Daily Archives: September 12, 2019

thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.5 – yAmudai nenjamum

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SrI:  SrImathE SatakOpAya nama:  SrImathE rAmAnujAya nama:  SrImath varavaramunayE nama:

Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the fifth pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “My friends who are supposed to be my companions even when my heart fails me, are suffering ahead of me on seeing my suffering in separation from emperumAn; it has become difficult to get his mercy; I don’t find any means to sustain myself!”

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

yAmudai nenjamum thuNai anRAlO Apugu mAlaiyum AginRAlO!
yAmudai Ayan than manam kallAlO avaudaith thInguzhal eerumAlO!
yAmudaith thuNa ennum thOzhimArum emmin mun avanukku mAyvarAlO!
yAmudai Aruyir kAkkum AREn avanudai aruL peRum pOdharidhE

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

(just as the one who is obedient towards us, is not a companion)
yAmudai nenjamum – our heart
thuNai anRu – is not being a companion (to share our grief);

(not only that)
A pugum – cows coming through the entrance
mAlaiyum – evening time
AginRu – has arrived;

(since he is not entering along with them)
yAmudai Ayan than – krishNa who is obedient to be our servitor, his
manam – tender heart
kal – has become hard like a rock;

(to not determine like that)
avanudai – his humble playing of
thIm kuzhal – sweet flute
eerum – is piercing me (reminding me of his tender heart);

(while being engaged in this manner)
yAmudai – those who are fully subservient to us
thuNai ennum – to be said as companions
thOzhimArum – friends too
emmil mun – ahead of us (who are immersed in him)

(thinking “he is not going to help her”)
avanukku – for him
mAyvar – will be engaged in him;

(at this stage)
avanudai aruL – his mercy, which is the protection
peRum – to get
pOdhu – state
aridhu – is difficult to attain;

(hence)
yAmudai – our
Ar uyir – our [here, our refers to AzhwAr alone] AthmA (which is controlled exclusively by your mercy)
kAkkum ARu – means to protect
en – which?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

Our heart is not being a companion; the evening time when the cows come through the entrance has arrived; the tender heart of krishNa who is obedient to be our servitor, has become hard like a rock; his humble playing of his sweet flute is piercing me; our friends who are fully subservient to us, to be said as companions, will be engaged in him; it is difficult to attain the state of being in his mercy, which is our protection; which is the means to protect our AthmA (self)?

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • yAm … – As I considered my heart to be mine, it ceased to be my companion. The evening time has arrived for the cows to return; if the heart is also not being a companion, should the evening not delay its arrival a little bit?
  • yAmudai … – He is not feeling in his heart that my heart is not my companion anymore and that the evening has come; just as all the nature of all the entities have changed [heart not being my companion, his flute’s sweet sound is piercing me], he who is soft-hearted has also become hard-hearted. Should he who is closer to me than my heart, not have his heart melting for me? If the one who turned a stone to a woman [ahalyA was relieved from curse by SrI rAma] has become hard-hearted, who can soften his heart!
  • avan … – His flute’s sweet sound, does not let me withdraw thinking that he is hard-hearted now. He plays his flute as if saying “I was away from you throughout the day; I have delayed my arrival now; I cannot bear it; being subservient [to my parents etc to perform my duty], I have lost”. It was saying “don’t withdraw yourself thinking that his heart is like stone; it is really like water”; with these words, his flute’s sweet music is piercing me.
  • yAmudai … – As the heart is not being a companion, and he is also not helping, the friends who are my companions saw my suffering and they started suffering before me saying “she needs him”.
  • thuNai ennum – Your being friends to me is like an insect named mAmbazhauNNi (mango-eater) [which is unrelated to mango]. As they remain as said in SrI rAmAyaNam kishkindhA kaNdam 5.17 “Ekam dhu:kham sukanchanau” (we share joy and sorrow), they are suffering since they cannot bear her suffering. Their relationship with him is through her only.
  • yAmudai Ar uyir kAkkum ARu en – In this loneliness [without anyone else], what is the means to sustain my self? If it is someone else’s [emperumAn‘s] life, we can save it.
  • avanudai aruL peRum pOdhu aridhE – It is difficult to get his mercy. If we get that, we can protect our own life as well.

