Daily Archives: September 9, 2019

periya thirumadal – 35 – thannudaiya thAdhai

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thannudaiya thAdhai paNiyAl arasu ozhindhu

Word by word meaning

thannudaiya thAdhai paNiyAl – as per the counsel of his father dhaSaratha
arasu ozhindhu – avoiding ruling of the land (and setting forth for the forest)

vyAkyAnam

thannudaiya thAdhai – being affectionate towards his father dhaSaratha chakravarthy such that he would think “Isn’t perumAL  one who obeys my authority? He would do just as I tell him to do”. Alternative meaning – son of dhaSaratha.

paNiyAl – He did not reach up to dhaSaratha’s thoughts. dhaSaratha thought “Instead of going to the forest, would he not tie down my legs and my neck and take over ruling of this country?”

arasu ozhindhu – when ordered by dhaSaratha “leave the country and go to the forest”, instead of hesitating “Should I leave this country?” SrI rAma was focussed on being a forest dweller. When he was told that he was going to take charge of the country, people saw that his face had blossomed with a beauty. When he was told that he has to go to the forest, people said that they had seen  aiSwaryam (opulence) which had formed on his face which they had never seen before. It appeared as if when dhaSaratha chakravarthy told him to go the forest, SrI rama felt relieved as if a huge load had been removed from his head, a load which created svAthanthriyam (independence) in him. When bharathAzhwAn caught hold o f SrI rAma’s legs (in chithrakUtam) and compelled him to return to ayOdhyA, SrI rAma behaved as if he had adorned himself with a garland of fresh flowers and removed that garland once the freshness was gone [here, garland refers to the crown worn by kings; SrI rAma was happy that he had removed the crown that he would have worn had he become the king].

In the next article, we will discuss the next part of this prabandham.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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thiruvAimozhi – 9.9.2 – pugalidam aRigilam

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Full series >> Ninth Centum >> Ninth decad

Previous pAsuram

Introduction for this pAsuram

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s introduction

No specific introduction.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s introduction

In the second pAsuram, parAnguSa nAyaki says “Initially the harmful entities tormented me individually and as I kept losing my strength, they are tormenting me together”.

Highlights from vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s introduction

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s introduction as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

See nanjIyar‘s introduction.

pAsuram

pugalidam aRigilam thamiyamAlO! pulambuRu maNi thenRal AmbalAlO!
pagaladu mAlai vaN sAndhamAlO! panjamam mullai thaN vAdaiyAlO!
agalidam padaiththidandhuNdumizhndhaLandhu engum aLikkinRa Ayan mAyOn
igalidaththasurargaL kURRam vArAn ini irundhennuyir kAkkumAREn?

Listen

Word-by-Word meanings (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

thamiyam – lonely us
pugalidam – to take refuge to escape from the great army
aRigilam – don’t know;
pulambu uRu – sound from the neck of the calves following their mother cows
maNi – bell
thenRal – the southerly breeze (which torments me without any help from anyone else)
AmbalAlO – leaf based flute (all joined together);
pagal adu mAlai – the night which drives away the day (stopping us from seeing the objects)
vaN sAndhamAlO – the sandalwood paste matching the particular time (joined together);
panjamam – the tune named panchamam
mullai – lily garland
thaN vAdaiyAlO – cool northerly breeze (joined together; in this manner, in this state of the individual tormenting aspects being united);
agal idam – expansive universe
padaiththu – created
idandhu – rescuing from being drowned in the deluge
uNdu – during total deluge, placing in the stomach and protecting
umizhndhu – spitting
aLandhu – measuring and accepting (to avoid others claiming ownership)
engum aLikkinRa – being benefactor for all entities/objects
Ayan – having saulabhyam in krishNAvathAram which is specific for his being the cause and protector
mAyOn – having amazing activities which match his protectorship
igal idaththu – opposing in the battle
asurar – for asuras (demons)
kURRam – being death
vArAn – is not arriving (to destroy these harmful group of entities and protecting me)
ini – now that he has not shown his desire for me and has discarded me
en uyir – my life which is a burden for me
irundhu – surviving
kAkkum ARu en – what is the means to protect?

