SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 40 (Names 391 to 400)

SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

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391) parardhdhi: (परर्द्धिः)

Thence the divine deed of bhagavAn in his greatest incarnation as SrI rAma, which is capable of reviving a dying soul, is hailed. Although possessing all wealth, since his divine auspicious qualities are highly opulent, he is called ‘parardhdhi:’.

Although bhagavAn is the only supreme entity ruling over all others, he is compared to some lowly demigods for a miniscule of his original qualities in his incarnation as SrI rAma.

For instance, SrImath rAmAyanam hails rAma’s qualities thus:

“He greatly resembles vishNu in valor. In his affable appearance, he resembles the moon”, etc.

The same SrImath rAmAyanam later hails his absolute supremacy thus:

“SrI rAma’s qualities cannot be described with mere words. his greatness never diminishes. He is perceptible only by the highest vEdhas, and resides in the hearts of all dhEvas and all other entities. He is indeed the one who destroys all our enemies”, et al.

The manthra varNas hailing SrI rAma address him as ‘bhagavAn’ – indicating opulence of all divine and auspicious qualities in him.

Etymology: Since SrI  rAma is ever filled with an abundance of superior and auspicious qualities, and shows his absolute supremacy at all times.

कल्याणानां पराणां च गुणानां ऋद्धिदः सदा |
परावस्थतया चैव परर्द्धिरिति कथ्यतॆ ||

392) paramaspashta: (परमस्पष्टः)

To elaborate further, the same point is reinforced with this divine name ‘paramaspashta:’. His absolute supremacy can be clearly seen in various occasions.

This is shown in SrImath rAmAyana by mandodari when her husband rAvana was killed by SrI rAma. While grieving her husband’s death, she praises rAma thus: “This rAma is clearly showing himself as verily the supreme and eternal godhead nArAyaNa”.

The same SrImath  rAmAyana also hails rAma thus: “He is verily the sun to even the sun god”, et al.

Etymology: The one whose absolute supremacy is very clearly seen even in his incarnation as SrI rAma is called ‘paramaspashta:’.

साक्षात्-दृष्टस्वपारम्यः परमस्पष्ट उच्यतॆ |

393) thushta: (तुष्टः)

bhagavAn rejoices his attainment of the status of being daSaratha’s son much more than his absolute supremacy itself. Thus, he is called ‘thushta:’.

The SriImath rAmAyana says thus about bhagavAn:

  • “At that moment, bhagavAn vishNu delighted in choosing daSaratha as his would-be father”
  • “SrI rAma greatly delights in practicing his own varNASrama principles of the kshathriya community”
  • “I consider myself as a human; the son of daSaratha, rAma by name”, et al.

Etymology: The one who is highly contented with his attainment of the status of being daSaratha’s son, ruling over the kingdom of ayOdhyA and acting like an ordinary human being (more than his absolute supremacy itself) is called ‘thushta:’.

लाभाद्दाशरथित्वस्य जगतः पालनस्य च |
मनुष्यत्वॆsपि यः प्रीतः स तुष्ट इति कथ्यतॆ ||

394) pushta: (पुष्टः)

Since SrI rAma is resplendent with an abundance of such great qualities, he is called ‘pushta:’. The SrImath rAmAyana says “…that SrI rAma, who is full of auspicious qualities”.

Etymology: The one who is replete with great qualities such as benevolence and the like is called ‘pushta:’.

गुणैर्यॊ ह्यानृशंसाद्यैः पूर्णः पुष्ट इतीरितः |

395) SubhEkshaNa: (शुभॆक्षणः)

SrI rAma possesses wide, pacific, benign, long and red hued auspicious lotus-like eyes, betraying his supreme nature said hitherto. Hence, he is called ‘SubhEkshaNa:’. 

This is as said in Srimath rAmAyanam thus:

“SrI rAma has nice eyebrows and long lotus-like reddish eyes, akin to vishNu himself”.

Alternately, SrI rAma is hailed as ‘SubhEkshaNa:’ since his eyes are looked by each and every soul, and he looks at each and every soul. Again, SrImath rAmAyana supports this view thus: “He – who does not see rAma and whom rAma doesn’t see – shall be the most ill fated soul in this world, to the extent that he is disliked by himself the most”.

Etymology: The one who possesses pacific, long and wide lotus-like reddish eyes that show his excellence in disposition is called ‘SubhEkshaNa:’.

सौशील्यैश्वर्यपिशुनं शीतलं दीर्घमायतम् |
ताम्रं च लॊचनं यस्य स शुभॆक्षण ईरितः ||

रामॊ विरामॊ विरतॊ मार्गॊ नॆयॊ नयॊsनयः ।
वीरः शक्तिमतांश्रॆष्ठॊ धर्मॊ धर्मविदुत्तमः ॥ ४३ ॥

396) rAma: (रामः)

The one who attracts every soul with his divine forms and auspicious qualities is called ‘rAma:’. SrImath rAmAyana says thus:

  • “rAma is the greatest of entities that generate happiness among souls”
  • “…that rAma, who is a storehouse of auspicious qualities…”
  • “SrI rAma is dark complexioned, youthful, red-eyed, and like a bull among elephants.”
  • “SrI rAma shone with his great qualities just like the sun shines with its bright rays, attracting every citizen of ayOdhyA with his love, and verily embodying daSaratha’s love.”