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thirumadal – 38 – pinnum thirai vayiRRu

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pinnum thiraivayiRRup pEyE thirindhulavAk                                        49
konnavilum vengAnaththu Udu vengadhirOn
thunnu veyil vaRuththa vembaralmEl panjadiyAl                                50
mannan irAman pin vaidhEvi enRu uraikkum

Word by word meaning

pinnum – moreover
thirai vayiRu pEyE thirindhu – having only ghosts, which are with empty stomachs (due to lack of food), which keep roaming
ulavA kol navilum – having only the sound of killing continuously being emitted
vem kAnaththUdu – inside the cruel forest
kodu kadhirOn thunnu veyil vaRuththa vembaral mEl – on top of the pebbles which have been roasted by the rays of the hot sun
vaidhEvi enRu uraikkum – one who is referred to as vaidhEhi

vyAkyAnam

pinnum – more than what had been said before

thirai vayiRRup pEyE thirindhu – only ghosts were roaming there, with empty stomachs. They have not had any food and hence are famished. Since the verse says pEyE it implies that there is no other creature in that place.

ulavAk kol navilum – the only talk there seems to be “this person entered the forest and died; that person who entered the forest is struggling for his life”. It could also be considered as ulavA vengAnam – the cruel forest which keeps extending continuously, just as it is said in SrI rAmAyaNam bAla kANdam 1-30 “thE vanEna vanam gathvA” (they entered one forest after another)

vem kAnaththUdu – amidst the most cruel forest

kodum kadhirOn – one who is on the side of kaikEyi; one who created  hot rays just to torment SrI rAma.

thunnu veyil – full sunshine

veyil vaRuththa vem paral – the sunshine is roasting pebbles; as they are getting roasted, the pebbles become cruel themselves and become capable of roasting the sunshine; in the end, they attain sufficient heat even to burn the sun.

vem paral mEl – on top of such pebbles

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 14 (Names 131 to 140)

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131) avyanga: (अव्यङ्गः)

The one who is ever abound with the six limbs of vEdhas – namely SikshA (शिक्षा), vyAkaraNa (व्याकरण), chandhas (छंदः), jyOthisha (ज्यॊतिष), niruktha (निरुक्त) and kalpa (कल्प), is called ‘avyanga:’.

Etymology: The one who has no shortcomings due to the praises by the six limbs of vEdhas such as SikshA, vyAkaraNa et al. is called ‘avyanga:’.

शिक्षाव्याकरणाद्यङ्गैः न हीनॊsव्यङ्ग उच्यतॆ |

132) vEdhAnga: (वॆदाङ्गः)

vEdhas consist of innumerable branches. They are verily the divine body/limbs of bhagavAn. Since bhagavAn’s intimate divine nature and qualities are exposed by the vEdhas, bhagavAn is called ‘vEdhAnga:’ – the one who is possesses vEdhas as his limbs.

The scriptures support thus:

  • “He who doesn’t comprehend the vEdhas doesn’t know bhagavAn either”
  • “…when he shook his divine body made of vEdhas…”
  • “The vEdhas and smruthis are verily my commandments”
  • “The godhead and ancestors must be served. This is the commandment of bhagavAn”, etc.

Since vEdhas are verily his commandments, he is called ‘vEdhAnga:’.

Etymology: He, unto whom the vEdhas – with its innumerable branches – are verily the divine body, is called ‘vEdhAnga:’.

यस्य वॆदॊsनन्तशाखोsप्यङ्गं वॆदाङ्ग ऎव सः |

133) vEdhavith (वॆदवित्)

bhagavAn is verily the subject of vEdhas. The purport of vEdhas is called ‘dharma’. Since the individual souls attain bhagavAn in the form of pradhyumna by following the dharmas laid down by the vEdhas, he is called ‘vEdhavith’. Thus, the duties of pradhyumna are highlighted as ‘the enlightener’, and ‘the preacher’ of vEdhas.

Etymology: The subject of vEdhas is called ‘vEdha:’. The purport of such vEdha is called ‘dharma’. Since he always makes the individual souls observe such ‘dharma’, pradhyumna is called ‘vEdhavith’.

वॆदैः वॆद्यतया वॆदः तदर्थॊ धर्म उच्यतॆ |
तदनुष्ठापनात् नित्यं प्रद्युम्नॊ वॆदवित् स्मृतः ||

134) kavi: (कविः)

Since bhagavAn possesses expansive foresight, he is called ‘kavi:’ – the one with an expansive vision. The root ku (कु) is used to mean ‘sight’ in this context. It is suffixed with ‘in’ (इन्), resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: bhagavAn is only called ‘kavi:’ by the knowledgeable men for his vast foresight.

स ऎव क्रान्तदर्शित्वात् कवि इत्युच्यतॆ बुधैः |

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लॊकाध्यक्षः सुराध्यक्षॊ धर्माध्यक्षः कृताकृतः ।
चतुरात्मा चतुर्व्यूहश्चतुर्दंष्ट्रश्चतुर्भुजः ॥ १५ ॥
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135, 136, 137) lOkAdhyaksha:, surAdhyaksha:, dharmAdhyaksha:

This expansive foresight of bhagavAn is further elaborated with the next three divine names namely ‘lOkAdhyaksha:’, ‘surAdhyaksha:’ and ‘dharmAdhyaksha:’.

