Daily Archives: November 30, 2019

thiruvAimozhi – 10.5 – kaNNan kazhaliNai

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Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

See nampiLLai’s introduction.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

In the fifth decad, AzhwAr explained the nature of bhakthi [yOgam] which is a tool for enjoyment, and to explain further about the qualities of such bhakthi, highlights the following aspects about the worshippable sarvESvaran:

  1. his distinguished name, which is the identity for the [distinguished ashtAkshara] manthram
  2. his having qualities which are revealed in the meanings of the name
  3. his activities such as creation
  4. his reclining on the ocean as a refuge for others
  5. he being the grantor of liberation
  6. his easy approachability for the sake of protecting others
  7. he being the means and goal,
  8. he being enjoyable for great personalities
  9. he being easily approachable for those who fully seek nothing but him
  10. his greatness in protecting his devotees

Meditating upon these aspects, AzhwAr says “If one enjoys such sarvESvara, meditating upon the principles highlighted in the aforementioned manthra, worshipping him with materials such as flowers, with all the three faculties (mind, body and speech), all the hurdles will go away on their own; ultimate goal will also be attained” and briefly concludes the process of bhakthi yOgam which leads to the goal, to be understood clearly.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nampiLLai‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction

In the previous decad, AzhwAr explained how bhakthi [yOgam] led to its goal; AzhwAr sees that emperumAn is not patient to let the process work and is eager to take AzhwAr to paramapadham; that is – what is said in thiruvAimozhi 9.10.5 “maraNamAnAl” (on death) is considered to be too long by emperumAn, and does not wait till that time and desires to take AzhwAr to paramapadham – thinking about this, AzhwAr thinks further “as it is inevitable for me to leave, as the residents of this world should know the mood and activities of bhakthimAns (devotees practicing bhakthi yOgam), let us advice them”. AzhwAr is as merciful as emperumAnAr [Though emperumAnAr is after AzhwAr, since AchAryas have closer proximity with emperumAnAr, they can relate to AzhwAr by comparing him with emperumAnAr]. AzhwAr thinks “Why should they be missing out on this?” and started giving advice on the nature of such bhakthi; since emperumAn is eagerly waiting to take AzhwAr to paramapadham, and since those who listen to this should become faithful, AzhwAr made the pAsurams brief and started instructing the following aspects:

  • the divine name to hold on for such bhakthi
  • the manthra which is to be meditated/uttered for those who engage in this
  • the means for mOksham is meditation upon the meaning of the manthram
  • perform bhakthi in the aforementioned manner
  • surrender unto him with all the three faculties (mind, speech and body)
  • he is easily approachable for those who surrender unto him in this manner
  • he is easily worshippable since he is Sriya:pathi
  • the one (SrI mahAlakshmi) who facilitates such surrender and presents AthmA’s efforts in grand manner to emperumAn is with him
  • while surrendering one need not have any specific qualification, one who has ruchi (taste) is qualified to surrender unto him
  • serve him with materials such as flowers etc
  • as you surrender unto him, all your hurdles will be gone

Explaining in this manner, AzhwAr advises saying “we (I) will not remain here even a few more days, and as my leaving this world is inevitable, everyone listen to this and accept the same” and with this, concludes with advice to others, which was started by him [in the beginning].

Each pAsuram is discussed subsequently.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 68 (Names 671 to 680)

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671) brahmavith (ब्रह्मवित्)

The vEdhas, which expound such ‘dharma’s is also called ‘brahma’. This is shown by the vEdhas themselves when they say “brahma is ought to be studied”, etc.

Such vEdhas are infinite. The scriptures have shown this fact as “vEdhas are indeed infinite”. Yet, bhagavAn confines them into a limit and knows them completely. Thus, he is called ‘brahmavith’ – the knower of brahma (vEdhas).

The scriptures confirm this by saying thus: “The eternal vEdhas called ‘brahma’ are not known by either the dhEvas or rishis. They are known only by that bhagavAn nArAyaNa himself, who is the creator of all”.

Etymology: He who knows the infinite vEdhas in their entirety is called ‘brahmavith’.

यॊ वॆदानन्ततॊ वॆत्ति स ब्रह्मविदुदीरितः |

672) brAhmaNa: (ब्राह्मणः)

In order to establish the vEdhas in their true purport and publicise them, bhagavAn himself incarnates as a brAhmaNa in various forms such as dhaththAthrEya et al in various clans such as in athri’s clan, etc. Thus, he is called ‘brAhmaNa:’.

The meaning of this word ‘brAhmaNa:’ is shown by the etymologists as “the one who attains the supreme brahman himself, as well as leads other souls to that supreme brahman”.

Etymology: He who incarnates as a brAhmaNa in various places such as dhaththAthrEya, et al is called ‘brAhmaNa:’. Alternately, since he reads the vEdhas, he is called ‘brAhmaNa:’.

दत्तात्रॆयादि रूपॆण ह्युदीर्णॊ ब्राह्मणः स्मृतः |
पठनाद्वाsथ वॆदस्य ब्राह्मणः परिकीर्तितः ||

673) brahmI (ब्रह्मी)

In this way (as shown in some of the previous divine names), bhagavAn himself is the owner of the pramANa (means of knowledge – vEdhas) and pramEya (the object of such knowledge – the entities). Thus, he is called ‘brahmI’ – the owner of brahma.

