyAbhagavatha: – for  bhagavAn; thath thath avastha uchitha – appropriate to various states; paricharyAyAm – for carrying out service;  AgyA payanthyA -issue order. pirAtti appoints all the servitors for carrying out appropriate kainkaryam (service) to emperumAn (bhagavAn) in various states

Seela rUpa guNa vilAsAdhibhi: Athma anurUpayA – she is appropriate to emperumAn in her Athma guNa (qualities of her AthmA, soul) as well as in her rUpa guNa (qualities of her physical form)

SrIya saha Asinam – seated with such a SrI (pirAtti) by his side (even though reference is only to SrIdhEvi, we have to infer that bhUdhEvi and neeLAdhEvi, his other consorts are also indicated here)

prathyagra unmeelitha saraSija sadhruSa nayana ugalamprathyagra – just then; unmeelitha – blossomed; saraSija – born in pond (lotus); sadhruSa – equivalent; nayana – eye; ugalam – two. bhagavAn‘s two divine eyes are like lotus flowers which have just blossomed.

svachcha neela jImUtha sankASamsvachcha – clear;  neela – bluish black; jImUtha – cloud; sankASam – appearance. His appearance is like the dark clouds.

athyujjvala pIthavAsasamathi – very; ujjvala – bright/luminous; pItha – yellow; vAsasam – clothed in. He is dressed in an extremely bright yellow vasthram (clothe).

svayA prabhayAsvayam – self; prabhayA – radiant. He emits from his form, a brilliant radiance.

athinirmalayAathi -very; nirmalayA – without any dOsham (fault). He is absolutely faultless.

athiSeethalayAathi – very; SeethalayA – cold. He is very gentle and calm.

mANikyAbhayA – mAnikka – ruby; bhayA – radiance. He has brilliance like ruby.

kruthsnam jagath bhAsayanthamkruthsnam – without leaving out anything; jagath – world; bhAsayantham – illuminate. bhagavAn illuminates the entire world with the radiance from his physical form.

achinthya dhivya adhbhuthaachinthya – beyond thoughts; dhivyaaprAkrutha (divine); adhbhutha – wonderful. His form is beyond one’s imagination, it is divine and wonderful.

nithya yauvana svabhAva lAvaNyamaya amrutha sAgaramnithya – without any time-limit (always); yauvana – youthful (he is always 16 years old, irrespective of the number of years that have passed. He is that young, always); svabhAva – as his nature; lAvaNyamaya – full of beauty, taken as a whole (as opposed to soundharyam which means beauty of specific feature such as nose or eyes or face etc), amrutha -nectar, sAgaram – ocean.

SrI rAmAnuja now describes bhagavAn‘s physical features.

athisaukumAryAth Ishath prasvinnavath AlakshyamANa lalAta palaka dhivya alakAvalee virAjithamathi – very; saukumAryath – delicate (thin); Ishath – a little bit; prasvinnavath – spread out ; AlakshayamAna – visible; lalAta – forehead; palaka – flat part; dhivya – divine; alakAvalee – bundle of curled lock; virAjitham – adorned. bhagavAn‘s curled lock are soft, thin, a little spread out, and come upto the flat surface of his forehead.

prabhudhdha mukthAmbhuja chArulOchanamprabhudhdha – blossomed; muktha – fresh; ambhuja – lotus; chAru – pleasant; lOchanam – divine eyes. He is extremely happy on seeing his ASrithars due to which his eyes blossom like a lotus. Lotus is taken here as a simile. However, unlike the eyes, lotus (i) is not broad, (ii) does not secrete love and friendliness, (iii) does not blossom on seeing ASrithars, (iv) does not steal the hearts of those who come to have dharshan (vision) of it.

savibhrama bhrUlathamsavibhrama – knit; bhrUlatham – arched eye-brows. His eye brows are like the curved sugar-cane bow of manmathan (most handsome person).

ujjvalAdharam – ujjvala – luminous; adharam – lips. Lips are like coral and are bright.

SuchismithamSuchi – pure; smitham – smile. There is no falseness in his smile. He is genuinely happy on seeing his ASrithars and it shows in his smile.

kOmala gaNdamkOmala – pleasing; gaNdam – cheeks. His cheeks attract the ASrithars towards them with their beauty and well rounded nature.

unnasam – long (prominent) nose; like kaRpaga creeper (a type of plant) which grows only in celestial worlds.

udhagra pIna amsa vilambi kuNdala  alakAvalee bandhura kambukandharamudhagra – tall; pIna – large; amSa – shoulder; vilambi – hanging; kuNdala – ear-ring; alaka – curled lock; Avalee – bundle; bandhura – charming ; kambu – three lines or marks in the neck; kandharam -neck. Earlier SrI rAmAnuja had mentioned about the curly lock on his forehead. Now he describes bhagavAn‘s neck. The neck goes well with his shoulders. His curled locks hang upto the neck, which has three lines, signifying the identity of purushOththaman (highest among all AthmAs). His ear rings are also adding beauty to his neck.

priyAvathamsa uthpala karNabhUshaNa priyAvatha – beautiful; amsa – shoulder; uthpala – like a water lily; karNa – for the ears; bhUshaNa – ornament. The ornaments for the ears are coming upto the shoulder. One wonders whether they are ornaments for the ears or for the shoulder or for the locks which also fall on to the shoulder.

SlathAlakAbandha vimardha Samsibhi: chathurbhI: AjAnu vilambibhi: bhujai: virAjitham – Thus the four shoulders on which the ear rings hang loosely, extend upto the knee (as an extension through the arms) and adorn emperumAn.

athikOmala dhivyarEkhAlankrutha AthAmra karathalam – athikOmala – very beautiful; dhivya rekhA – divine lines; alankrutha – decorated with; AthAmra – several others starting from this; karathalam – palm. bhagavAn‘s palms are decorated with special marks such as lotus, conch (Sankam), disc (SudharSana chakram) etc.

dhivyAnguleeyaka virAjitham – dhivya – divine; anguleeyaka – rings on fingers; virAjitham – adorned. His fingers are adorned with divine rings.

athikOmala nakAvalee virAjithamathikOmala – very beautiful; nakAvalee – row of nails; virAjitham – adorned with. It is said that chandran (moon) took 20 forms and presented himself as nails on the fingers and toes of bhagavAn to carry out kainkaryam.

athirakthAnguleebhi: alankrutham –  athi – very; raktha – reddish; anguleebhi: – fingers; alankrutham – decorated with. His divine fingers are deep reddish in colour.

thathkshaNOnmileetha puNdarIka sadhruSa charaNa  yugalamthath – that; kshaNa – moment; unmeelitha – blossomed; puNdarIka – lotus; sadhruSa – equivalent; charaNa – divine feet; yugalam – two. His divine feet are like lotus that has just blossomed.

Until now, SrI rAmAnuja has described various angams (physical features) of bhagavAn. Next he describes the ornaments and weapons that decorate his physical form. We shall see these and the remainder of this chUrNai in the next part.

Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan.

