Daily Archives: December 23, 2019

thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 43 – mAsaRu sOdhi

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Essence of thiruvAimozhi 5.3

Introduction

In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of performing madal due to not enjoying the physical beauty of emperumAn which was spoken about previously and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? AzhwAr, after reforming others and performing mangaLASAsanam to them, thought about emperumAn’s saundharyam etc as said in thiruvAimozhi 5.2.11maliyum sudaroLi mUrththi mAyap pirAn kaNNan” (krishNa, who is having radiant splendorous form, amazing qualities and activities), started feeling his earlier pain, and became stunned due to the overwhelming taste in the result (of enjoying him), thinking “even by engaging in illegal ways, even by harming both (him and me), let us unite with him”, remained teary-eyed. This state of AzhwAr is explained by him in the mood of a pirAtti (consort of emperumAn) who united with him and separated, being anguished, without realising what is being done, to be blamed by everyone, set out to perform madal saying “I will cause disrepute to him, and destroy both him and me”; mAmunigaL mercifully explains this principle explained in thiruvAimozhi 5.3 “mAsaRu sOdhi” starting with “mAsaRu sOdhi“.

pAsuram

mAsaRu sOdhi kaNNan vandhu kalavAmaiyAl
Asai migundhu pazhikkanjAmal – EsaRavE
maNNil madal URa mARan orumiththAn
uNNadungath thAn piRandha Ur

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word-by-word meanings

mAsu aRu sOdhi – one who has unblemished splendour
kaNNan – emperumAn
vandhu kalavAmaiyAl – due to not coming and uniting
Asai migundhu – the love increased
pazhikku anjAmal – not fearing for the accusations (of townspeople)
Esu aRa – crossing the boundary of being scolded
thAn piRandha Ur – the people in the town in which he was born
uL nadunga – to have their hearts tremble
maNNil madal Ura – to perform madal on this earth
mARAn orumiththAn – AzhwAr set out

Simple Translation

AzhwAr set out to perform madal on this earth to cause trembling in the townspeople of the town in which was born, not fearing for the accusations and after having crossed the boundary of being scolded, as his love increased towards emperumAn who has unblemished splendour and who did not come and unite with AzhwAr.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • mAsaRu sOdhi kaNNan vandhu kalavAmaiyAl Asai migundhu – krishNa who has a very attractive form as said in thiruvAimozhi 5.2.11maliyum sudaroLi mUrththi mAyap pirAn kaNNan” (krishNa, who is having radiant splendorous form, amazing qualities and activities), “en seyyavAy – mAsaRu sOdhi – maNikkunRam” (reddish mouth, unblemished form and mountain made of precious stones) [1st pAsuram], “nam kaNNan” (our obedient krishNa) [4th pAsuram], matching his true nature, did not come forward on his own and give enjoyment to AzhwAr; due to that, AzhwAr’s love greatly increased as he mercifully said in:
    • pAsaRaveydhi (having lost freshness/complexion in my body) [1st pAsuram]
    • en seyya vAyum karungaNNum payappUrndha (my reddish mouth and blackish eyes have acquired a pale complexion) [2nd pAsuram]
    • pErndhum peyarndhum avanOdanRi Or sollilen (I am not having any word other than being with emperumAn) [3rd pAsuram]
    • kAdhal kadal puraiya viLaiviththa (abundant ocean like devotion to occur) [4th pAsuram]
    • kodiya en nenjam avan enRE kidakkum (my cruel heart will remain considering “he is the only refuge”) [5th pAsuram]
    • maNivaNNan vAsudhEvan valaiyuL – agappattEn (I have been caught in an inescapable manner in the web of emperumAn who is the son of vasudhEva and who is having an attractive blue gem like beautiful form) [6th pAsuram]
    • thalaiyil vaNangavumAngolO (can we bow our head to emperumAn?) [7th pAsuram]
    • ennAL kolO? yAm uRuginRadhu (when will we attain him?) [8th pAsuram]