The scriptures say “That hari possesses everything which is called ‘brahma’ ”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn himself possesses the form of the means as well as the object of knowledge, he is called ‘brahmI’.

मानमॆयस्वरूपत्वात् स्वयं ब्रह्मीति शब्द्यतॆ |

674) brahmagya: (ब्रह्मज्ञः)

Not just stopping at knowing all the infinite vEdhas (as shown in one of the previous divine names – ‘brahmavith’), bhagavAn also understands them in their true purport. Thus, he is called ‘brahmagya:’.

bhagavAn himself declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “I am only the knower of vEdhas in their true purport”.

Etymology: He who knows the infinite vEdhas in their true purport is called ‘brahmagya:’.

यॊ वॆदान् अर्थतॊ वॆत्ति सॊsयं ब्रह्मज्ञ ईरितः |

675) brAhmaNapriya: (ब्राह्मणप्रियः)

The individual souls who have also mastered the vEdhas are called ‘brAhmaNa’s. Such people are dear to bhagavAn. Hence, he is called ‘brAhmaNapriya:’.

The scriptures have shown thus:

  • “Just as I treat him – who kills, who curses, who speaks harsh words, and who doesn’t respect the brAhmaNas…” (this statement shows how bhagavAn considers disrespecting brAhmaNas on par with other offences), etc.
  • “The sincere devotees who follow these nectarine teachings of mine in their true spirit are extremely dear to me”
  • “…that which emanated from the mouth of a brAhmaNa…”
  • “I shall win over all asuras with the help of the blessings of a vipra”
  • “…what more is to be said about a holy brAhmaNa?…”, etc

In this way, the brAhmaNas are hailed in many places infinitely.

To further illustrate, the scriptures have said thus:

  • “…he who is greater than the great souls…”
  • “…he who is superior to all great souls, and who is bigger than the big entities…”
  • “…that great soul, who is omniscient…”
  • “…he who is superior and bigger than all big entities…”, etc.

Etymology: The masters of vEdhas are called ‘vipra’s. Such souls are dear to bhagavAn at all times. Thus, bhagavAn is called ‘brAhmaNapriya:’. This nine lettered manthra confers righteousness upon the chanter.

वॆदाधिकारिणॊ विप्राः प्रिया अस्यॆति वै सदा |
ब्राह्मणप्रिय इत्युक्तॊ नवार्णॊ धर्मदॊ मनुः ||

==============================
महाक्रमॊ महाकर्मा महातॆजा महॊरगः ।
महाक्रतुर्महायज्वा महायज्ञॊ महाहविः ॥ ७२ ॥
==============================

676) mahAkrama: (महाक्रमः)

He showers his infinite affection upon those who are enthusiastic about attaining bhagavAn thus. bhagavAn is in an extremely high position, and the souls born in this material creation are at the bottom of an abyss. Yet, he enables such fallen souls to attain his highest self by means of a great flight of stairs connoting a sequence of knowledge and devotion leading up to bhagavAn. Thus, he is called ‘mahAkrama:’ – the one who lays a great path for his devotees to traverse.

This is akin to a mother suckling her child at the beginning, subsequently moving on to the cow’s milk, and then mild food, and finally feeding it with all delicacies. Similarly, bhagavAn also has a sequence of occurrences for uniting a fallen soul with himself, starting with identifying a good deed for that soul, removing aversion towards himself, generating trust in vEdhas, creating interest towards himself, making them follow his words, and thereby generating knowledge, finally maturing such knowledge into devotion – which subsequently brings that soul close to himself. bhagavAn does all these in order to uplift a fallen soul as well as to enable such an uplifted soul to serve him.

Otherwise, the scriptures show the adverse consequences thus:

“If a soul doesn’t traverse the path laid down by bhagavAn, such a soul deserves to be ever bound in this samsAra, covered with ignorance at all times”

That is why it is said thus: “When the individual souls have reduced their sins greatly by practicing thapas and with undivided contemplation of bhagavAn in thousands of births, only then the true devotion unto bhagavAn krishNa is born in them”

bhagavAn himself declares thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “The knowledgeable soul surrenders unto me only at the end of many of births”, “Oh arjuna, wish to attain me by constant practice”, etc.

Etymology: He is called ‘mahAkrama:’, who has laid down a sequential path of knowledge, devotion, etc as verily the flight of stairs to uplift a fallen soul from the depth of samsAra to unite such a soul with himself – who is the greatest of all souls.

परमॊन्नतिमात्मानं निम्नात् भवरसातलात् |
जीवान् समारॊहयतॊ ज्ञानभक्त्यादि रूपिणी |
पूर्वानुपूर्वी यस्यास्ति स महाक्रम ईरितः ||

677) mahAkarmA (महाकर्मा) (also repeated in 793)

bhagavAn makes even the souls born in the lowest of births such as bacteria et al – which are microscopic in size and live on the indigestible remnants left over by others – to progress slowly across many births and finally attain him. Since he possesses such an astonishing deed, he is called ‘mahAkarmA’.