Simple translation (based on vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s 12000 padi)

We who are lonely don’t know how to take refuge to escape from the great army; the bell sound from the neck of the calves following their mother cows, the southerly breeze, the leaf based flute, the night which drives away the day, the sandalwood paste matching the particular time, the tune named panchamam, the lily garland and the cool northerly breeze have joined together [in tormenting me]; emperumAn who created the expansive universe, rescued it from being drowned in the deluge, placed it in the stomach, protected it during the total deluge, spat it out, measured and accepted it; he is the benefactor for all entities/objects; he is having saulabhyam in krishNAvathAram which is specific for his being the cause and protector and is having amazing activities which match his protectorship; he is the death for the asuras who oppose him in the battle; now that he has not shown his desire for me and has discarded me, what is the means for me to survive and protect my life which is a burden for me? Implies that since she is protected, she does not have the strength and aptness to protect [herself]. Here she has identified the entities which torment her but not the ways they harm her; this is like those who say “padai! padai!” (repeating the words ‘enemy army’) due to the great fear and sorrow [and not being able to explain further]. She highlighted both southerly and northerly breezes to indicate that within a moment, she goes through many eons.

vyAkyAnams (commentaries)

Highlights from thirukkurukaippirAn piLLAn‘s vyAkyAnam

See vAdhi kEsari azhagiya maNavALa jIyar‘s translation.

Highlights from nanjIyar‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from periyavAchchAn piLLai‘s vyAkyAnam

See nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam.

Highlights from nampiLLai‘s vyAkyAnam as documented by vadakkuth thiruvIdhip piLLai

  • pugalidam aRigilam – This can be considered as her saying in fear about the harmful entities which are going to be explained further in this pAsuram; or this can be considered as her repeating in fear about previously explained entities.
  • thamiyamAlO – Since the one who is the companion for those without refuge is not helping, my presence is lonely here.
  • pulambu uRu maNi – sound from the bells in the necks of the calves following their mother cows, looked like they were crying out being unable to spot their mother cows.
  • thenRal – Just saying “thenRal” is sufficient; need not say with adjectives as in “malligai kamazh thenRal“; as the battle intensifies, they will remove the armour and fight directly [no need for adjective]. The southerly breeze thinks “Why do I need the armour when there is none equal to me here?”
  • AmbalAlO – Flute or leaf-based flute; she is not saying as before “eerumAlO, thavarumAlO, mayakkumAlO, sidhaikkumAlO“; as someone who sees a tiger will simply shout in fear “Tiger! Tiger!”, even as she tells their names, she becomes frightened. Alternative explanation – if she explicitly speaks about the torture given by them, it appears that her mouth will burn – hence she is not highlighting their acts.
  • pagal adu mAlai – Just as rAvaNa destroyed periya udaiyAr (jatAyu) and was present in front of sIthA to cause pain for her, here evening time appeared destroying the day time which pacifies. In the day time, one can see various objects and pacify oneself; but since that opportunity is not there after sunset, it is more gruelling.
  • vaN sAndham … – Beautiful sandalwood paste; panchama tune.
  • mullai – yAzh (string instrument). Alternatively – cowherds will wear lily garlands; this could refer to that as well.
  • thaN vAdai – There was no difference between northerly breeze and southerly breeze. Northerly and southerly breezes come at different seasons; the time is stretching so much that she is experiencing different seasonal breezes. Alternative explanation – highlighting disaster, various winds are blowing at the same time. Now, there is no scope to take refuge from northerly breeze, fearing the southerly breeze.
  • agal idam … – One who inclusively protects the universe from disaster by placing it in his stomach, is not arriving now even after his empress (parAnguSa nAyaki) is being tormented by harmful entities! When the expansive earth was not in manifested form, he created it, lifted it up when deluge consumed it, protected it by placing it in the stomach when deluge re-occurred, spat it out so that it need not suffocate inside, walked up to the boundary and reclaimed it when prideful persons claimed possession of it – such emperumAn who protects the whole universe without any limitation, is not arriving now!
  • Ayan – mahAbhAratham sabhA parvam 38.23 “krishNa Eva hi lOkAnAm” (krishNa is the cause for all worlds) etc.
  • mAyOn – One who has amazing abilities which are required to protect the universe.
  • igal … – Only in the battlefield, he remains as the death for the demoniac clan; he does not destroy prahAladha, vibhIshaNa et al who said “SaraNam” (I accept you as refuge); he only destroyed rAvaNa, hiraNya et al. It is said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 51.55 “thrAthum na SakthA yudhi rAma vadhyam” (If SrI rAma decides to kill someone no one can save that person).
  • vArAn – You need not draw arrows for me and there are no enemies; you just need to show your face.
  • ini … – Am I pacified thinking that emperumAn will only protect with certain limitations? Am I pacified that there are hurdles in his arrival? Am I pacified thinking that I have a role in protecting myself? Is there anything called saving my own life when the protector who is unlimited, the most abled and the apt one is not coming and I am one among his protected ones, incapable and inapt to protect myself?
  • ini irundhu – Am I pacified to survive until he arrives by hearing some others say as in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 36.41 “namAmsam rAghavO bhungthE nachApi madhu sEvathE” (he is neither indulging in meat nor in alcohol) or doing as said in SrI rAmAyaNam sundhara kANdam 35.47 “thvAm apaSyan nrupAthmajE” (Oh daughter of janaka! He is suffering due to not seeing you)? Am I pacified thinking that as part of his arrival ,kara [a demon] was destroyed, kabandha [another demon] was destroyed, vAli was destroyed, the bridge was built on the ocean, he has entered lankA now and so on?
  • ini irundhu – It appears that since she is saying “ini” (from now onwards), previously she protected herself thinking “I cannot let his belonging to be destroyed”.
  • en uyir kAkkum ARu en – Should I protect my life thinking that it is someone else’s belonging? Should I protect myself to only be tormented by these harmful entities?