Due to such increased love,

  • pazhikkanjAmal – The townspeople, mothers et al stop her, seeing that she [parAngusa nAyaki] is setting out to perform madal, saying “this will cause disrepute to our whole clan”. Since she would only become more focussed on her goal on hearing such accusations, she did not fear and she considered those accusations as her support. That is, when sIthAp pirAtti was stopped from accompanying SrI rAma to forest by him mercifully saying as in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 28.8 “sIthE thasmAdhdhu:khamathO vanam” (Oh, sIthA! That is why living in forest is uncomfortable), as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 27.6 “agrathasthE gamishyAmi” (I shall go [to forest] before you) and in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 33.8 “yAnaSakyApurAdhrashtum bUthairAkASakairapi | thAmadhya sIthAm paSyanthi rAja mArga gathA janA:||” (That sIthA who could not be seen by the great elements too, could be seen even by people walking on the royal route), she did not care for the words which stop her, as said in
    • Uravar kavvai thOzhi en seyyum (What will the shouting that is fixed on scolding/blaming me by the citizens, do [to me]?) [1st pAsuram]
    • en seyyum Uravar kavvai thOzhi ini nammai (Oh friend! Now, what will the accusations of the people do to us?) [2nd pAsuram]
    • thIrndha en thOzhi en seyyum Uravar kavvaiyE? (Oh friend who is having a fixated heart which reflects mine! What will the accusations of the people do to me?) [3rd pAsuram]
    • Uravar kavvai eru vittu annai sol nIr paduththu (used the accusations of people as manure and mother’s constant advise as water) [4th pAsuram]
    • annai en seyyumE? (What will my mother do? ) [5th pAsuram]
    • annai en seyyil en Ur en sollil en? thOzhimIr! (Oh friends! What does it matter for whatever my mother does? What does it matter for whatever the people of the town say?) [6th pAsuram]
  • pazhikkanjAmal EsaRavE – Having crossed the boundary of fearing for others’ scoldings which could cause disrepute. Alternatively – to have everyone in anguish. Alternatively, it is recited as “EsavE“, to be scolded by them with accusations.
  • maNNil madal URa mARan orumiththAn uL nadungath thAn piRandha Ur – That is, as said in “kudhiriyAy madal UrdhumE” (be a shameless girl who cannot be controlled by anyone and will engage in madal) [9th pAsuram] and “nAdum iraikkavE – yAmadalUrndhum” (Without shyness matching our femininity in any manner, we will even engage in madal) [10th pAsuram], to agitate the whole world, AzhwAr set out to perform madal. To cause trembling in the hearts of the people of the town where he took birth on seeing his extraordinary act. As mAmunigaL also incarnated in this town, he too is trembling thinking “where will this end?”

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 85 (Names 841 to 850)

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841) kruSa: (कृशः)

Being lighter than cotton, air and other light objects, bhagavAn is capable of moving to any place of his wish. Therefore, he is called ‘kruSa:’.

The root ‘kruS’ (कृश्) means to permeate. By grammatical rules, it gets the ‘ka’ adjunct, resulting in this divine name. Contextually, this attribute of ability to permeate everywhere (kruSimA कृशिमा) is known to connote the attribute of bhagavAn being very light (laghimA लघिमा).

This attribute of bhagavAn is hailed in SrI mahAbhAratha thus: “He (bhagavAn) is beyond comprehension and control of lowly mortals. He is the one who controls every entity, and is capable of reaching any place of his desire”.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘kruSa:’ due to his incomparable lightness with which he moves about freely to all places (without any hindrance).

सर्वत्राव्याहतगतिर्लघिम्ना कृश ईरितः |

842) sthUla: (स्थूलः)

Even while stationed in one place, bhagavAn can still touch every entity anywhere without any obstacles or limitations. For instance, he can touch the moon even while being on the earth. Due to this special power, bhagavAn is called ‘sthUla:’. (NOTE: This divine name represents the power of bhagavAn called ‘garimA’ (गरिमा), which means to possess a huge form)

By grammatical rules, the root ‘stha’ (स्थ) gets the ‘ulach’ (ऊलच्) adjunct, resulting in this divine name.

The vEdhas say thus: “He is the one who stands firmly, having acquired every entity”

Etymology: He, who possesses the great power to touch every entity in every place even while being stationed in a single place, is called ‘sthUla:’.