Etymology: He – who possesses amazing deeds that make even the lowliest of organisms to eventually progress and finally attain and enjoy his union – is called ‘mahAkarmA’.

अत्यन्तहीनान् जन्तूंश्च यॊग्यान् स्वानुभवस्य हि |
करॊति महदाश्चर्यं कर्म तद्यस्य सर्वदा |
महाकर्मा स विज्ञॆयॊ ह्यष्टार्णॊ मनुरुत्तमः ||

678) mahAthEjA: (महातॆजाः)

bhagavAn’s divine effulgence is such that it takes away the darkness of ignorance from all such thAmasic souls (born in lowly births due to their karma). Thus, he is called ‘mahAthEjA:’.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘mahAthEjA:’ because he possesses divine effulgence that takes away the darkness of ignorance which has no beginning (from the individual souls born in lowly births due to their karma). This eight syllable manthra grants effulgence upon the chanters.

अनाद्यविद्याख्या तमॊहारि तॆजॊ महद्यतः |
महातॆजाह्यतः ख्यातः तॆजॊदॊ वसुवर्णकः ||

679) mahOraga: (महॊरगः)

How does such a great supreme soul bhagavAn come near infinitesimally small creatures? He comes near such small creatures (enters their hearts) by entering their senses in the form of material objects at first, and in turn entering their minds through their senses. Thus, he is called ‘mahOraga:’ – the one who enters the mind.

The word ‘ura:’ shows the hearts of such fallen souls. Since bhagavAn enters such hearts of fallen souls (like a snake entering an anthill), he is called ‘mahOraga:’.

The syllable ‘sa’ (स्) in the word ‘uras’ उरस् (chest) is lost, and the root ‘gam’ गम् (to go) with the ‘da:’ (डः) adjunct is suffixed as per grammatical rules, resulting in the word ‘uraga:’ (उरगः).

Etymology: bhagavAn is popularly called ‘mahOraga:’, since he enters the hearts of fallen souls through their mind (and senses).

महॊरग इति ख्यातश्चित्तद्वारा प्रवॆशनात् |

680) mahAkrathu: (महाक्रतुः)

The vishNu dharma says thus about bhagavAn’s simplicity: “After all, who wouldn’t please bhagavAn – who is pleased not by all riches and wealth, or by clothes or ornaments, but is pleased by the purity at heart alone?”

As shown in this scriptural statement, bhagavAn is very easily pleased by very simple ways of worship. Thus, he is called ‘mahAkrathu:’ – the one who is very easily worshipped.

bhagavAn is easily worshipped by all simple deeds mentioned in the Agama SASthras (such as lighting a lamp, making simple offerings like arghya, pAdhya, etc, offering him daily food, singing his glories from any of the many authentic sources, etc) done with utmost devotion with a feeling of complete submission.

bhagavAn himself confirms this in the bhagavath gIthA, thus: “Oh arjuna, offer unto me all that you do as a part of your living, all that you eat for your living, and all that you do as a part of your daily and occasional worship such as oblations, meditation, etc.”

Etymology: He who is worshipped by everyone in a very simple way is called ‘mahAkrathu:’.

सर्वैश्च सुकरा पूजा यस्य स्यात् स महाक्रतुः |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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உபதேச ரத்தின மாலை – பாசுரம் – 60

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அறுபதாம் பாசுரம். இப்பாசுரம் தொடக்கமாக ஸ்ரீவசன பூஷணத்தில் காட்டப்பட்டுள்ள உயர்ந்த அர்த்தமான ஆசார்ய பக்தியை விரிவாக அருளிச்செய்கிறார். இப்பாசுரத்தில் ஆசார்ய பக்தி இல்லாதவர்களை எம்பெருமான் தானே ஆதரிக்க மாட்டான் என்பதை அருளிச்செய்கிறார்.

தன்னுடைய ஆசார்யனின் திருவடிகளில் ஒருவனுக்கு பக்தி இல்லை என்றால், இவன் திருமகள் கேள்வனான எம்பெருமானிடத்திலே எவ்வளவு பக்தி கொண்டிருந்தாலும், எம்பெருமான் இவனுக்கு இன்பத்துக்கு எல்லை இல்லாத இடமான பரமபதத்திலே இடமளிப்பதற்கு ஆசை கொண்டிருக்கமாட்டான். ஆகையால் இப்படிப்பட்ட ஆசார்ய பக்தி இல்லாதவன் திருநாடான பரமபதத்தைச் சென்றுசேர மாட்டான். எம்பெருமானை அம்புயைகோன் என்று பிராட்டி ஸம்பந்தத்துடன் கூறியிருப்பதால், சேதனர்களின் குற்றங்களை எம்பெருமான் காணாதபடிக்குப் புருஷகாரம் செய்யும் பிராட்டியே அருகில் இருந்தாலும், அவன் ஆசார்ய பக்தி இல்லாதவர்களை ஏற்றுக்கொள்ள மாட்டான் என்று காட்டுவதாகத் தோற்றுகிறது.

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