In the next article we will enjoy the next pAsuram.

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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SrIvishNu sahasranAmam – 11 (Names 101 to 110)

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101) achyutha: (अच्युतः) (also repeated in 320, 557)

The one who does not get separated from such surrendered souls is called ‘achyutha:’ – the infallible.

The scriptures say thus in this regard:

  • “Since I never gave up anything in the past, I am called ‘achyutha’”
  • “I never get separated from such a devotee”
  • “I shall never forsake him; that will never happen”, et al

Etymology: Since bhagavAn never gets separated from his devotees, he is called ‘achyutha:’. Alternately, he is also called ‘achyutha:’, by whose grace the surrendered souls never face any shortcomings.

भक्तॆभ्यॊsच्युतपूर्वत्वात् अच्युतः परिकीर्तितः |
आश्रितानां च्युतिर्यस्मान्नास्ति स अच्युत ईरितः ||

102) vrushAkapi: (वृषाकपिः)

The divine name that justifies that verily the same ‘achyutha’ is the one who incarnated as the boar (varAha) is ‘vrushAkapi:’ – the boar that embodies virtue.

The sages have recorded thus:

“The word ‘kapi:’ (कपिः) means the great divine boar. The word ‘vrusha:’ (वृषः) represents virtue. Thus, kashyapa prajApathi addressed me as ‘vrushAkapi:’ (वृषाकपिः).”

Etymology: The great divine boar is called ‘kapi:’, and righteousness is called ‘vrusha:’. Thus, he is vrushAkapi (the boar that embodies virtue). This eight-syllable manthra grants the wishes of the chanter.

कपिर्वराहः श्रॆष्ठश्च धर्मश्च वृष उच्यतॆ |
तस्मात् वृषाकपिः प्रॊक्तः वस्वरण्यॊsभीष्टदॊ मनुः ||

103) amEyAthmA (अमॆयात्मा) (also repeated in 181)

Since bhagavAn showers his grace towards the souls, who have taken refuge under him, in a constant flow, he is called ‘amEyAthmA’ – the one whose abundant nature cannot be quantified. The vEdhas declare: “Thus he is the supreme of all entities”, “Therefore, that janArdhana is only the greatest”, etc.

Etymology: The one who is the greatest of all due to his unquantifiable abundant nature (of showering his unbounded grace towards his refugees in an abundant flow) is called ‘amEyAthmA’. This manthra is said to grant superior fruits upon the chanter.

इयानित्यपरिच्छॆद्य स्वभावात् सर्वतॊsधिकः |
अमॆयात्मा समुद्दिष्टॊ ह्यौन्नत्यफलदॊ मनुः ||

104) sarvayOgavinissrutha: (सर्वयॊगविनिस्सृतः)

How does bhagavAn qualify as the one with such abundant nature? he qualifies thus due to his being the ‘sarvayOgavinissrutha:’ – the one who is attained by all means. He is called thus, because he is attained by all the scriptural injunctions as well as the lower means that anyone cooks up with his own imagination and intelligence. He is especially fit of being attained by everyone much akin to the esoteric meanings of the vEdhas. This also means that he is very easily attained by all souls.

