Daily Archives: January 19, 2019

thiruvAimozhi nURRandhAdhi – 31 – oru nAyagamAy

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ramanuja-selvapillai-2Essence of thiruvAimozhi 4.1


In this pAsuram, mAmunigaL is following AzhwAr’s pAsurams of highlighting the defects of worldly wealth etc in having inferior and impermanent nature, and is mercifully explaining it.

How is that done? AzhwAr who became joyous on enjoying bhagavAn as said previously in thiruvAimozhi 3.10.1sIr paravap peRRa nAn” (I who got to praise emperumAn‘s qualities), due to that joy, looking at those who are immersed in worldly pleasures etc instead of bhagavAn, again, considering that they are immersed in them due to not knowing their inferior and impermanent nature, instructs them about their defects in detail and instructs them to surrender unto the divine feet of SrIman nArAyaNa, in thiruvAimozhi 4.1oru nAyagamAy“; mAmunigaL mercifully explains the essence of this decad starting with “oru nAyagamAy“.


oru nAyagamAy ulagukku vAnOr
iru nAttil ERi uykkum inbam thiramAgA
mannuyirp pOgam thIdhu mAl adimaiyE inidhAm
panniyivai mARan uraippAl


word-by-word meanings

ulagukku – for this whole world
oru nAyagamAy – being the single lord
uykkum inbam – the pleasure which is enjoyed
vAnOr – by dhEvas (celestial beings)
iru nAttil – in the vast heaven
ERi – climbing
uykkum – the pleasure which is enjoyed
thiram AgA – will not remain permanently;

man uyir bOgam – the eternal self-enjoyment
thIdhu – is bad;
mAl adimaiyE – servitude towards bhagavAn
inidhu Am – enjoyable;
ivai – these principles
mARan panni uraippAl – as AzhwAr analysed and explained (are become known)

Simple Translation

AzhwAr analysed and explained principles such as a) the pleasure which is enjoyed being the single lord for this whole world will not remain permanently, b) the pleasure which is enjoyed in the vast heaven by dhEvas will not remain permanently, c) self-enjoyment which is eternal, is bad and d) servitude towards bhagavAn is enjoyable.

Highlights from vyAkyAnam

  • oru nAyagamAy … – mAmunigaL says “ulagukku – oru nAyagamAy – uykkum inbamum, vAnOr iru nAttil ERi uykkum inbamum thiramAgAdhu“. mAmunigaL is thinking about AzhwAr‘s words “oru nAyagamAy Oda ulagudan ANdavar” (Being the single lord, one who ruled the world) [1st pAsuram]. Being the emperor, as said in SrI rAmAyaNam ayOdhyA kANdam 2.7 “pANdurasyAthapathrasya” (of white umbrella), even the pleasure acquired if one rules everything under one umbrella, will be impermanent as highlighted in “enaiththORugangaLum ivvulagANdu kazhindhavar” (even those who ruled for a long period, perished) [4th pAsuram], “vAzhndhArgaL vAzhndhE niRpar enbadhillai” (those who lived gloriously, will not continue to do so forever) [6th pAsuram].
  • vAnOr irunAttil ERi ukkum inbam – The abode of dhEvas which is distinguished compared to the earthly pleasures, and the pleasures in there.

Even that is,

  • thiramAgA – not permanent. As said in “thE tham bhukthvA svarga lOkam viSAlam kshINE puNyE marthya lOkam viSanthi” (enjoys in vast heaven based on his puNya (virtues), and returns to earth after exhausting the puNya). Following the words of AzhwAr in “kudi mannum in suvargam eydhiyum mILvargaL” (Even if they attained the svarga which is having very enjoyable, seemingly permanent settlements, they will return) [9th pAsuram].
  • iru nAttil … – Even if they attained due to virtuous acts, it will not remain permanent. This is a sample for what is mentioned in SrI bhagavath gIthA 8.16AbrahmabhuvanAllOkA: punarAvarthinO’rjuna” (Oh arjuna! All worlds upto brahma lOkam are subject to destruction).
  • man uyirp pOgam thIdhu – As said in “iRugal iRappu” (mOksham ending in AthmA) [10th pAsuram], since this mOksham is in a restricted form, it is defective. man uyir bOgam means eternal self enjoyment which is unlike the previously explained pleasures which are impermanent; though this is permanent, in comparison with enjoying parabrahmam (bhagavAn), it is insignificant – hence it is called thIdhu.
  • panni ivai mARan uraippAl – mAl adimaiyE inidhAm – As AzhwAr analysed the insignificance and impermanence of these pleasures, service to Sriya:pathi, i.e. sarvESvaran, will be most enjoyable. mAmunigaL mercifully said “mAl adimaiyE inidhAm” based on
    • thirunAraNan thAL kAlam peRach chindhiththuymminO (meditate upon the eternally wealthy lord nArAyaNan’s divine feet immediately, without wasting any time and be uplifted) [1st pAsuram]
    • semmin mudith thirumAlai viraindhadi sErminO (surrender unto the divine feet of the divine husband of SrImahAlakshmi, who is having unstoppably radiant crown) [2nd pAsuram]
    • kadi sEr thuzhAy mudik kaNNan kazhalgaL ninaiminO (meditate upon the divine feet of krishNa whos is adorning a crown which is decorated with fragrant thuLasi) [3rd pAsuram]
    • panaiththAL madha kaLiRattavan pAdham paNiminO (you all worship the divine feet of the one [krishNa] who destroyed the mad elephant which had well rounded palm tree like feet) [4th pAsuram]
    • maNi minnu mEni nam mAyavan pEr solli vAzhminO (you live happily by reciting the divine names of the amazing lord who is having a blue-gem like radiant divine form and who lets (us devotees) enjoy him) [5th pAsuram]
    • AzhndhAr kadal paLLi aNNal adiyavarAminO (become a devotee/servitor to the lord who is having the deep, abundant ocean as his bed) [6th pAsuram]
    • paNam koL aravaNaiyAn thirunAmam padiminO (recite/practice the divine name of emperumAn who is reclining on AdhiSEsha with expanded hoods as bed) [8th pAsuram]
    • kodi mannu puLLudai aNNal kazhalgaL kuRuguminO (to acquire ever-lasting result, you should try to reach out to the divine feet of sarvESvaran who has periya thiruvadi staying eternally in his flag) [9th pAsuram]
    • maRugalil Isanaip paRRi vidA vidil vIdahdhE (surrendering unto bhagavAn who is the opposite of all defects, who is the controller of all and the lord who is the abode of all auspicious qualities and not leaving him ever in itself is parama purushArtham) [10th pAsuram]
    • ahdhE uyyap pugumARu (divine feet of emperumAn are the only means to be approached for AthmA‘s upliftment) [11th pAsuram]