स्थित्वैकत्राखिलं स्प्रष्टुं शक्तिर्या महती सदा |
तया प्रकृष्टया शक्त्या विशिष्टः स्थूल उच्यतॆ ||

843) guNabhruth (गुणभृत्)

With his mere thought, bhagavAn bears the entire creation as easily as his own qualities. Therefore, he is called ‘guNabhruth’. This shows his distinct mastership over all entities.

This is as per the scriptures, which hail thus: “He is the controller of all; and also the master of all”.

Etymology: With his mere thought, the one who bears the creation in its entirety as easily as his own divine qualities is called ‘guNabhruth’.

सङ्कल्पात् स्वगुणीभूतसर्वावस्थमिदं जगत् |
कुर्वन् बिभर्ति नित्यं यॊ गुणभृत् स स्मृतॊ बुधैः ||

844) nirguNa: (निर्गुणः)

Although bhagavAn bears the entire creation thus, he is not influenced by the blemishes therein. So he is untouched by the mixture of three qualities (namely saththva, rajas and thamas) inherent in this material creation. This supreme independence is shown in this divine name ‘nirguNa:’ – the one who is untouched by faulty qualities.

This divine name only indicates his supreme mastery.

The vEdhas hail thus: “He is the one who controls the entire world”

The vishNu purANa also hails thus: “The mixture of qualities namely saththva, rajas and thamas do not exist in that supreme brahman. These (mixture of qualities) are inherent only to this material nature”

Etymology: Although associated with the material world so closely (as seen in the previous divine name), since bhagavAn is still untouched by the blemishes (of mixture of qualities) therein, he is called ‘nirguNa:’. This seven lettered manthra confers purity upon the chanter.

स्थितॊsप्यतद्वश्यतया जगत्यस्पर्शनात् गुणैः |
उक्तः स निर्गुण इति सप्तार्णः पावनत्वदः ||

845) mahAn (महान्)

Furthermore, bhagavAn manifests and disappears in this material world as and when he wishes, just like taking a dip in water bodies. None of his desires go unfulfilled. Since he shows this trait in a very manifest way in all his incarnations, he is called ‘mahAn’.

This is as shown in the scriptures thus:

“In this world full of entities that can either be united or separated, bhagavAn Sowri – the son of vasudhEva – does all that he wishes, without the least bit of effort (he does it by his mere thought, called ‘sankalpaSakthi’)”

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘mahAn’, since he shows his abject mastery in fulfilling his desires by manifesting in this material world (as and when he desires), as though taking a dip in a great pond. The chanting of this six lettered manthra confers all desires upon the chanter.

भूम्यां महानीर इव ह्युन्मज्जननिमज्जनात् |
महान् प्राकाम्यसंपूर्त्या षडर्णस्तु महत्त्वदः ||

846) adhrutha: (अधृतः)

How does bhagavAn fulfil his desires in this material world (in other words, How does he manifest)? There are four ways identified for this purpose. They are as follows: a) Getting close to a person like their own shadow, and controlling them; b) getting into the minds of those who meditate upon him; c) getting into the physical body – both when an individual soul is present within it, as well as after it has left the body; and d) manifesting in his own accord (in various places with his divine supernatural body, as well as in the form of archA or worshipped idols). The learned have identified these four ways in which bhagavAn fulfils his desire of manifesting in this world.

With such a magnanimous trait – representing his universal form, bhagavAn shows that he is not controlled even the slightest bit by any external agency. Thus, he is called ‘adhrutha:’ – the one who is not supported by anyone else. Such abject independence is indeed one of his supreme traits as the master of all.

It is with this abject independence that our elders have shown that the children of a vaidhika (brahmin) were taken by bhagavAn to his eternal abode SrIvaikuNtam (which is otherwise impossible to reach by an ordinary soul bound by karma), from where he brought them back to this material world at the request of the brahmin (which is again not possible by ordinary souls on their own accord after they have reached SrIvaikuNtam).