The manthra varNas hailing SrI rAma say thus: “…that SrI rAma, who is attractive with his dark complexioned body like a beautiful water-lily blooming in the autumn season”.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn delights the individual souls with his auspicious sight, divine form and great qualities, he is called ‘rAma:’.

शुभॆक्षणॆsस्मिन् स्वगुणैः रम्यतॆ राम ईरितः |

397) virAma: (विरामः)

The grantor of boon – the four faced brahmA, the boon itself – the boon of immortality, and the seeker of such boon – the ten headed rAvana – all finally rest in SrI rAma’s actions. Hence, he is called ‘virAma:’ – the resting abode.

hanuman praises rAma’s valor thus in front of rAvana: “Even if the four faced brahmA, three eyed Siva, the thousand eyed indhra, and others come together in opposition, SrI rAma still remains invincible by all of them”

Etymology: The one who is causes the various entities to rest, such as the grantor of boon – brahmA, the seekers of boon – rAvaNa and others, and the boon itself – the boon of immortality and invincibility – is called ‘virAma:’.

वरप्रदैः ब्रह्ममुख्यैः अवध्यत्वादिभिर्वरैः |
यस्मिन् विरम्यतॆ इति स विरामः परिकीर्तितः ||

398) viratha: (विरतः) (also repeated in 367), mArga: (मार्गः)

Since SrI rAma is unattached to material pleasures such as rule of kingdom and the like, he is called ‘viratha:’.

SrI vAlmIki maharishi beautifully describes this glorious attribute of SrI rAma thus:

  • “Just as the darkness of night cannot diminish the radiance of the cooling moon, so also the loss of kingdom rule does not take away the naturally great wealth of his pacific nature”
  • “rAma considers obedience to his father daSaratha superior to his coronation itself”
  • “There was not a least bit of fear in the face of rAma when he gave up the rule of kingdom for the sake of dharma and took me to the forest by walk”, etc.

Further, he is called ‘mArga:’. Here, it means that he is sought after by all the sages such as bharadhvAja maharishi and others.

Thus, these two names can be seen separately.

Alternately, the two words can be seen together to refer to a single divine name ‘virajOmArga:’ as well. This means he is the one who shows the individual souls the faultless path of mOksha.

This is shown in SrImath rAmAyana thus:

  • “Oh jatAyu, tread that greatest path and reach the supreme abode of SrI vaikuNtam, which is otherwise treaded by pious men practicing the highest dharmas”.
  • “rAma’s bow enabled vAli to reach the highest destination”, et al.

Etymology: By nature, since rAma is unattached to the material pursuits such as kingdom rule and the like, he is called ‘viratha:’. Also, since he is constantly sought after by sage bharadhvAja and others, he is called ‘mArga:’. In another version, the two words are combined into a single divine name ‘virajOmArga:’, meaning he is the one who shows us the faultless path of mOksha.

निसर्गनैरपॆक्ष्यॆण राज्यादॆः कृपणाद्धि यः |
विरागी विरतः स स्यात् सप्तार्णवः परमाद्भुतः ||

मृग्यमाणतया मार्गॊ भरद्वाजादिभिः सदा |
पाठॆ तु विरजॊ मार्ग इति पन्थाः प्रदर्शितः ||
निर्दॊषॊ यॆन विरजॊ मार्गः सन्मार्गदर्श्यसौ ||

399) nEya: (नॆयः)

SrI rAma subjects himself to the orders of pious men and obeys them. Hence, he is called ‘nEya:’.

In the Srimath rAmAyana, it is shown thus:

  • “Oh sages, I am at your behest”
  • “Having accepted all your orders, I now wish to stay here in this forest…”
  • “The one who wishes to gain long lasting wealth must approach learned men, no matter how intelligent he is”

In the sabhA parva of SrI mahAbhAratha, bhagavAn declares thus:

“Oh yudhishtira, perform the yajna that you so desire. When I am here to do good to you, you can appoint me for any work; I shall do everything that you order me to do”

In the udhyOga parva, he says: “Oh mighty one! I am at your behest. Tell me what I can do for you, and I shall do all that you order”

In the Srimath rAmAyana, it is also said about lakshmana thus:

“With the friendly attitude and extreme devotion of hanuman, lakshmana allowed himself to be easily lifted by that monkey, who is not even shaken by others otherwise.”

Etymology: The one who subordinates to his dearest pious devotees is called ‘nEya:’.

नियॊगयॊग्यः सुहृदां यॊsसौ नॆयः स उच्यतॆ |

400) naya: (नयः)

Although bhagavAn subordinates himself at the behest of the pious sages, yet the sages remain to be protected by bhagavAn only. This is shown in this divine name ‘naya:’.

In Srimath rAmAyana, the sages pray thus:

“Oh rAma, although we perform fierce penance, yet we are under your protection just like an infant under the protection of its mother in her womb”

Similarly the pANdavas declare thus, although krishna says he is at their behest: “Oh krishNa, you are our lord, and we are in your refuge”.

Etymology: Since all sages are lead and protected by rAma, he is called ‘naya:’.

यस्मिन् तपॊधना नित्यं नीयन्तॆ इति वै नयः |

Thus ends the fourth centum (chathurtha Sathakam) in SrI bhagavath-guNa-dharpaNa, which is an explanation of SrI vishNu sahasranAma, by the scion of SrI hAritha clan, the son of SrIvathsAnga mishra (kUraththAzhvAn) – SrIranganatha by name, also called SrI parASara bhatta, who wrote this glorious commentary at the behest of SrI rangarAja.

The fourth centum is completed.

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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