adiyen sarathy ramanuja dasan

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periya thiruvandhAdhi – 68 – kallum kanaikadalum

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In the previous pAsuram, AzhwAr had said “Other than singing praises on emperumAn’s divine feet, I do not want either liberation or pleasures”. This pAsuram says that emperumAn mingled completely with AzhwAr saying “Other than this AzhwAr I do not want other dwellings such as para (SrIvaikuNtam), vyUha (thiruppARkadal /milky ocean), archchai (deity form) etc”

Let us go through the pAsuram and its meanings:

kallum kanaikadalum vaigundha vAnAdum
pullenRozhindhanakol EpAvam vella
nediyAn niRam kariyAn uLpugundhu nIngAn
adiyEn uLLaththu agam

Word by Word Meanings

vella nediyAn – being very great

niRam kariyAn – emperumAn who is black in complexion

uL pugundhu – entering me

adiyEnadhu uLLaththu agam – from my heart

nIngAn – will not separate and go


kallum – thiruvEngadamalai (hills of thirumala)

kanai kadalum – roaring thiruppARdakal (milky ocean)

vaigundha vAnAdum – SrIvaikuNtam, also known as paramapadham

pul enRu ozhin dhana kol – have they become deserted (such that grass has grown tall)?

E pAvam – Oh, how sad!


kallumAzhwAr refers to thirumalai as kal (stone). Is it correct to refer to thirumalai as kal? The relationship between AzhwArs and emperumAn is such that they would refer to thirumalai as kal, thiruvananthAzhwAn (AdhiSeshan) as tham pAmbu (his snake) (as in nAchchiyAr thirumozhi 10-3), and in verses such as mANiyAy maNNaLandhAy (measured the worlds as a bachelor), they refer to emperumAn as a bachelor.

kallum kanai kadalum vaigundha vAnAdum pul enRu ozhindhana kol EpAvam –  emperumAn does not appear to believe that there are certain divine locations such as thirumalai or that there is a vyUha location such as thiruppARkadal or that there is a paramapadham and that he has inclination towards these locations.

pul enRu ozhindhana kol – When looking at the way he [emperumAn] is engaged with my heart, it appears that those locations have become bushes (due to non-inhabitation). We could also consider the meaning of this to be – these divine dwelling places have become insignificant after emperumAn entered AzhwAr’s heart. periyavAchchAn piLLai, the commentator for this prabandham says that the attitude of AzhwAr while saying this is similar to the attitude of the girls who married the sage saubhari.

The reference is to a narration regarding a sage saubhari who took fifty human forms to marry fifty daughters of a king and lived in a palace with each of the fifty daughters. When the king went around his daughters’ palaces to check if they had any grievance, all of them said the same line “I have no problem, but my husband does not go to any other sister’s house”. In the same way AzhwAr says that emperumAn has forgotten all other residences and is dwelling only in his heart.

EpAvam – this appears to be the result of some sin; however, since there is no sin in this, we can consider this to be an expression of wonder.

vella nediyAn – being great in the quality of boundlessness, he cannot be defeated by anyone. Alternatively, the term vella could be taken to mean “very” (a lot) and thus the meaning of vella nediyAn could be taken to mean that emperumAn is one who is very great and there is none who is greater than he. Here, the term greatness refers to the greatness of his qualities.

niRam kariyAn – even if he does not have qualities, he cannot be given up due to the beauty of his form.

uLpugundhu nIngAn adiyEnadhu uLLaththu agam – entering my heart, he does not appear to consider leaving it. The opinion is that emperumAn appears to think that if he were to leave AzhwAr’s heart, then AzhwAr cannot sustain himself.

We will take up the 69th pAsuram next.

adiyEn krishNa rAmAnuja dhAsan

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