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.6.3 – thAmaraik kaNNanai

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Full series >> Second Centum >> Sixth decad

Previous pAsuram

lotus-eyed-krishna

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the third pAsuram – AzhwAr becomes delighted thinking “emperumAn has blessed me with the ability to describe his saundharyam (beauty) etc like nithyasUris (who have great ability);  how generous he is!”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says “the most generous emperumAn who made me experience him through his three types of senses (mind, speech, body) does not know (focus on) anyone but me”.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Third pAsuram – AzhwAr says “How generous emperumAn is! He is so generous that he made me a dhESika (highly capable leader) to enjoy him who is even beyond the abilities of nithyasUris”.

pAsuram

தாமரைக் கண்ணனை விண்ணோர் பரவும் தலைமகனை – துழாய் விரைப்
பூ மருவு கண்ணி எம் பிரானை பொன்மலையை
நாம் மருவி நன்கு ஏத்தி உள்ளி வணங்கி நாம் மகிழ்ந்து ஆட – நாவு அலர்
பா மருவி நிற்கத் தந்த பான்மையே வள்ளலே

thAmaraik kaNNanai viNNOr paravum thalai maganaith – thuzhAy viraip
pU maruvu kaNNi em pirAnaip ponmalaiyai
nAm maruvi nangu Eththi uLLi vaNangi nAm magizhndhu Ada – nAvu alar
pA maruvi niRkath thandha pAnmaiyE vaLLalE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

thAmarai – like a lotus flower
kaNNanai – having eyes

with that beauty,
viNNOr – nithyasUris
paravum – being eternally glorified
thalai maganai – having greatness
virai – buds
pU – flowers
maruvu – filled
thuzhAyk kaNNi – being the one who is decorated with thuLasi garland
em – for us
pirAnai – being the lord
ponmalaiyai – (due to that togetherness) one who is shining like a golden mountain
nAm – we (without leaving, seeing our own lowly nature)
maruvi – approached
nangu – (like nithyasUris, to be qualified for paramapadham) in a fine manner
Eththi – glorifying
uLLi – meditating like them (nithyasUris) in our mind
vaNangi – falling at his lotus feet

due to the engagement of all three senses as such,
nAm – we
magizhndhu – being joyful
Ada – to dance
nA – in the tongue
alar – born
pA – in the poem
maruvi – being attached
niRka – to be singing thiruvAimozhi
thandha – one who bestowed
pAnmai – svabhAvam (nature/quality)
Ey – fitting
vaLLal – one who is with generosity

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn is having lotus like eyes; (due to that beauty) he is eternally glorified by nithyasUris and is wearing thuLasi garland that is filled with buds and flowers; he is being our lord and (due to the togetherness with us) is shining like a golden mountain; we (instead of leaving him, seeing our lowly nature) approached him and in proper manner (engaged all our three senses) glorified him, meditated upon him and fell at his lotus feet; (due to this experience in all three senses) the most generous emperumAn having such svabhAvam (quality) of magnanimity, bestowed us to have beautiful poems arising from our tongue, that led us to joy and dancing – Such generous emperumAn would be single-focused on me (AzhwAr).

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • thAmaraik kaNNanai … – nithyasUris are of such nature that when emperumAn glances at them once, they would feel totally defeated and start glorifying emperumAn like someone  blabbering while being affected with fever. This is as explained in mOksha dharmam “SruthOyamarthO rAmasya jAmadhagnyasya jalpatha: …” (This meaning is heard from paraSurAma and vyAsa in a disorderly manner).
  • thalai maganai – Though they glorify him, as said in SrIvishNu purANam 5.1.48 “niravadhya: para: prApthE:” (excellent and unreachable), he remains supreme.
  • thuzhAy … – He won over the nithyasUris by showing his beautiful eyes; he caught AzhwAr through his garland. He got AzhwAr to become bewildered by showing his garland. emperumAn who is having a garland which has abundance of fragrance and flowers.
  • ponmalaiayai – he who has become beautiful after uniting with me and who keeps growing. He grew in stature by my glorification. Thus – it is established that  emperumAn became radiant after acquiring AzhwAr.
  • nAm maruvi – we, who said “aruvinaiyEn” (very sinful) and shied away, are now approaching him.
  • nangu Eththi – Glorifying such emperumAn who is glorified by nithyasUris; AzhwAr previously said in thiruvAimozhi 1.10.7vAnavar sindhaiyuL vaiththuch chollum selvanai, endhaiyE enban” (I call him my father – he is the wealthy one who is meditated upon and glorified by nithyasUris) and shied away. Even when vEdham itself gave up on glorifying bhagavAn as said in thaiththiriya upanishath “yathO vAchO nivarthanthE” (the words are returning from glorifying that brahmam), AzhwAr followed him and glorified him.
  • uLLi – meditating upon; instead of trying to leave emperumAn, AzhwAr thought about emperumAn.
  • vaNangi – worshiped him without any ego, after being forced by bhagavAn’s auspicious qualities. AzhwAr who said in thiruvAimozhi 1.5.2vaNanginAl un perumai mAsUNAdhO” (If I worship you, would that be an insult), fell at emperumAn‘s lotus feet now.
  • nAm magizhndhAda – we who did not have any idea about this divine joy derived from experience with bhagavAn, are now dancing out of great joy.
  • nAvalar … – Like a fresh flower arising, the pAsuram which arises out of my tongue and stayed firm in me – Oh such generous emperumAn who is having such generosity as a natural quality!
  • nA alar pA – simply arising out of the tongue – even without the help of mind.

It is also explained as AzhwAr saying “Oh lotus eyed lord! Oh you who resemble golden mountain! You have such quality which made us approach you and sing your glories! What a beautiful quality this is! Oh generous one!”.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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thiruvAimozhi – 2.6.2 – sikkenach chiRidhOridamum

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Full series >> Second Centum >> Sixth decad

Previous pAsuram

lotus-eyed-krishna-2

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram – AzhwAr speaks about the completeness emperumAn acquired after uniting with him.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

Subsequently, AzhwAr says that after uniting with him, emperumAn became radiant and did not focus on anything else.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram – AzhwAr speaks about how emperumAn enjoyed him and the splendour emperumAn acquired through such experience.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

Second pAsuram. In the previous pAsuram, emperumAn‘s doubt of “what can I do if AzhwAr leaves me?; the completeness acquired by emperumAn, after hearing AzhwAr say “I won’t leave you”, is explained in this pAsuram.