The scriptures have said thus about bhagavAn’s attainability:

  • “bhagavAn bestows the superior experience of his divine wealth even to those who know not of any higher means of attaining him but just worship him by any means that they can comprehend”
  • “Although not abiding by injunctions, when a surrendered soul worships bhagavAn with pure love, the lord of such manthras – bhagavAn – gets pleased and graces him abundantly. What, then, is to be said about the enlightened souls who are full of knowledge and love towards bhagavAn, and worship him with all faith and devotion?”
  • “When it is well known that mAdhava wholeheartedly accepts just the mental worship of his devotees, isn’t it very clear that those who are caught up in the miseries of samsAra have failed to think about bhagavAn?”, etc.

Etymology: He is attainable by all means, and hence he is called ‘sarvayOgavinissrutha:’.

सर्वैरुपायैः प्राप्यश्च सर्वयॊगविनिस्सृतः |

===========================
वसुर्वसुमनाः सत्यः समात्मा संमितः समः ।
अमॊघः पुण्डरीकाक्षॊ वृषकर्मा वृषाकृतिः ॥ १२ ॥
============================

105) vasu: (वसुः) (also repeated in 271, 701)

Since he resides with utmost love within the minds of even such souls who show little devotion unto him, he is called ‘vasu:’. The root ‘vas’ वस् (to reside) is suffixed with the adjunct ‘u:’ (उः), resulting in this divine name.

Etymology: The one who voluntarily resides with utmost love in such souls who display the slightest devotion unto himim is called ‘vasu:’.

वसतीति वसुः तॆषु प्रीत्या परमया स्वयम् |

106) vasumanA: (वसुमनाः) (also repeated in 702)

He places his mind with his devotees considering them as his greatest wealth, and hence called ‘vasumanA:’ – the one who considers his devotees as his greatest wealth. bhagavAn himself says thus in the bhagavath gIthA: “Such a great soul who considers me as everything to him is the most difficult to find”.

Etymology: He whose mind always rests with his devotees – considering them as his greatest invaluable wealth – is called as ‘vasumanA:’ by everyone. This manthra nurtures the chanters as a mother nurtures her child.

वसुनीव निधौ तॆषु मनॊ यस्यास्ति सर्वदा |
सर्वैः वसुमनाः प्रॊक्तॊ मातृवत् पॊषकॊ मनुः ||

107) sathya: (सत्यः) (also repeated in 213, 873)

The one who is benevolent to such realized souls is called ‘sathya:’ – the benevolent.

The root ‘sath’ (सत्) is suffixed with ‘yath’ (यत्) adjunct resulting in the divine name ‘sathya:’.

Etymology: The one who is benevolent to the realized souls is called ‘sathya:’.

सत्सु साधुः सत्य इति |

108) samAthmA (समात्मा)

The one who ignores the differences among his devotees in their natures and considers them all as equal and graces them all equally is called ‘samAthmA’ – the impartial.

bhagavAn himself declares thus in bhagavath gIthA – “I treat all souls equally”.

Etymology: bhagavAn is called ‘samAthmA’ due to his impartiality.

समात्मा समचित्ततः |

109) sammitha: (संमितः)

He is called ‘sammitha:’ since he is bound by the love of his devotees. The root ‘mA’ मा (restriction) is suffixed with ‘ikAra:’ (इकारः) resulting in the word ‘mitha:’ (मितः).

He is very easily confined by his devotees by their love – to the extent of enabling them to say “He is ours. He is in our control”.

This is shown in SrImath rAmAyanam  and SrI vishNu purAnam, where dhaSaratha declares “My rAma – the lotus eyed one – is not even sixteen years of age”, and vasudhEva declares “He (krishNa) is truly my son”.

Etymology: Since he is confined by his devotees out of their love, he is called ‘sammitha:’.

मितत्वात् च तथा भक्तैः संमितः परिकीर्तितः |

110) sama: (समः)

Even among such devotees, since bhagavAn never differentiates on the basis of the new devotees and old devotees, the knowledgeable souls and the ignorant souls, and other such factors, and since he respects all of their love towards him equally, he is called ‘sama:’ – the equal one.

As per the grammatical rules, the word ‘sam’ (सम्) is suffixed with ‘akAra’ (अः), resulting in the divine name ‘sama:’.

Etymology: The one who is equal to all of his old devotees as well as the new ones is called ‘sama:’.

ज्ञातॆsपरिचितॆ चापि समत्वात् सम उच्यतॆ |

adiyen srinivasa raja ramanuja dasan

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