The word ‘lOkA:’ (लॊकाः) refers to the practitioners of righteousness / dharma. ‘surA:’ (सुराः) refers to the various demigods worshipped by such virtuous men. The word ‘dharma’ (धर्मः) refers to the various means by which such demigods are worshipped by those virtuous men. The lord of all these three entities is bhagavAn. This is shown by these three divine names.

bhagavAn, in his ‘anirudhdha’ vyUha, is bound to remove the malignity of “conferring of undeserving fruits (fruits for no action)” and “lack of conferring of fruits of action”, thereby conferring the righteous fruits of action to every individual soul – according to its deeds.

Therefore, bhagavAn anirudhdha is known to be the knower of the destination, paths of attaining the destination, the lord of souls treading such paths, righteous (honest) and the grantor of knowledge.

Etymology: ‘lOkA:’ are those souls who practice certain virtues. The demigods worshipped by such souls are called ‘surA:’. The means of such attainment are collectively termed as ‘dharma:’. The lord of all these entities is that bhagavAn who is connoted by the three divine names ‘lOkAdhyaksha:’, ‘surAdhyaksha:’, and ‘dharmAdhyaksha:’ in that order. BhagavAn ‘anirudhdha’ is said to be one who manifests with all these names.

धर्माधिकारिणॊ लोकाः तदाराध्याः सुरास्तथा |
धर्मस्तत्साधनं तॆषामध्यक्षः स्यात् त्रिनामवान् ||

लॊकाध्यक्षः सुराध्यक्षः धर्माध्यक्ष इति क्रमात् |
अनिरुद्धः स विज्ञॆयॊ लॊकाध्यक्षादि नामवान् ||

138) kruthAkrutha: (कृताकृतः)

bhagavAn is said to be the embodiment of two types of ‘dharmas’ – of promoting samsAra and removing samsAra. As a promoter of samsAra, he is the one who bestows temporary and lowly fruits in this samsAra to such souls who are not interested in mOksha. Thus, he is customarily called ‘krutha:’ (कृतः) – the promoter of samsAra. Further, he is the one who also releases us from the shackles of samsAra and bestows the permanent and supreme abode of SrIvaikuNtam / mOksham. Thus he is also called ‘akrutha:’ (अकृतः) – the remover of samsAra.

Etymology: The one whose nature is to bestow the fruits of action to those who practice both kind of deeds that result in either promotion of samsAra or release from samsAra is called ‘kruthAkrutha:’.

अनित्यनित्यफलदौ प्रवर्तकनिवर्तकौ |
ददौ यस्य स्वरूपं यः कृताकृत इतीरितः ||

139) chathurAthmA (चतुरात्मा) (also repeated in 775)

Since bhagavAn manifests thus (as explained from the divine name 123 till now) as four forms namely vAsudhEva, sankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha, he is called ‘chathurAthmA’ – the one with four forms.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘chathurAthmA’ due to his manifestation in four forms namely vAsudhEva, sankarshaNa, pradhyumna and anirudhdha.

वासुदॆवादि रूपत्वात् चतुरात्मॆति कथ्यतॆ |

140) chathurvyUha: (चतुर्व्यूहः) (also repeated in 773)

How can the same entity manifest in four forms at a time? This is explained in this divine name ‘chathurvyUha:’. In order to show the entity to be contemplated upon and worshipped for attaining the fruits as detailed till now, bhagavAn assumes four different forms characterized by the four states of mind namely ‘awakened’ (jAgruth जागृत्) (as anirudhdha), ‘dreaming’ (svapna स्वप्न) (as pradhyumna), ‘deep slumber’ (sushupthi सुषुप्ति) (as sankarshaNa) and ‘completely enlightened’ (thurIya तुरीय) (as vAsudhEva). In each of these forms, he sports different forms befitting his role, with various body-hues, ornaments, weapons, vehicles, flags and other equipments. Thus, he manifests in four forms at a time.

Etymology: Since bhagavAn is verily the embodied with four forms indicative of the various states of mind such as awakened, dreaming, deep slumber and completely enlightened, he is called ‘chathurvyUha:’.

जागृत्स्वप्नसुषुप्त्यादौ व्यूहावस्था चतुष्टयॆ |
एतैर्विशिष्टमूर्तित्वात् चतुर्व्यूह इतीरितः ||

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

archived in http://divyaprabandham.koyil.org

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