pAsuram

சிக்கெனச் சிறிது ஓர் இடமும் புறப்படாத் தன்னுள்ளே – உலகுகள்
ஒக்கவே விழுங்கிப் புகுந்தான் புகுந்ததற்பின்
மிக்க ஞான வெள்ளச் சுடர் விளக்குஆய் துளக்கு அற்று அமுதம் ஆய் – எங்கும்
பக்கம் நோக்கு அறியான் என் பைந்தாமரைக் கண்ணனே

sikkenach chiridhu Or idamum puRappadAth thanuuLLE – ulagugaL
okkavE vizhungip pugundhAn pugundhadhaRpin
mikka gyAna veLLach chudar viLakku Ayth thuLakku aRRu amudham Ay – engum
pakkam nOkku aRiyAn paindhAmaraik kaNNanE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

chiridhu Or – negligible
idamum – space
puRappadA – to exist outside the scope
ulagugaL – worlds
than uLLE – in his divine will
okkavE – in a singular manner
vizhungi – subdued
chikkena (sikkena) – firmly so that they never leave
pugundhAn – entered (inside me)
pugundhadhan pin – after entering
mikka – abundant
gyAna veLLam – completeness of knowledge
chudar (sudar) – that which is the abode for splendor
viLakkAy – his svarUpam which is the source of light
thuLakku – shivering (which came out of doubts in separation from me)
aRRu – being removed
amudhamAy – being unsurpassedly sweet
en – one who is constantly looking at me
paim – beautiful
thAmarai – like a lotus
kaNNan – having eyes
engum – any place
pakkam – in
nOkka – see
aRiyAn – does not know

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

emperumAn who consumed (subdued) all worlds within his divine will, in a single manner not leaving even very negligible space outside the scope, entered into me; after entering me, being the source of light (that is his true nature) which has abundant splendour of knowledge, having removed his doubts (about separation from me), being unsurpassed sweetness, he is having beautiful lotus like eyes which are constantly looking at me; such emperumAn can not see anywhere else now other than me.

Underlying principle is – the love he has towards AzhwAr is not seen in him even towards his consorts et al. AzhwAr thinks that the radiance in emperumAn‘s true nature is also due to uniting with him.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • siridhOridamum puRappadAth than uLLE ulagugaL okkavE vizhungich chikkenap pugundhAnemperumAn thought “while enjoying AzhwAr I should not be like someone who left his sandals/shoes outside the temple and thinking about that while worshiping inside the temple” [nampiLLai uses a beautiful phrase “seruppu vaiththuth thiruvadi thozhappukkARpOlE” – in arumpadham, this is explained nicely. Once a SrIvaishNava entered SrIrangam temple, leaving his sandals outside the temple. It is customary not to wear sandals/shoes inside the sapthaprAkAram (seven layers around SrIrangam temple). But when someone has health issues in the feet, he would wear sandals. The SrIvaishNava left the sandals outside and went inside. Since he kept thinking about the sandals due to fear of losing them, when he went inside the sannidhi, instead of saying “please give thIrtham”, he asked “please give sandals”. The message here is – there should be single focus of emperumAn instead of thinking about petty things. emperumAn is manifesting this in the matter of AzhwAr – he is having single focus on AzhwAr only, arranged for protecting the universe and fully enjoyed AzhwAr without leaving him; the kings will enter the private quarters of their consorts after completing their duties for the kingdom (so there is no disturbance). He ensured that even the smallest particle is protected without being separated from him by placing them in his divine will and then entered AzhwAr.
  • sikkenap pugundhAn – Also explained as “entering into AzhwAr simply to enjoy AzhwAr without any other expectation”.
  • pugundhadhan pin … – Only after uniting with him and having eliminated his own doubts about AzhwAr leaving him again, bhagavAn‘s knowledge fully blossomed and his shivering stopped. For jIvAthmA who has knowledge as an eternal quality, being bound in this world due to its karma, accepts a body, depends on the senses to acquire knowledge; on a fine day, out of bhagavAn’s blessings, the AthmA’s knowledge’s contraction gets eliminated; for bhagavAn there is no such restriction; still, only after uniting with AzhwAr, bhagavAn’s knowledge became fully blossomed and abundant; his bodily splendour too became great now only.
  • thuLakku aRRu – having already witnessed AzhwAr‘s suffering in separation in “AdiyAdi“, emperumAn was shivering (thinking about AzhwAr going through the same again if he separates) – but his shivering got eliminated as AzhwAr ensured that he would not leave him. He is explained in samkshEpa rAmAyaNam 85 “… vijvara: …” (having his fever removed) [After crowning vibhIshaNa as the king of lankA, SrI rAma felt that he has completed his task, having his fever (of fear of vibhIshaNa rejecting the throne) eliminated and felt happy – saying this vAlmIkI rishi too feels joyful]. His fear of “what if AzhwAr leaves me?” is eliminated now.
  • amudhamAy – As explained in samkshEpa rAmAyaNam 85 ” … pramumOdha ha” (rishi joyfully saying “SrI rAma is happy”). AzhwAr feels joyful that emperumAn accepts him with great affection and joy.
  • engum pakkam nOkkaRiyAn – Even if his divine consorts embrace him tightly thinking “we should reduce his great attachment towards AzhwAr“, he would not look at them. Here, an incident from the lives of ALavandhAr and kurugaik kAvalappan is cited. maNakkAl nambi tells ALavandhAr that kurugaik kAvalappan has a secret. ALavandhAr goes to appan to learn that from him at a place called “gangai koNda chOLapuram” where appan was meditating sitting on a raised platform. ALavandhAr, not wanting to disturb his meditation, hid behind a wall; appan opened his eyes while in the middle of meditation and asked “is there any one from sottaik kulam (SrEshta kulam – the clan of nAthamunigaL)?”. ALavandhAr comes out of the hiding saying “adiyEn” (dhAsan) and asked “while we hid behind the wall, how did you find out about our arrival?”. appan mercifully replies “when I blissfully enjoy with bhagavAn during my meditation, even if SrI mahAlakshmi embraces him, he would not care for her, but now he pressed upon my shoulders and looked over my back to see who is present; I understood that there must be someone who is from the sottaik kulam which is very dear to him” [Similarly, when emperumAn enjoys with AzhwAr, he would not even look anywhere else].
  • en paim thAmaraik kaNNanE – His divine eyes became cool, after the heat they acquired looking at the suffering of AzhwAr in “AdiyAdi“.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvaikuNta gadhyam – 3rd chUrNai Part 1

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going-to-paramapadham

avathArikai (Introduction)

This chUrNai describes the archirAdhi mArga (the path which starts with archis, light) through which a  jIvAthmA, who has thus surrendered to bhagavAn and gets liberated from samsAram (materialistic realm) travels and attains SrIvaikuNtam. It also describes the many-splendoured facets of SrIvaikuNtam. This is a very lengthy chUrNai and we shall see it in several parts.

