SrI: SrImathE SatakOpAya nama: SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama: SrImath varavaramunayE nama:
411) pruthu: (पृथुः)
bhagavAn is magnanimous even in terms of fame, and hence called ‘pruthu:’ – the famous one.
The root ‘pratha’ (प्रथ) comes in the context of fame and gets the ‘ku’ (कु) adjunct per grammatical rules, thus resulting in this divine name.
SrImath rAmAyana hails bhagavAn thus:
- “He is the one with wealth of fame; He is the son of the ruler (dhaSaratha)”
- “He is famous among the people by the name ‘rAma’”
- “rAma is the most famous in this world”
- “He is the sole entity eligible of popularity”, etc.
Etymology: Since bhagavAn’s fame is exceedingly high, he is called ‘pruthu:’ by the learned.
यशॊविस्तारवत्त्वाच्च पृथुरित्युच्यतॆ बुधैः |
412) hiraNyagarbha: (हिरण्यगर्भः) (also repeated in 71)
Even to the souls who are being born in this world after his lifetime on this earth, since rAma is easily accessible by other means such as meditation etc, he is called ‘hiraNyagarbha:’ – the one with a golden hue in the minds of people.
bhagavAn considers the minds of his devotees as the most beneficial and most desirable place for him to reside, and thus he resides there as the most auspicious object for their meditation. Alternately, he is well hidden from the view of common people, and is comparable to glittering gold due to his shining hue. Thus, he is aptly called ‘hiraNyagarbha:’.
The same purport is also shown in the manthra varNas thus: “That indweller of all souls is indeed to be meditated”
Etymology: bhagavAn rAma resides in the hearts of his devotees considering them to be the most beneficial and likeable place for him, and is indeed the most auspicious object for their meditation. Thus, he is called ‘hiraNyagarbha:’. Alternately, he is called thus since he can be likened to glittering gold due to his shining hue.
हितस्य रमणीयस्य ध्यातॄणां हृदयस्य हि |
हिरण्यगर्भस्वन्तस्थः स शुभाश्रयणः स्मृतः |
यद्वा हिरण्यगर्भॊsसौ हिरण्यनिधिसाम्यतः ||
413) Sathrughna: (शत्रुघ्नः)
bhagavAn prevents all such devotees who meditate upon him from falling into the coop of materialistic pursuits by controlling their senses that act like rAvana with his powerful bows called ‘intellect’. Thus, he is called ‘Sathrughna:’ – the slayer of enemies.
The root ‘han’ (हन्) means to kill, and it gets the ‘tak’ (टक्) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘ghna:’.
The sAthvatha samhithA says the same thing while meditating upon bhagavAn: “He is the one who controls and pacifies the rAkshasa with ten heads (rAvana) namely the ten sense organs with his bows of intellect”
Etymology: He who slays the enemies called ‘senses’ (of those who meditate upon him) is called ‘Sathrughna:’.
शत्रून् इन्द्रियवर्गान् यॊ हन्ति शत्रुघ्न उच्यतॆ |
414) vyAptha: (व्याप्तः)
bhagavAn displays his affection towards the innocent, aged, masters, servants, enemies, friends and everyone else alike. Hence, he is called ‘vyAptha:’ – the loving one.
This is as shown in the SrImath rAmAyana thus:
- “rAma enquires about the well being of the residents of ayOdhyA, just as he would enquire his own kinsmen”
- “rAma enquires the brAhmaNas about their children, their duties (agnikAryam, etc), their families, their disciples, et al, just as a loving father would enquire from his son”
- “rAma is affectionate even about his enemies”, etc.
Etymology: The one who is highly revered by everyone alike (with no difference of high class, low class, et al) due to his unbiased affection towards them is called ‘vyAptha:’.
सर्वपूज्यॊsविशॆषॆण व्यापनाद्व्याप्त उच्यतॆ |
415) vAyu: (वायुः)
Further, bhagavAn is called ‘vAyu:’, since he only goes to every place in order to meet every individual soul.
The root ‘vA’ (वा) gets the ‘uN’ (उण्) adjunct as per grammatical rules, resulting in this divine name.
SrImath rAmAyana hails thus:
- “That slayer of enemies and the one with extreme effulgence went to Sabari’s ASrama”
- “…having reached the ASrama of bharadhvAja…”
- “…having reached guha’s residence…”, et al.
Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘vAyu:’ since he only goes to every place to meet all of his dear devotees such as bharadvAja, guha, Sabari, et al.
तत्र तत्र स्थितान् सर्वान् भरद्वाजगुहादिकान् |
गच्छति स्वयमॆवैतान् स वायुरिति शब्द्यतॆ ||
416) adhOkshaja: (अधॊक्षजः)
Although bhagavAn is being experienced by every individual soul continuously, yet he is like the ocean of nectar that never diminishes. Hence, he is called ‘adhOkshaja:’.
The same trait is shown in SrImath rAmAyana thus:
- “I know you to be superior to dhEvas, the slayer of demon named ‘madhu’, and the one whose greatness never diminishes”
- “rAma, your fame never diminishes”, etc.
Etymology: Although being experienced by everyone continuously, yet bhagavAn’s greatness never diminishes – just like the nectarine ocean, because of which he is called ‘adhOkshaja:’.
सदॊपभुज्यमानॊsपि सर्वैरमृतसिन्धुवत् |
अधॊ न क्षीयतॆ जातु यस्मात् तस्मादधॊक्षजः ||
ऋतुः सुदर्शनः कालः परमॆष्ठी परिग्रहः ।
उग्रः संवत्सरॊ दक्षॊ विश्रामॊ विश्वदक्षिणः ॥ ४५ ॥
417) ruthu: (ऋतुः)
bhagavAn always moves his devotees with his ever growing delighting auspicious divine qualities. Hence, he is called ‘ruthu:’ – the one who moves.
The root ‘ru’ ऋ (to move) gets the ‘thu’ (तु) adjunct, resulting in this divine name. For the same reason, even the seasons like vasantha, shishira, etc get their name as ‘ruthu’.
SrImath rAmAyana glorifies this attribute of bhagavAn thus:
“The denizens of ayOdhya delighted in the presence of rAma just as much as the people suffering from the scorching heat of summer would cherish the rains”
Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘Ruthu:’ since he moves his devotees with his ever delightful qualities.
ऋच्छतीति ऋतुः प्रॊक्तः सर्वॊल्लासकरैर्गुणैः |
418) sudharSana: (सुदर्शनः)
Even the ignorant souls who are not aware of the greatness of rAma’s divine qualities are attracted by the sheer beauty of rAma. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘sudharSana:’ – the beautiful one.
SrImath rAmAyana hails bhagavAn beauty in all possible ways thus:
- “He is as beautiful as the moon”
- “He is the only one in this world who always appears very pleasing to the eyes”, etc
Etymology: He whose form is itself auspicious (and attractive) for the ignorant ones is called “sudharSana:”.
मन्दानां च शुभं यस्य दर्शनं स सुदर्शनः |
419) kAla: (कालः)
With such divine beauty and auspicious qualities, since bhagavAn attracts every single soul towards himself, he is called ‘kAla:’.
Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘kAla:’ since he draws every single soul towards himself by displaying his divine qualities and form.
चराचराणां कलनात् कालः स्वस्मिन् गुणैरसौ |
420) paramEshtI (परमॆष्ठी)
Thus, after having hunted down the demons for the sake of protecting the world, since bhagavAn gets back to his supreme abode, he is called ‘paramEshtI’.
The word ‘parama:’ (परमः) refers to the supreme abode SrI vaikuNtam. The root ‘sthA’ स्था (to stand) is adjoined with ‘parama’, and gets the ‘ini’ (इनि) adjunct, resulting in this divine name. By grammatical rules, the ‘sthA’ (स्था) gets converted to ‘shta’ (ष्ठ).
SrImath rAmAyana says thus: “rAma, along with his divine body and followers, ascended to his supreme effulgence of SrI vaikuNtam”
The same feat is also hailed in mahAbhAratha thus: “Thus, oh king, the scion of the ikshvAku clan SrI rAma ascended to the supreme abode after having slain rAvana and all of his followers” (sabha parva)
Etymology: Since bhagavAn resides in paramapadham (after the end of incarnation as SrI rAma), he is called ‘paramEshtI’.
परॆ पदॆ स्थितत्वाच्च परमॆष्ठी प्रकीर्तितः |
adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan
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