Furthermore, his abject independence is shown to the extent that he can even destroy the sentient and insentient entities altogether if he so desires. But it is also shown in the same scriptures that he would not do this at any cost, also out of his own free will. This proves the eternity of sentient and insentient entities (in terms of existence) as well.

Etymology: He who is not controlled by anyone is called ‘adhrutha:’.

यश्चानियाम्यः कॆनाsपि ह्यधृतः स तु कीर्तितः |

847) svadhrutha: (स्वधृतः)

bhagavAn’s possession of the said eight sidhdhis (connoted in the last eight divine names) is different from the ‘sidhdhi’s or powers gained by ordinary bounded souls (badhdhAthmAs) in the sense that these are natural traits of bhagavAn; whereas the bounded souls (in this samsAra) would need to take the help of various external means such as contemplation (thapas), herbs (Oshadhi) and communion (samAdhi) to master these powers.

This natural possession of these powers by bhagavAn is shown in this divine name ‘svadhrutha:’, which means he has all these powers by himself.

Etymology: He, who possesses the eight special powers naturally, is called ‘svadhrutha:’.

स्वभावतॊ धृतैश्वर्यः स्वधृतः परिकीर्तितः |

848) svAsya: (स्वास्यः)

Thereafter, the divine name ‘svAsya:’ differentiates bhagavAn’s position from the liberated souls (mukthAthmAs).

The word ‘AsyAm’ (आस्याम्) means ‘position’. This word gets the ‘anj’ (अञ्) adjunct, resulting in the word ‘Asya:’. Since the position of bhagavAn is very auspicious (in comparison with the liberated souls), he is called ‘svAsya:’ (su+Asya:).

How is the position of liberated souls inferior to that of bhagavAn? It is because the status gained by such liberated souls due to the complete expansion of knowledge in the liberated state (which is natural to any individual soul) is still faulty in the sense that the same knowledge was covered or bound by ignorance in samsAra at some point in time. But such fault is not to be found with bhagavAn’s powers. Therefore, his position is superior to that of the liberated souls.

Etymology: He is called ‘svAsya:’, whose position is auspicious/superior (in comparison with that of the liberated souls).

आसनं शॊभनं यस्य स स्वास्य इति कथ्यतॆ |

849) prAgvamSa: (प्राग्वंशः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn’s position is differentiated from that of even the ever liberated souls (nithyAthmAs).

As hailed in the purusha sUktha which says “in that place, where all dhEvas (nithyasUris) reside from time immemorial”, the ever liberated souls (nithyas) are referred to as the eternal souls (प्राञ्चः). bhagavAn is referred to as their ‘vamSa’, which means he is the basis for the manifestation of such eternally liberated souls. Therefore, he is called ‘prAgvamSa:’.

It is a proven fact beyond any doubts that everything and everyone is under the control of bhagavAn at every instant.

All this (said in the last three divine names) is summarized in the vishNu purANa concisely thus: “Oh maithrEya, how shall I hail the divine powers and qualities of bhagavAn, which are natural to him, unparalleled and supreme?”

Etymology: The eternally liberated souls are called ‘prAncha:’ (प्राञ्चः). He, who is the base for their tribe, is called ‘prAgvamSa:’.

अनादिमुक्ताः प्राञ्चॊ यस्तॆषामुद्भवभूमिदः |
प्राग्वंश इति विख्यातः सप्तार्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

850) vamSavardhana: (वंशवर्धनः)

Furthermore, bhagavAn is the one who nurtures the tribe of nithyasUris. Hence, he is called ‘vamSavardhana:’. The word ‘vamSa’ (वंशः) here refers to the tribe of nithyasUris mentioned in the previous divine name, who are all verily his children. This divine name shows that bhagavAn fosters such eternal individual souls.

The scriptures have hailed thus: “I bow to that supreme lord, who has infinite children (nithyasUris)”.

Etymology: The class of nithyasUris is called ‘vamSa:’, who are all his children. Since bhagavAn is the one who fosters them all, he is called ‘vamSavardhana:’.

नित्यसिद्धस्य वर्गॊ यॊ वंशं सन्तानलक्षणम् |
तं वर्धयति यश्चासौ वंशवर्धन उच्यतॆ ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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