chUrNai

chathurdhaSa bhuvanAthmakam aNdam dhaSaguNitha uththarancha
AvaraNasapthakam samastham kArya kAraNa jAtham athIthya varthamAnE,
paramavyOma SabdhAbhidhEyE, brahmAdhInAm vAngmansAgOcharE,
SrImathi vaikuNtE dhivyalOkE, sanaka vidhi SivAdhibhirapi achinthya svabhAva aiSvaryai:
nithya sidhdhai: ananthai: bhagavath AnukUlyaika bhOgai: dhivya purushai: mahAthmabhi: ApUrithE,
thEshAmapi iyath parimANam iyath aiSvaryam IdhruSa svabhAvam ithi parichchEththum ayOgyE,
dhivya AvaraNa Satha sahasrair AvruthE dhivya kalpakatharu upaSObhithE,dhivyOdhyAna Satha sahasra kOtibhirAvruthE, athipramANE,
dhivya AyathanE kasmimSchith vichithra dhivya rathnamayE dhivyAsthAna maNdapE,
dhivya rathna sthambha Satha sahasra kOtibhirupaSObhithE,
dhivya nAnA rathna krutha sthala vichithrithE,
dhivyAlankAra alankruthE, paritha: pathithai: pathamAnai: pAdhapasthaiScha
nAnA gandha varNai: dhivya pushpai: SObhamAnai:
dhivya pushpa upavanai: upaSObhithE,
sankIrNa pArijAthAdhi kalpadhruma upaSObhithai:,
asankIrNaiScha kaISchith anthastha pushpa rathnAdhi nirmitha
dhivya leela maNdapa Satha sahasrair upaSObhithai:

Explanatory Notes

chathurdhaSa bhuvanAthmakamchathurdaSa – fourteen; bhuvanam – world; Athmakam – composed of. There are 7 worlds including bhU: (earth) (bhU;, bhuva:, suva:, maha:, jana:, thapa: sathyam) which are above, and 7 worlds starting with athala (athala, suthala, vithala, nithala, rasAthala, thalAthala, pAthala) below. What is it that these 14 worlds constitute?

aNdam – These 14 worlds taken together form an egg-shaped assembly of worlds called aNdam (egg). It has an end-to-end spread of 50 crore yOjana (one yOjana is 10 miles or 16 kms in our parlance).

dhaSaguNitha uththarancha AvaraNa sapthakamdhaSa – ten; guNitha – times; uththaram – above; cha – also; AvaraNa – wrapper or cover; sapthakam – collection or aggregate of 7. Around each such egg (aNdam, that we have seen above) are 7 covers, with each succeeding cover being 10 times bigger than the previous cover. What are these 7 covers made of? They are prithvi (14 worlds in the centre), vAri (water), vahni (fire), anila (air or wind), AkASa (open or empty space), ahankAra (ego, third source of creation), mahAn (great, the 2nd source of creation) and avyaktham (prakruthi or primordial matter, primary source of creation ).

samastham – all. All the above mentioned entities put together form one aNdam. SrIvishNu purANam says that there are thousands and ten thousands of such aNdam and hundreds of crores of such entities.

kArya kAraNa jAtham – effect and causative factors (those that are produced by and those that produce). For example, avyaktham (prakruthi or primordial matter) that we have seen above is the causative factor for mahAn. mahAn produces ahankAram which in turn gives rise to the five elements sky, wind, fire, water and earth. Thus avyaktham is kAraNam while mahAn is both kAraNam (as it gives rise to ahankAram) and kAryam (as it came from avyaktham).

athIthya – crossing. The liberated jIvAthmA crosses all these entities. The crossing is done once and he does not come back to samsAram.  In bhagavadh gIthA, krishNa says that the AthmA who reaches upto sathya lOkam (brahmA‘s world) returns to samsAram. But the AthmA who has spent all his karma (both pApa and puNya, sin and virtue) crosses sathya lOkam too and does not return to samsAram. What sort of a place does such an AthmA reach?

parama – superior. That which does not have anything  higher than itself.

vyOma SabdhAbhidhEyEvyOma – sky or ether; Sabdha – word; abhidhEyE – expressed as. The AthmA crosses all the earlier mentioned worlds and reaches the entity that  is called as parama vyOma (superior sky). Unlike karmabhUmi (earth, the place where we take a physical form in line with our karma to get rid of prArabdha karma) this place does not limit our knowledge, but clears our thoughts. Is this place limited?

brahmA AdhInAm vAngmanasa agOcharE – Unlike simple people such as ourselves who have limited knowledge and power, this place is beyond the reach of highly knowledgeable people such as brahmA, Siva and other celestial beings. It is beyond their speech and thought. Does this place have a name?

SrImathi vaikuNtE dhivyalOkE – it is called as SrIvaikuNtam. Unlike karmabhUmi where there are impediments while carrying our kainkaryam, this is permanent and free from any hurdle.

Srimathi here refers to kainkaryam. vaikuNtE – there is no shortage for gyAna (knowledge) and Sakthi (energy or strength) here as there is no concealment of these by karmA. dhivyalOkE – not mAnushalOkam (world inhabited by human beings). Different from it. dhivya also means aprAkrutha (not prAkrutha, not composed of sathva/rajas/thamas, but only Sudhdha sathva). Having mentioned about the place, the next few words describe about the people who are in it.

sanaka vidhi Sivadhibhir achinthya svabhAva aiSvaryai:sanaka – one of the four mAnasa puthrars of brahmA (the four sons created by brahmA through his thoughts); vidhi – brahmA; Siva – rudhran; Adhibi – many other celestial entities, starting from these; achinthya – beyond their thoughts; svabhAva – as its nature; aiSvaryai: – having plenty of wealth. Even highly knowledgeable persons such as brahmA, Siva, sanaka and others can not fathom about the glory and type of persons who are inhabiting SrivaikuNtam and the wealth of SrIvaikuNtam.

nithya sidhdhai: – unlike mukthAthmAs who are devoted to bhagavAn, only from the time that they reach SrIvaikuNtam after being liberated, the inhabitants of SrIvaikuNtam (nithyasUris) have been there always and have been permanently carrying out kainkaryam to bhagavAn.

ananthai: – The nithyasUris are not limited in number. They are countless.

bhagavath AnukUlya bhOgai: – their only purpose is to act the way bhagavAn wants them to; i.e. not acting independently. They are enjoyed by bhagavAn the way he likes and they enjoy his auspicious qualities.

dhivya purushai: – divine people. aprAkrutha (composed of only sudhdha sathva, pure good) people.

mahAthmabhi: – great people. Their greatness is such that bhagavAn will not tolerate if they are separated from him.

ApUrithE – filled up. SrivaikuNtam is filled up with such people. It is not that only a few nithyasUris are there.

thEshAmapi – even they. Their svabhAvam (nature) is such that others such as brahmA, Siva et al can not think or talk about them and their greatness or about SrIvaikuNtam. Are such nithyasUris able to give details about SrIvaikuNtam that they inhabit?

iyath parimANam – these are its dimensions

iyath aiSvaryam – this is the value of its wealth

IdhruSa svabhAvam – this is its nature or type

ithi parichchEththum ayOgyE – even these nithyasUris do not have the ability to define these characteristics of SrIvaikuNtam.

dhivya AvaraNa Satha sahasra AvruthEdhivya – aprAkrutha (pure good); AvaraNa – cover (like a compound wall); Satha – hundreds; sahasra – thousands; AvruthE – filled with.  SrIvaikuNtam has hundreds of thousands of compounds walls which, unlike what we see in leelA vinbhUthi (our materialistic realm), are made of pure good entity (sudhdha sathvam). Who has the courage to wage a war against him? Why then should there be so many compound walls in SrIvaikuNtam? The answer to this is that it is like the capital of a country. Here bhagavAn is the king of the country. Hence it should have all the qualifications of a capital. Thus there are many compound walls. Moreover the inhabitants of this country worry about the safety of their king even at places where such fear is misplaced (similar to periyAzhwAr singing pallANdu pallANdu on emperumAn) and this leads to the roles getting reversed. Thus the protector is protected (nithyasUris protect bhagavAn). To fulfill this role, compound walls have been constructed. Will the place be one of granting protection only, without anything for enjoyment?

dhivya kalpakatharu upaSObhithEdhivyaaprAkrutha (sudhdha sathva); kalpaka tharu – a tree which fulfills the wishes of those who wish for something while standing under it; upaSObhithE – adorned with.  Unlike the kalpakatharu in lowly swargam (heaven, ruled by indhra) which is prAkrutha tree, the kalpakatharu in SrivaikuNtam is dhivya or aprAkrutham. The kalpakatharu in SrIvaikuNtam is not just one tree but it is a grove or garden of such trees. This is a source of enjoyment there.

dhivya udhyAna Satha sahasra kOtibhi: AvruthE – dhivya – divine; udhyAna – garden; Satha – hundred; sahasra – thousand; kOtibhi: – crore; AvruthE – filled with. There are hundreds of thousands of crores of gardens in SrivaikuNtam for SrIvaikuNtanAthan (emperumAn or bhagavAn) and nAchimArs (his consorts) for spending their time in an enjoyable way.

athipramANE – beyond measure. It is not possible to define its length and breadth.

dhivya AyathanE – divine temple; SrivaikuNtam itself is like a divine temple whose dimensions are beyond measurement.

kasmimSchith – at some place, which is beyond our thought or imagination or grasp.

vichithra rathnamayEvichithra – of many types; rathnamayE – full of gems.

dhivya AshthAna maNdapEdhivya – divine; AsthAna – assembly; maNdapa – hall. Here the reference is to the court which bhagavAn holds in SrIvaikuNtam when he gives dharshan (audience) to all nithyasUris and mukthAthmAs.

dhivya rathna sthambha Satha sahasra kOtibhi: upaSObithE – the maNdapam (hall) is adorned with hundreds of thousands of pillars (sthamba)made of ruby and such gems.

dhivya nAnA rathna krutha sthala vichithrithE – the sthala (floor) is made of different types of divine, wonderful rubies.

dhivya alankAra alankruthE – the roof of the hall, the screen held in front of emperumAn (bhagavAn) and his pirAttis (consorts) etc have been decorated in an artful way.

paritha: pathithai:paritha – surround; pathitha – fallen. Surrounding the mandapam  (bhagavAn‘s court-hall) are plants and trees from which flowers have fallen on to the ground.

pathamAnai: – flowers are just dropping from the plants and trees.

pAdhapasthaiScha – flowers that are also (still) on the plants and trees. Thus we have flowers that have dropped, that are dropping and that are still blooming. This may be confusing but we should understand that there is no factor called kAla (time) in SrivaikuNtam and hence all these events take place simultaneously for the enjoyment of its inhabitants and bhagavAn and his pirAttis.

nAnA gandha varNai:nAnA – different; gandha – smell; varNa – colour. These flowers are of different scents and colours.

dhivya pushpa SObhamAnai:dhivya – divine; pushpa – flowers; SObhamAna – adorned with. The hall is adorned with various types of flowers having different smells (scents) and different hues of colours.

dhivya pushpa upavanai: upaSObhithE – the place is adorned with such orchards and gardens.

sankIrNa pArijAtha Adhi kalpadhruma upaSObhithai:sankIrNa – mixed. Adorned with trees such as pArijAtham (a type of tree that gives rise to sweet smelling flower (night-flowering coral jasmine)), sandalwood, harichandanam (type of sandal tree) mixed with kalpaka trees.

asankIrNaiScha kaiSchith – also adorned with stand-alone trees (trees that are not mixed with other types).

anthastha pushpa rathna Adhi nirmitha dhivya leelA maNdapa Satha sahaasra upaSObhiththai: – inside the groves, there are different types of maNdapams (halls) such as pushpa maNdapa (flower hall), rathna maNdapa (ruby hall) and which are present in hundreds of thousands of numbers for the divine play of bhagavAn and his consorts.

 We shall continue from where we left in the next part of this chUrNai.

 Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan.

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SrIvaikuNta gadhyam – 2nd chUrNai

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vishnu-lakshmi

avathArikai (Introduction)

Is it that we have to surrender once to bhagavAn and then forget about it? For getting the benefit (whether it is attaining mOksham (SrIvaikuNtam) or carrying out kainkaryam to pirAtti and bhagavAn), it is enough to do surrender once. However, since we continue to live in this samsAram (materialistic realm), we need to remind ourselves that we have surrendered to bhagavAn as the fear of samsAram will continue until we leave it.

This is a one-line chUrNai:

thathaScha prathyaham AthmOjjIvanAya Evam anusmarEth II

Explanatory Note

thathaScha – dhvaya upanishadh says thadhdhvayam sakruthuchchArO bhavathi (this is dvayam; it is said once). SrI rAma in his charama SlOkam (ultimate SlOkam) says sakrudhEva prapannAya (surrendering only once). It is enough if it is recited once as upAyam (the path for reaching bhagavAn). But it demands to be repeated many times over. What is the limit for this?

prathyahamprathi – every; ahas – day. It has to be recited every day. Is repeating this every day being done because of any inadequacy in fulfilment of our effort?

Athma ujjIvanAyaSarIra jIvanam – living in this world for the sake of physical body. Athma jIvanam – living in this world, doing only good things and not indulging in anything not mentioned in SAsthras. Athma ujjIvanam – leaving this world and attaining SrivaikuNtam. For this, AthmA has to constantly keep thinking of bhagavAn. In gAruda purANam, it says that if in a muhUrtham (equivalent of 48 minutes) a person does not think of vAsudhEvan (SrIman nArAyaNan) even for a moment, it will entail terrible harm, great danger, utter confusion. In effect, it means total emaciation of the soul. Can this repetition be done with less effort?

Evam – thus. It should be recited with the same dedication and belief with which it was recited the first time when the person carried out SaraNAgathi (surrendering).

anusmarEth (prathyaham) – We have seen that we should recite this every day. Is it enough if we recite once every day? anusmarEth – keep remembering through the day. Keep remembering without any break as we had seen in SaraNAgathi gadhyam (dhvayam artha anusandhAnena saha sadhA Evam vakthA – keep repeating dhvayam knowing its meaning, all the time). It is to be remembered all 365 days, until we leave this world.

Hence, in order to stick to the path of righteousness and to remind ourselves that we are living in this dreadful samsAram, we have to keep reciting and thinking about SaraNAgathi all the time, every day.

We shall now move on to the 3rd chUrNai.

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Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan.

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SrIvaikuNta gadhyam – 1st chUrNai Part 3

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azhwar-thiruvadi-thozhalnammAzhwAr surrendering to SrIranganAtha

Continuing from the previous part, we shall now see how bhagavadh SrI rAmAnuja describes what  upAyam (the “means” for reaching bhagavAn) is (starting from thasyaiva and ending with charaNAravindha yugalam) and how In the third and last part  how he surrenders (starting from ananyAthma sanjIvanEna and ending with anuvrajEth).

thasyaiva bhagavathO nArAyaNasya –  thasyaiva – as said; bhagavathObhagavAn; nArAyaNasya – that nArAyaNan. Earlier (in part 2 of this chUrNai), we had seen the terms bhagavantham nArAyanAm. There, we had seen the qualities of bhagavAn which were needed for him to be prApyam (be the fruit of surrendering) as well as the holder of these qualities. Here, the qualities for him to be  prApakam (as means for attaining bhagavAn) and the holder of these qualities are described.

akhilasathva dhayaika sAgarasya – ocean of mercy for all. akhilasathva – considering all living beings, without any distinction. dhayA – not able to bear the sufferings of others, without expecting anything for self. EkasAgarasya – the waters of dhayA form an ocean and take refuge only under bhagavAn, and under no one else. Is it that he (bhagavAn) wishes to confirm that others suffer and then feels sad for them? In other words, does he look at the extent of suffering of others? No….

anAlOchitha guNa aguNa akhaNda jana anukUla amaryAdha Seelavatha: – he has a quality, sauSeelya, by which he does not consider the virtues or faults of others. This quality is unlimited and is shown to all people without any distinction.

anAlOchitha – not examining whether granting refuge to a person (who wishes to surrender) is advantageous or not.

guNa aguNa – Describes qualities which are desired and not desired among ASrithars –  the qualities can be ignorant or knowledgeable; believer or atheist; righteous or unjust; humble or immodest.

akhaNda jana – he does not make a distinction among celestial persons, human beings, animals, plants etc when they approach him as an ASrithar. Here the word jana does not denote people as we commonly understand but any one who has a jani (birth) viz. anyone who is living.

anukUla – he guides the ASrithar to go by the correct path and not take difficult paths.

amaryAdha – here maryAdhA means limit. He does not show any limit when showing his magnanimity to his ASrithars.

Seelavatha: – the quality by which a greater person mingles with lowly persons without feeling proud at his own greatness or feeling contemptuous at the lowliness of the others is called as Seela. Seelavatha: denotes that he has this quality for ever. It may be perfectly acceptable for bhagavAn not to consider the faults or virtues of others. But wouldn’t the others be afraid to approach him? No…

dhEva thiryak manushya Adhi akhila jana hrudhaya Anandhanasya – Without any distinction between the wise and the unwise entities, everyone’s heart will melt out of happiness. What is the basis for such an act? There is a special reason and it is ….

svAbhAvika anavadhika athiSaya guNavaththayA – possessing wondrous quality as his nature, without any boundary. SrI rAmAnuja has described already so many qualities of bhagavAn, right from the beginning. What is this new quality that he is now mentioning? The qualities mentioned all along have been qualities of his AthmA (bhagavAn’s soul). The quality that is being mentioned here is that of his thirumEni (physical form). His AthmA guNas may or may not attract others, but the beauty of his physical form is bound to attract everyone. His radiance and delicate gentleness are the qualities that attract others to him. His beauty attracted even a demonic woman such as sUrpaNakA. Same goes true for vanadhEvathAs (angels in the forest) who were attracted to rAma when he entered forest. His beauty appealed not only to the eyes but also to the hearts of both his devotees and his enemies.
But then, does he not give any special status to his ASrithars (followers)? Or does he remain same to everyone?

ASritha vAthsalyaika jaladhE: – He has the quality of vAthsalyam (treating faults as virtues) towards his ASrithars like an ocean. Who is called as an ASrithar? Is it a person like vashisht or nammAzhwAr? In SrI rAmAyaNam, the rishis (sages) tell SrI rAmA when he enters forest that he is their king whether he is in ayOdhyA or in forest, and they are his citizens and hence he has to protect them. Important to note here is that they are not merely living in the country where he is king, but they accept that he is the ruler and they are citizens. In a similar way, it is  not enough if we live in a dhivya dhEsam but we need to accept the he is the bhagavAn and he has to protect us. Then we can be called his ASrithars. Also, anyone who has performed SaraNAgathi once to him and pirAtti (his consort) is an ASrithar. Included in this category is any person who offers something to him with bhakthi (devotion) – a leaf, flower, fruit or water. The leaf need not be thuLasi (basil plant) but even a dried leaf picked up from the street corner, offered with devotion, is enough, says bhagavAn in bhagavadh gIthai. vAthsalya is the quality exhibited by a cow that removes all the dirt from the body of its calf at the time when the calf is born. It does not clean the dirt if the calf comes dirty after 10 or 15 days. In the same way, bhagavAn removes all our past sins on the day when we carry out SaraNAgathi. But if we commit pApa (sinful act) even after performing SaraNAgathi and go to him for forgiving us, he is not going to oblige. Is there any proof that he forgives the sins when we go to him for taking refuge? Again, in SrI rAmAyaNam, when vibhIshNa comes to thiruppullANi shore, SrI rAma says that if a person comes to him with a friendly mind, he will accept him and not let him down, even if the person comes with faults. Eka jaladhE: – bhagavAn is the only shelter to such ASrithars.

Is it that he only gives to his ASrithars? Isn’t there anything in it for him?

bhakthajana samSlEshaika bhOgasyabhakthajana – those who are his devotees, who are friendly towards him; samSlEsham – to be together; Eka – only;  bhOgasya – fit for enjoyment.

bhakthajanabhakthi is carrying out service with affection (friendliness). bhakthajana is anyone who does this.

samSlEshaika bhOgasya – He enjoys being together with such bakthajana. He can not withstand separation from them even for a moment. Just as nammAzhwAr considered thirukkOLUr perumAn as his dhAraka, pOshaka, bhOgyam (that which is essential for life, for growth and for enjoyment respectively), for bhagavAN, his ASrithar becomes his dhAraka, pOshaka and bhOgyam.

nithya gyAna kriya aiSvaryAdhi bhOga sAmagrI samrudhdhasyasAmagri – implements. In order to enjoy anything, one should have gyNa, kriyA and aiSvaryam as implements.

gyAna is knowledge about the bhOga vasthu (that which is to be enjoyed), its svarUpa, rUpa, guNa, chEshtA (activity), prayOjana kAla (when it should be enjoyed).

kriyA is the actual act of enjoying the bhOga vasthu.

aiSvarya – wealth (owning the bhOga vasthu).

sAmagrI is the combination of gyAna, kriya, aiSvarya.

samrudhdhasya – this enjoyment is not something finite or small but huge or plenty.
Even if bhOga vasthu and bhOga sAmagrI are available, wouldn’t one need a bhOgasthAnam (place to enjoy) in order to enjoy the bhOga vasthu?

mahAvibhUthE:maha – huge; vibhUthE – wealth. Here this refers to his SrIvaikuNtam which is three times as large as the entire cosmos (thousands and thousands of aNda katAkam (galaxy)). In order to enjoy the bhOga vasthus, he has a location which is endless and full of happiness. In such a place where he is going  to enjoy the materials (vasthu), does he enjoy singly, like a brahmachAri (bachelor)?

SrImatha: SrImahAlakshmi (his consort); matha: – with. In the river of enjoyment, in order to see the shore and assist him, he has lakshmi (periya pirAtti, his consort) with him. If periya pirAtti is not there, does it mean that he can  not enjoy the material? In what way does she assist him?He is known to be avApthasamasthakAman (one who does not have any unfulfilled desire). Will this term become invalid if she is not there? To understand this, we should understand what is bhagavAn’s bhOgam (enjoyment). It is the ujjIvanam (total sustenance) of all jIvAthmAs (all living beings in materialistic realm, leelA vibhUthi). pirAtti‘s role (or assistance) in this is to be a purushakAra bhUthai (one who recommends the jIvAthmA to bhagavAn for giving mOksham). Do we hold on to such a person himself? No…his

charaNAravindha yugalamtwo lotus-like feet. His exalted feet are our natural goal to attain, source of wondrous enjoyment and they take in everyone who approaches them. Why should we hold on to them?

ananyAthma sanjIvanEnaananya – without substitute; Athma – soul; sanjIvanEna – total sustenance. There is no other path available for the sustenance of jIvAthmA.

thath gatha sarva bhAvEnathath – that; gatha – reach; sarva – all; bhAvEna – manner. Holding on the two exalted feet in all manner (that they will protect, that they will provide enjoyment, that they will purify us etc). What is to be done with these thoughts?

SaraNam anuvrajEth – SaraNam – to surrender; anuvrajEth – to hold on firmly. jIvAthmA has to hold on to his exalted feet as the path to reach him, with firmness in mind. It should also be done with the thought that his feet are to be held firmly, all the time. 

This brings us to the end of 1st chUrNai. Let us move on to the 2nd.

Translation by krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan.

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यतिराज विंशति – श्लोक – ८

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श्रीमते शठकोपाय नमः
श्रीमते रामानुजाय नमः
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यतिराज विंशति     

श्लोक  ७                                                                                                                              श्लोक  ९

श्लोक  ८

दु:खावहोऽहमनिशं तव दुष्टचेष्ट: शब्दादि भोगनिरत: शरणागताख्य: |
त्वत्पादभक्त इव शिष्टजनौघमध्ये मिथ्या चरमि यतिराज ततोऽस्मि मूर्ख: || ८ ||

यतिराज! अहं                       : हे रामानुज! मैं
दुष्ट चेष्ट:                            : बुरे आचरण वाला हूँ;
शब्दादि भोग निरत:              : शब्दादि विषय भोग में रत हूँ;
शरणागताख्य: अनिशं तव     : ‘शरणागत’ अर्थात् ‘प्रपन्न’ नाम धर कर भी सदा आप (के हृदय)
को
दु:खवह:                               : दु:ख पहुँचाता रहता हूँ ;
शिष्ट-जन-ओघ-मध्ये           : शिष्ट लोगों के समूह के मध्य में
त्वत्पाद भक्त इव                 : आपके चरणों के भक्त की तरह
मिथ्या चरमि                       : झूठमूठ घूमता फिरता रहता हूँ
तत: मूर्ख अस्मि                   : इसलिये मैं एक मूर्ख ही हूँ|

हे स्वामीन्! मैं आपका दास हूँ तो भी मैं बुरा चाल चलन रखता हूँ और शब्दादि विषयों के अनुभव करने में लगा हूँ| नाम मात्र के लिए मैं शरणागत हूँ| अपनी इस करनी से मैं सर्वदा मन को दु:ख पहुँचा रहा हूँ| इस प्रकार रहने के कारण यध्यापि आपके भक्त समूह की और झाँकने तक की योग्यता नहीं, तो भी ऐसा ढोंग रचता हूँ मानो मैं आपके चरणों में पारमार्थीक प्रेम रखता हूँ और विलक्षण महापुरूषों की गोष्टी में ढोंगी बनकर ही फिरा करता हूँ| लीजिए, यह मेरी मूर्खता है|

दु:खावहोऽहं आपकी दया के योग्य हूँ| मेरा दु:ख देख कर आप खुद पसीज कर मुझ पर दया कीजिए || ८ ||

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यतिराज विंशति – श्लोक – ७

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श्रीमते रामानुजाय नमः
श्रीमद् वरवरमुनय् नमः

यतिराज विंशति     

श्लोक  ६                                                                                                                               श्लोक  ८

श्लोक  ७

वृत्त्या पशुर्नवपुस्तवहमीद्वशोऽपि श्रुत्यादि सिध्द निखिलात्मगुणा श्रयोऽयम् |
इत्यादरेण कृतिनोऽपि मिथप्रवक्तुमध्यापिवंचनपरोऽत्र यतीन्द्र वर्ते || ७ ||

यतीन्द्र अहं तु                    : हे श्रीरामानुज! मैं तो
नर वपु:                             : मनुष्य शरीर वाला हूँ तो भी
वृत्त्या पशु:                        : अपनी करनी से जानवर ही हूँ
ईद्वश: अपि                      : यध्यपि मैं ऐसा हूँ; तो भी
अत्र अध्य एपीआई             : इस संसार में आज भी
वञ्चनपर: वर्ते                   : इतना वञ्चक ठग हूँ कि
कृतिन: अपि                      : अभिज्ञों महानुभावों को भी
आदरेण                             : आदर के साथ
मिथ: प्रवक्तुम् अयं            : परस्पर यह बोलने को बाध्य करता हूँ कि यह
श्रुति- आदि- सिद्ध-              : श्रुत्यादि में सिद्ध
निखिलात्मगुणाश्रय: इति    : सभी आत्मगुणों का आश्रय है |

पिछले श्लोक में स्वनिकर्ष का अनुसन्धान जो आरब्ध हुआ वह अनुवृत्त होता है| यध्यपि मैं मनुष्य योनि में पैदा होकर मनुष्य शरीर के साथ दिखाई देता हूँ, मेरा आचरण इतना गया बीता है कि उसमें और पशुओं की वृत्ति में कोई भेद नहीं| “ज्ञानेन हीन: पशुभि: समान:” ज्ञान के अनुभव तथा अनुष्ठान के वैकल्य से मैं जानवरों के समान हूँ| यध्यपि वास्तव में यही मेरी स्थिति है, मैं इस तरह का ढोंगी भक्त बना फिरता हूँ कि अभिज्ञ लोग भी मुझे देख कर बोलते हैं कि वेद-वेदान्त-वेदाड्गों में प्रतिपादित सभी आत्मगुणों की ये खान हैं| यह है इनका नैच्यानुसन्धान|

वृत्त्या पशु: – आहार निद्रा आदि में भी कोई नियम मैं नहीं रखता|

कृतिनोऽपि मिथ: प्रवाक्तुम् – यह प्रथमा विभक्ति का बहुवचन नहीं| क्योंकि उसका अन्वय ‘वर्ते’ क्रिया से नहीं हो सकता| इसको कर्म कारक बहुवचन मान कर, ‘प्रवक्तुं’ को (अन्तर्भावित-णिच्) प्रेरणार्थक समझा जा सकता है| ‘प्रवक्तु:’ ऐसा भी पाठ कोई कोई कहते हैं || ७ ||

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यतिराज विंशति – श्लोक – ६

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श्रीः
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यतिराज विंशति     

 श्लोक  ५                                                                                                                                   श्लोक  ७

श्लोक  ६

अल्पापि मे न भवदीयपदाब्जभक्तिः शब्दादिभोगरुचिरन्वहमेधते हा।
मत्पापमेव हि निदानममुष्य नान्यत् तद्वारयार्य यतिराज दयैकसिन्धो ॥ ()

दया एक सिंधो यतिराज  :  सागर जैसा अनंत होते हुए भी अतुलनीय दया रखनेवाले यतिराज
आर्य:                            :  आचार्य
मे                                 : मुझे
भवदीयपदाब्जभक्तिः    :  आपके चरणों में भक्ति
अल्पापि मे न                : लेश मात्र नहीं
शब्दादिभोगरुचि            : रूप , रस, स्पर्श, गन्द जैसे अल्पतर वासनाओं से पीड़ित
अंनवहम  एधते             : प्रतिदिन बढ़ता जाता है
हा                                : हाय (शोक और आश्चर्य से)
अमुष्य निदान              :  धार्मिक चिन्तनों से वियुक्तः अल्पतर विषयों से आकर्षित होने वाले इस स्थिति का मूल कारण
मत्पापमेव                   :  मेरा स्वयं अर्जित पापों ही
अन्यत न                    : और कुछ / कोई भी नहीं
तद वारय                    : उस पापों से विमोचन दीजिये

चौथाई श्लोक में प्रार्थना किये थे कि प्रतिदिन अपने मन श्री रामानुजाचार्य के दिव्य स्वरुप में ही लगाते रहेँ | लेकिन इस श्लोक में अपना मन अभी भी उसके विरुद्ध अन्यत्र विषयों में भटकते रहने को इंगित करते हैं | इस विपरीत स्थिति को हटाने के लिए इस श्लोक में उसका मूल कारण होने वाले अपने असंख्य पापों को हटाने की प्रार्थना करते हैं |

दया माने – अन्यों का कष्ट देख्कर निस्स्वार्थ उससे दुखी होना | श्री रामानुजाचार्य उस दया स्वभाव का सागर होते हैं | “अतुलनीय” का गोपनीय अर्थ होता है कि भगवान श्रीमन नारायण का दया को भी कोई सीमा होगा लेकिन श्री यतिराज के दया का कोई सीमा नहीं |

आर्य माने –

  1. आचार्य शब्ध के समानार्थक मानकर तत्व, हित , पुरुषार्थ को स्पष्टीकरण करनेवाले यानि मोक्षप्राप्ति कारणात्मक श्री रामानुजाचार्य !
  2. “आराध याति इति आर्य” – इस व्युत्पत्ति से वेद में नियमित धर्मी पथ के पास और उससे विरुद्ध अधर्मी पथ से दूर लेनेवाले श्री रामानुजाचार्य!
  3. अरयते – प्राप्यते – सर्व जनों से पुरुषार्थ स्वरूप में प्राप्य लायक श्री रामानुजाचार्य !

हा (शोक और आश्चर्य) माने –

  • शोक का कारण – धार्मिक चिन्तनों से वियुक्तः अल्पतर विषयों से आकर्षित होने वाले स्थिति
  • आश्चर्य का कारण – सीमित सुख देनेवाले शब्दादि विषयों में प्रीति और असीमित सुख देनेवाले यतिराज से अप्रीति करना

मत्पापमेव ही  निदान माने – जो कोई लोग भक्तिमान बन जाते हैं, उनका मोक्षप्राप्ति के लिए भगवान उनका पाप को उनके विरोधियों से लदवाते हैं | मामुनिजी कहते हैं कि उनका पाप ऐसे वाले पाप नहीं जो भगवान अपने स्वतंत्रा से या मुझसे खेलने के लिए लाद लिया गया है, मगर वो सब स्वयं अर्जित किया पाप है | इसका कारण और कोई व्यक्ति या भगवान नहीं |

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పూర్వ దినచర్య – శ్లోకం 3 – సుధానిధి

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శ్రీ:
శ్రీమతే శఠకోపాయ నమ:
శ్రీమతే రామానుజాయ నమ:
శ్రీమద్వరవరమునయే నమ:

శ్రీ వరవరముని దినచర్య

శ్లోకం 3

సుధానిధి మివ స్వైర స్వీక్రుతో దగ్ర విగ్రహం !

ప్రసన్నార్క ప్రతికాశ  ప్రకాశ పరివేష్టితం ! !

ప్రతి పదార్థము:

స్వైర స్వీక్రుత ఉదగ్ర విగ్రహం _  తనకిష్టమైన స్వరూపమును తానే స్వీకరించిన అందమైన విగ్రహ రూపుడైన

సుధానిధి మివ (సతితం) _పాల కడలి వంటి తెల్లని వర్ణము గల వాడు

ప్రతికాశ  ప్రకాశ పరివేష్టితం _ (రెప్ప వేయ కుండా చూడవలసిన) ప్రకాశాముగాను చల్లగాను, ఉండే సూర్యుని (అటువంటి వాడొకడుంటే )వంటి కాంతి స్వరూపుడు

భావము:

శిష్యుడు ఆచార్యుని దేహమును పాదాది కేశ పర్యంతము ధ్యానించాలి అని, శిష్యుడు ఆచార్యుని దేహమునకు సేవ చేసుకోవాలి అన్న సూత్రమునకు నిరూపణగా ఇక్కడ ఆచార్యుల దేహమును వర్ణిస్తున్నారు. మామునులు తెల్లని అనంతుని అవాతరమగుట వలన  తనకిష్టమైన స్వరూపమును తానే స్వీకరించిన అందమైన విగ్రహ రూపుడుగా వర్ణింప బడ్డారు .పాల కడలి  ప్రకాశము పరిమితమైనందున   సూర్యుని  కాంతిని మామునులకు  ఉపమానముగా గ్రహించారు. సూర్యుని  కాంతి ఉగ్రముగా వుంటుంది కావున ఆదోషమును తొలగించడానికి ‘ప్రసన్న ‘  అనే విశేషణమును స్వీకరించారు. అనగా తేటగా, చల్లగా ఉండే సూర్యుడొకడుంటే ఆయన లాగా మామునులున్నారని అతిశయోక్తి అలంకారమును ప్రయోగించారు.

అడియేన్ చూడామణి రామానుజ దాసి

Source: http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org/index.php/2015/09/purva-dhinacharya-tamil-3/

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